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BELGIUM and HOLLAND , with 8 Maps and 18 Plans. 

Sixth Edition. 1881. 5 marks. 


Seven Mountains, Moselle, Volcanic Eifel, Vosges Mts., Black 
Forest, etc.), with 28 Maps and 21 Plans. Eighth Edition. 1882. 6marks. 

NORTHERN GERMANY, with 25 Maps and 33 Plans. Seventh 

Edition. 1881.. 6 marks. 

gary and Transylvania, with 13 Maps and 28 Plans. 

Fifth Edition. 1S83. 6 marks. 

THE EASTERN ALPS, including the Bavarian High- 
lands, THE TYROL, SALZKAMMERGUT, etc. With 20 Maps, 

■■a. 1879. G marks. 


!A, and Routes to Italy 

-C 4-V. "EM Win 


10 Plans, 

Raven j 


32 Plans. 


a Panora 









PARIS anl 

to Paris, and 

10 Maps and 30 Plans. 


SAVOY, and the TYROL, with 26 Maps, 10 Plans, and 9 Panoramas. 
Ninth Edition. 1881. 7 marks. 

THE EAST. LOWER EGYPT, with the Fayum and the 

PENINSULA OF SiNAI, with 1G Maps, 29 Plans, 7 Views, and 7C 
Vignettes. 1878. 15 marks. 

PALESTINE and SYRIA, with 18 Maps, 43 Plans, 

1 Panorama of Jerusalem, and 10 Views. 1876. 20 marks. 


English, German, French, and Italian. 3 marks. 

[Ria, with 15 Maps and 
6 marks. 

Maps, 29 Plans, and 

iSS. 6 marks. 

Excursions to the 
Sardinia, Malta, and 

i Edition. 18S3. 6 marks. 

ding Brighton, the 

and 15 Plans. Fourth 
G marks. 

3 and 9 Plans. Second 

9 marks. 

from Paris to the Rhine and Switzerland. With 
Seventh Edition. 1881. 6 marks. 


May 1SS;1. 




(Comp. p. xiii.) 

Approximate Equivalents. 




















l h 






21 2 















7i| 4 









9 3 4 











































93| 4 









71 2 








































9 3 U 
































2i| 2 






















9»| 4 






























2ij 2 






























Distances. Since the consolidation of the Kingdom of Italy the 
French mitre system has been in nse throughout the country, but the old 
Italian miglio (pi. le miglia) is still sometimes preferred to the new kilo- 
metre. One kilometre is equal to 0.62138, or nearly 5 /sths, of an English 
mile. The Tuscan miglio is equal to 1.65 kilometre or 1 M. 44 yds.; the 
Roman miglio is equal to 1.49 kilometre or 1630 yds. 

Ov Paris 4 







With 1 Panorama, 8 Maps, and 29 Plans. 

Eighth revised Edition. 



All rights reserved. 

"Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all." 



1 he objects of the Handbook for Italy, which consists 
of three volumes, each complete in itself, are to supply the 
traveller with some information regarding the progress of 
civilisation and art among the people he is about to visit, 
to render him as independent as possible of the services of 
guides and valets-de-place, to protect him against extortion, 
and in every way to aid him in deriving enjoyment and 
instruction from his tour in one of the most fascinating coun- 
tries in the world. The Handbook will also, it is hoped, be 
the means of saving the traveller many a trial of temper; 
for there is probably no country in Europe where the patience 
is more severely taxed than in some parts of Italy. 

The Handbook is based on the Editor's personal ac- 
quaintance with the places described, most of which he has 
repeatedly and carefully explored. As, however, changes 
are constantly taking place, he will highly appreciate any 
communications with which travellers may favour him, if the 
result of their own observation. The information already re- 
ceived from numerous correspondents, which he gratefully 
acknowledges , has in many cases proved most serviceable. 

The eighth edition of Central Italy and Eome, like its pre- 
decessor, has been carefully revised and brought down to date. 
The introductory articles on art by Prof. JR. Kekule of Bonn 
and Prof. A. Springer of Leipsic have v been adapted for the 
use of English travellers with the kind assistance of Mr. 
J. A. Crowe, the eminent historian of art. Professor Springer 
has also contributed many valuable incidental remarks on 
modern art. 

The Maps and Plans, on which special care has been 
bestowed , will abundantly suffice for the use of the ordinary 


traveller. The Plan of Rome (scale 1 : 15,000) is divided 
into three sections with a view to obviate the necessity of 
unfolding a large sheet of paper at eveiy consultation , and 
its use will be further facilitated by reference to the small 
clue-plan inside the cover at the end of the volume. 

Heights are given in English feet (1 Engl. ft. = 0,3048 
metre), and Distances in English miles (comp. p. ii). 

Hotels (comp. p. xx). In no country does the treat- 
ment which the traveller experiences at hotels vary more 
than in Italy, and attempts at extortion are perhaps no- 
where so outrageous. Besides the modern palatial and ex- 
pensive establishments, the Handbook also contains a selec- 
tion of modest , old-fashioned inns , where gentlemen trav- 
elling alone will not unfrequently find good accommodation 
at moderate charges. The asterisks indicate those hotels 
which the Editor has reason to believe from his own ex- 
perience, as well as from information supplied by numerous 
travellers, to be respectable, clean, and reasonable. The 
value of these asterisks, it need hardly be observed, varies 
according to circumstances, those prefixed to town-hotels 
and village-inns signifying respectively that the establish- 
ments are good of their kind. At the same time the Editor 
does not doubt that comfortable quarters may occasionally 
be obtained at inns which he has not recommended or even 
mentioned. Although changes frequently take place, and 
prices generally have an upward tendency, the average 
charges stated in the Handbook will enable the traveller to 
form a fair estimate of his probable expenditure. 

To hotel-proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor 
begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing and cour- 
tesy towards travellers forms the sole passport to his com- 
mendation, and that advertisements of every kind are strictly 
excluded from his Handbooks. 


Introduction. Page 

I. Travelling Expenses. Money xiii 

II. Season and Plan of Tour xiv 

III. Language xv 

IV. Passports. Custom House. Luggage .... xvi 
V. Public Safety. Begging xvi 

VI. Intercourse with Italians xvii 

VII. Conveyances xviii 

VIII. Hotels xx 

IX. Restaurants, Cafe's, etc xxii 

X. Sights, Shops, etc xxiii 

XL Post Office. Telegraph xxiv 

XII. Climate. Health xxv 

XIII. Dates of Recent Events xxvii 

Ancient Art, by Prof. B. Kekule xxix 

Mediaeval and Modern Roman Art, by Prof. A. 

Springer xliii 

First Section. 

S. Tuscany. Umbria. The Marches. 


1 . From Leghorn or Pisa to Rome by the Maremme ... i 

1. From Leghorn to Civita Vecchia by sea 1 

2. Piombino and Populonia 2 

3. From Grosseto to Rusellse 3 

4. Monte Argentario. Cosa 4 

5. From Montalto to Vulci 4 

6. From Corneto to Toscanella 6 

7. From Civita Vecchia to La Tolfa 7 

2. From Leghorn to Volterra and Siena 8 

1. From Saline to Monte Cerboli 8 

2. From Volterra to the copper-mines of Monte Catini . . 11 

3. Elba and the Tuscan Islands 12 

4. From Florence to Siena and Chiusi by Empoli .... 14 

1. From Poggibonsi to San Gimignano 14 

2. From Asciano to Grosseto. Monte Amiata .... 16 

3. Pienza 19 

5. Siena 20 

1. Excursions from Siena. L'Osservanza, S. Colomba, etc. 34 

2. Monte Olive to Maggiore 35 

6. From Florence by Arezzo and Terontola (Chiusi, Rome) 

to Perugia 36 

From Arezzo to Monte Sansavino, Fojano, and Betolle . 40 

7. Perugia 45 

1. From Perugia to the Upper Valley of the Tiber. Citta di 

Castello. Borgo S. Sepolcro 54 


Route Page 

2. From Perugia to Narni by Todi 55 

8. From Florence by (Arezzo) Terontola and Chiusi to Rome 55 

1. From Chiusi to Citta della Pieve. Cetona .... 56 

2. From Borghetto to Civita Castellana. Falerii. Mount 
Soracte. Nepi 61 

9. From Orvieto to Rome by Bolsena , Monteflascone , and 
Viterbo 63 

Excursions from Viterbo. Castel d'Asso. Vetralla. Nor- 

chia. Caprarola. Sutri 66 

10. From Perugia to Foligno and Orte (Rome). Assisi. Spo- 

leto. Waterfalls of Terni 68 

11. From Bologna to Rimini, Falconara (Rome), and Ancona 81 

1. From Rimini to San Marino 86 

2. Excursion to Urbino 87 

12. From Fano through the Furlo Pass to Fossato. Gubbio 92 

13. Ancona and its Environs. Osimo. Loreto 96 

14. From Ancona to Foligno (Orte, Rome) 100 

1. From Fabriano to Sassoferrato 101 

2. High Road from (Ancona) Civitanova to Foligno (Rome) 102 

Second Section. 

Preliminary Information : — 

Arrival. Police. Embassies and Consulates. Hotels . . 104 

Pensions. Private Apartments. Restaurants .... 105 

Osterie. Cafes. Confectioners. Gratuities 106 

Baths. Climate. Physicians. Chemists. Bankers . . . 107 

Booksellers. Libraries. Reading Rooms. Newspapers . 108 

Teachers of Italian. Music. Studios 108 

Art-dealers. Shops 109 

Theatres 110 

Porters. Post Office. Telegraph Office 112 

English Churches 112 

Church Festivals. Popular Festivals. Street Scenes . 112-114 

Garrison 114 

Collections, Villas, etc 114 

Diary. Duration of Stay 117-119 

Bibliography 120 

History of the City of Rome 121 

Chronological Table of Roman Emperors and Popes . 131 

Topography 135 

Strangers' Quarter and Corso ... 139 

Piazza del Popolo. S. Maria del Popolo 139 

The Pincio 141 

Villa Medici. SS. Trinita de' Monti 142 

Casa Zuccari-Bartholdy 143 

Piazza di Spagna. Propaganda 143 

S. Andrea delle Fratte. Fontana di Trevi 144 

The Corso. S. Carlo al Corso 145 

S. Lorenzo in Lucina. Post and Telegraph Office. Pal. Chigi 146 

Piazza Colonna. Column of Marcus Aurelius .... 147 

Piazza di Monte Citorio. Camera dei Deputati. Dogana di Terra 147 
State Archives. Palazzo Sciarra-Colonna. S. Ignazio. Col- 

legio Romano 148 

Museo Kjjcheriano .....•••'••• 149 


(Rome) Page 

S. Marcello. S. Maria in Via Lata. Palazzo Doria . . . 151 

SS. Apostoli. Palazzo Colonna 155 

Palazzo di Venezia. Palazzo Torlonia 15' 

S. Marco 15° 

Monument of Bibulus. Gesii 159 

Villa Borghese 160 

II. The Hills of Rome. Quirinal, Viminal, Esquiline . . 161 

Via Sistina. Piazza Barberini. S. Maria della Concezione 162 

Villa Ludovisi 163 

Gardens of Sallust. Porta Salara. Villa Albani. . . . 164 

Palazzo Barberini 167 

Piazza del Quirinale (di Monte Cavallo) 168 

Palazzo Eegio al Quirinale. Palazzo Eospigliosi . . . 169 

S. Silvestro al Quirinale. Via Nazionale 170 

S. Bernardo. Acqua Felice. S. Maria della Vittoria. Porta Pia 
Villa Patrizi. S. Agnese Fuori le Mura. S. Costanza . 171-173 

Piazza delle Terme. Thermae of Diocletian 173 

S. Maria degli Angeli 174 

Railway Station. Wall of Servius. Campo Militare . . 175 

S. Pudenziana. S. Maria Maggiore 176 

S. Prassede 178 

Arch of Gallienus. S. Eusebio. Porta S. Lorenzo ... 179 

S. Lorenzo Fuori le Mura 180 

S. Bibiana. Temple of Minerva Medica 181 

Porta Maggiore. S. Croce in Gerusalemme 182 

Amphitheatrum Castrense. Gardens of Mrecenas. S. Martino 

ai Monti 1°3 

S. Pietro in Vincoli 1°4 

III. Rome on the Tiber (Left Bank) 185 

Via di Eipetta. Mausoleum of Augustus 185 

Palazzo Borghese 186 

Palazzo Lancelotti 191 

S. Agostino |92 

S. Luigi de' Francesi. Universita della Sapienza . . . 193 

Piazza della Eotonda. Pantheon 194 

S. Maria sopra Minerva 1^6 

Palazzo Madama. Piazza Navona 197 

S. Agnese. S. Maria dell' Anima 198 

S. Maria della Pace 199 

Palazzo Vidoni. S. Andrea della Valle 2U0 

Pal. Massimi alle Colonne. Pal. Braschi. Piazza del Pasquino. 

Chiesa Nuova 201 

Palazzo della Cancelleria 202 

S. Lorenzo in Damaso. Palazzo Farnese 20d 

Palazzo Spada alia Eegola 204 

Via Giulia. S. Giovanni de' Fiorentini -200 

S. Carlo a' Catinari. Palazzo Costaguti. Palazzo Mattei. 

S. Caterina de' Funari 206 

S. Maria in Campitelli. Ghetto. Portico of Octavia . . 207 

Theatre of Marcellus. S. Niccolo in Carcere .... 208 

IV. Ancient Rome 20o 

The Capitol 209 

S. Maria in Aracceli 210 

Piazza del Campidoglio 211 

Palazzo del Senatore 212 

Career Mamertinus. Collections of the Capitol. Palace of 

the Conservatori 213 

Capitoline Museum 217 

Tarpeian Eock. Tabularium 223 

Forum Romanum 223 


(Rome) Page 
Colonnade of the Twelve Gods. Temple of Saturn. Temple 

of Vespasian 227 

Temple of Concordia. Arch of Septimius Severus. Eostra . 228 

Column of Phocas. Basilica Julia 229 

Temple of Castor and Pollux. Temple of Csesar . . . 231 

Temple of Faustina. SS. Cosma e Damiano 232 

Basilica of Constantine 233 

S. Francesca Romana. Triumphal Arch of Titus. Temple 

of Venus and Boma 234 

Colosseum 235 

Triumphal Arch of Constantine 237 

Therm* of Titus 238 

Fora of the Emperors. Academy of St. Luke . . . 238 

Forum of Nerva. SS. Luca e Martina. S. Adriano . . 239 

Forum of Augustus. Forum of Trajan 240 

Trajan's Column 241 

The Palatine 242 

Buildings of Caligula. Buildings of Tiberius. Private House 244 

Palace of the Flavii 245 

Temple of Jupiter Victor. Palace of Septimius Severus. 

Stadium 247 

Paedagogium 249 

Velabrum and Forum Boarium 249 

S. Teodoro 249 

Janus Quadrifrons. S. Giorgio in Velahro. Cloaca Maxima. 

S. Maria in Cosmedin 250 

Round Temple. S. Maria Egiziaca 251 

House of Crescentius or Rienzi. Ponte Rotto. . . . 251 

Via de' Cerchi (Circus Maximus) 252 

The Aventine 252 

Marmorata 252 

Protestant Cemetery. Pyramid of Cestius. Monte Testaccio. 253 

S. Sabina. S. Alessio 254 

S. Maria Aventina. S. Prisca 255 

S. Saba. S. Paolo Fuori le Mura 256 

The Via Appia within the City 258 

S. Balbina 258 

Thermae of Caracalla 259 

SS. Nereo ed Achilleo. S. Cesareo. Via Latina. Tomb of 

the Scipios 260 

Columbaria. Arch of Drusus 261 

The Cslius 262 

S. Gregorio. SS. Giovanni e Paolo 262 

Villa Mattei. S. Maria in Domnica. S. Stefano Rotondo . 263 

S. Clemente 264 

SS. Quattro Coronati. Piazza S. Giovanni in Laterano . . 268 

Scala Santa. S. Giovanni in Laterano 269 

Baptistery 271 

Palazzo del Laterano. Gregorian Museum . . . . . 272 

Christian Museum . 275 

Villa Massimo 276 

Villa Wolkonsky . 277 

Quarters of the City on the Right Bank 277 

The Borgo 277 

Ponte S. Angelo. Castello S. Angelo 278 

Palazzo Giraud 279 

Piazza di S. Pietro 280 

S. Pietro in Vaticano 281 

Cimitero dei Tedeschi 289 


(Rome) Page 

The Vatican 289 

A. Paintings: — 

Sistine Chapel. Sala Regia. Sala Ducale. Pauline Chapel . 291 

Raphael's Stanze and Loggie. Cappella Niccolina . . . 296 

Picture Gallery 304 

B. Antiquities : — 

Museo Pio-Clementino. Museo Chiaramonti. Braccio Nuovo 306 

Egyptian Museum. Museo Etrusco. Raphael's Tapestry . 318 

C. Library of the Vatican 322 

The Longara 325 

S. Onofrio 325 

Villa Farnesina 326 

Palazzo Corsini 327 

Museo Torlonia 328 

Trastevere 329 

Ponte Sisto 329 

S. Pietro in Montorio 330 

Acqua Paola. Porta di S. Pancrazio. Villa Doria Pamphilj 332 

Isola di S. Bartolommeo. S. Bartolommeo 333 

S. Crisogono. S. Maria in Trastevere 334 

S. Cecilia in Trastevere 335 

The Catacombs 336 

Third Section. 

Environs of Rome. 

J. Short Excursions in the Campagna 346 

From the Porta Portese : Grove of the Arvales .... 346 

From the Porta S. Paolo : Tre Fontane 347 

From the Porta S. Sebastiano: Via Appia. Domine Quo Va- 
dis. S. Sebastiano. Circus of Maxentius. Tomb of Csecilia 
Metella. Temple of the Deus Rediculus. Grotto of Egeria. 

S. Urbano 348 

From the Porta S. Giovanni : Via Latina. Porta Furba . . 353 

From the Porta Maggiore : Torre Pignattara. Tor de' Schiavi 354 

From the Porta S. Lorenzo : 355 

From the Porta Pia : Ponte Nomentano. Mons Sacer . . 355 

From the Porta Salara: Antemnee. Fidense 355 

From the Porta del Popolo: Acqua Aeetosa. Via Flaminia 356 
From the Porta Angelica : Mte. Mario. Villa Mellini. Villa 

Madama 358 

17. Longer Excursions from Rome to the Mountains and the Sea 359 

The Alban Mountains 359 

Frascati 360 

Grotta Ferrata. Marino 362 

Rocca di Papa. Monte Cavo. Palazzuola. Alba Longa 363, 364 

Albano 364 

Castel Gandolfo. Lake of Albano. The Emissarium . . 366 

Ariccia. Genzano 367 

Lake of Nemi. Nemi. Civita Lavinia 368 

The Sabine Mountains 368 

Hadrian's Villa 370 

Tivoli 372 

Subiaco 375 

Palestrina. Genazzano. Olevano 377 

Monte Gennaro. Valley of Licenza 381 

The Volscian Mountains 381 



Velletri. Cori 382 

Norma. Segni 383 

Etruscan Towns 384 

Veii 384 

Galera. Bracciano 386 

Csere 387 

The Sea-coast of Latium 388 

Porto. Fiumicino 388 

Ostia 389 

Porto d'Anzio. Nettuno. Astura 392 

List of the Artists mentioned in the Handbook .... 393 

Index 399 


1. Map of It alt, facing title-page. 

2. The Roman Campagna, p. 344. 

3. Environs of Rome, p. 346. 

4. The Alban Mountains, p. 360. 

5. Environs of Tivoli, p. 371. 

6. The Sabine Mountains : Plate I. : Tivoli and Valley of the 
Teverone, p. 374. 

7. The Sabine Mountains : Plate II. : Roviano, Subiaco , Capranica, 
p. 376. 

8. The Sabine Mountains : Plate III. : Tivoli , Palestrina, Olevano, 
p. 378. 


1. VOLTEEEA, p. 8. — 2. SlENA, p. 20. — 3. AREZZO, p. 38. — 4. CORTONA, 

p. 42. — 5. Ierugia, p. 46. — 6. Orvieto, p. 58. — 7. Assisi, p. 70. —8. 
Terni and its Environs, p. 79. — 9. Foeli, p, 84. — 10. Rimini, p. 85. — 
11. Ancona, p. 96. — 12. Large Plan of Rome, — 13. Clue Plan of Rome, 
and — 14. Omnibus Map of Rome, all at the end of the book. — 15. An- 
cient Rome, p. 208. — 16. Palace of the Conservatori , p. 216. — 17. 
Capitoline Museum, p. 217. — 18. Forum Romanum, p. 222. — 19. Palaces 
of the Emperors on the Palatine, p. 242. — 20. Therms of Caracalla, 
p. 259. — 21. Section, and — 22. Ground-plan of S. Clemente, p. 265. — 
23. S. Giovanni in Laterano, and Lateran Museum, p. 268. — 24. S. Pie- 
tro in Vaticano and the Vatican Palace (survey-plan), p. 280. — 25. S. 
Pietro in Vaticano (Bramante's ground-plan), p. 282. — 26. Ground-plan 
of S. Pietro in Vaticano in its present state, p. 284. — 27. Vatican Pa- 
lace, S. Wing (Sistine Chapel, Raphael's Loggie and Stanze), p. 292. — 28. 
Vatican Palace, N. Wing (Museum of Antiquities), p. 316. — 29. Hadrian's 
Villa, p. 370. 

Panorama of Rome (from S. Pietro in Montorio), p. 330. 

Tlie best maps of Central and Southern Italy are the Carta Coro- 
grafica ed Archeologica delV Italia Centrale (1 : 250,000; 4 sheets) and the 
Nuova Carta Generate delV Italia Meridionale (t : 800,000), both executed 
under the superintendence of Professor Kiepert of Berlin (1881-82). 


R. = Room, B. = Breakfast, D. = Dinner, A. = Attendance, L. = 
Light. — r. = right , 1. = left ; also applied to the banks of a river with 
reference to the traveller looking down the stream. — N., S., E., W., the 
points of the compass and adjectives derived from them. — M. = English 
miles ; ft. = English feet. 

Asterisks are employed as marks of commendation. 


'Thou art the garden of the world, the home 
Of all Art yields, and Nature can decree ; 
E'en in thy desert, what is like to thee? 
Thy very weeds are beautiful, thy waste 
More rich than other climes' fertility, 
Thy wreck a glory, and thy ruin graced 
With an immaculate charm which cannot he defaced.' 


I. Travelling Expenses. Honey. 

Expenses. The cost of a tour in Italy depends of course on the 
traveller's resources and habits, but, as already stated in the first 
part of this Handbook , it need not exceed that incurred in the 
more frequented parts of the continent. The average expenditure of 
a single traveller may be estimated at 20-25 francs per day, or at 10- 
15 francs when a prolonged stay is made at one place ; but persons 
acquainted with the language and habits of the country may easily 
restrict their expenses to still narrower limits. Those who travel as 
members of a party effect a considerable saving by sharing the ex- 
pense of guides, carriages, and other items. "When ladies are of the 
party, the expenses are generally greater. 

Money. The French monetary system is now in use throughout 
the whole of Italy. The franc (lira or franco) contains 100 centesimi; 
1 fr. 25c. = Is. = 1 German mark = 50 Austrian kreutzers. In 
copper (bronzo or rame) there are coins of 1, 2, 5, and 10 centesimi. 
A piece of 5 c. is called a soldo, or sou , and as the lower classes 
often keep their accounts in soldi, the traveller will find it useful to 
accustom himself to this mode of reckoning. See also the Money 
Table opposite the title-page. 

During the war of 1866 a paper currency was introduced at a 
compulsory rate of exchange, but in 1880 a measure was passed for 
the gradual redemption of the paper money, and the resumption of 
specie payments will probably come into effect in May, 1883. The 
only banknotes now current throughout the country are those of the 
Banca Nazionale and the so-called Biglietti gib. Consorziali, formerly 
issued in common by six banks but now taken over by government. 

Best Monet fob the Tour. Circular Notes, obtainable at the 
principal English banks, form the proper medium for the transport 
of large sums, and realise the most favourable exchange. English 
and German banknotes also realise more than their nominal value. 
A moderate supply of French Gold may also prove useful. Sovereigns 
are received at nearly the full value (£. e. they are reckoned at 


26-27 fr. instead of 25 fr.J by the principal hotel-keepers, but not 
in out-of-the-way places. 

Exchange. Foreign money is most advantageously changed in 
the larger towns, either at one of the English bankers or at a re- 
spectable money-changer's. The exchange for gold and silver has, 
of course, considerably decreased since 1880. The traveller should 
always take care to obtain an abundant supply of small notes (1, 2, 
and 5 fr.), as it is often difficult to change those of large amount. 
When a railway-fare has to be paid it is a wise precaution to be 
provided with the exact sum beforehand, in order that mistakes or 
imposition may be prevented. Besides the small notes, l-l^fr- i n 
copper should also be carried in a separate pocket or pouch. 

Money Orders payable in Italy, for sums not exceeding iOl., are now 
granted bv the English Post Office at the following rates : not exceeding 
21., 9d.; Si., is. 6<2. ; 11., 2s. 3d.; 101., 3s. These are paid in gold. The 
identity of the receiver must sometimes be guaranteed by two well-known 
residents, but an exhibition of the passport often suffices. The charge 
for money -orders granted in Italy and payable in England is 40 c. per 
11. sterling. 

A convenient and safe method of carrying money for a journey in Italy 
is afforded by the Titoli di Credito, which may be procured at the post- 
offices of the provincial capitals for any sum not exceeding 3000 fr. (120?.). 
(At Rome and nine other large towns this limit is extended to 10,000 fr. 
or iOOl.) The holder of one of these orders may then draw what sum 
(from 50 fr. upwards) he requires at any post-office in the kingdom, until 
the amount for which it is issued has been exhausted. At small places 
the sum drawable at once is limited to 200 fr., in provincial capitals to 
1000 fr., and in Rome and the nine chief towns to 2000 fr. It is necessary 
to state the post-office at which the first payment is desired. A charge 
of 50 c. is made for each 100 fr. up to 1000 fr., and 25 c. for each additional 
100 fr. ; thus an order for 10,000 fr. costs 271/2 fr. In case of loss the 
traveller should immediately inform the postal authorities, giving his name 
and the number of his 'titolo'. 

II. Season and Flan of Tour. 

Season. The season selected for the tour must of course depend 
on the traveller himself, but the colder months are those usually 
preferred. Most travellers bound for the South cross the Alps in 
September and October, and arrive in Rome about the beginning of 
November. Rome is the favourite winter-residence of strangers till 
the Carnival, but most of them leave it in Lent for the gayer scenes 
of Naples , and at Easter it is comparatively deserted , as the chief 
attractions of the festival are now gone. As summer approaches 
most travellers prepare to quit the country , but even during the 
hot season tourists are not unfrequently met with. In this vast and 
ever-varying influx of travellers the Anglo-American element is al- 
ways greatly predominant. 

No month in the year can be pronounced absolutely unfavourable 
for travelling in Italy, but the seasons recommended are from 15th 
Sept. to 15th Nov., and the months of April and May. The rainy 
winter months should, if possible , be spent in one of the larger 
cities, of which Rome is unquestionably the most interesting. J une 


July, and August are hardly suitable for a tour. The scenery indeed 
is then in perfection, and the long days are hailed with satisfaction 
by the active traveller ; but the fierce rays of an Italian sun seldom 
fail to sap the physical and mental energies. This result is not 
occasioned so much by the intensity, as by the protracted duration 
of the heat, the sky being frequently cloudless, and not a drop of 
rain falling for many weeks in succession. The heat generally mod- 
erates about the end of August, when the first showers of autumn 
begin to refresh the parched atmosphere. 

Flan. The plan of a tour in Italy must of course be framed in 
accordance with the object which the traveller has in view. In 
Central Italy the principal attraction is Rome itself, and of the 
other towns described in the present volume the next in importance 
are Siena and Perugia, both of which afford good summer-quarters 
owing to their elevated situations. Two other places of great in- 
terest are Orvieto and Assisi, a short visit to which should not be 
omitted. Arezzo, Cortona, Spoleto, Terni, with its imposing water- 
falls, and Chiusi and Corneto, with their Etruscan antiquities, are 
also interesting points, situated near the railway. Volterra, S. Oi- 
mignano , Montepulciano , and Viterbo , though less conveniently 
situated, are also well worthy of a visit. With regard to the towns 
lying on the coast of the Adriatic, comp. p. 81. Besides these 
points of attraction there are many others in the less-frequented 
districts of the interior , which the traveller who desires more than 
a superficial acquaintance with Italy should not fail to explore ; and 
the farther he diverges from the beaten track , the more he will 
learn of the characteristics of this delightful country. 

III. Language. 

The time and labour which the traveller has bestowed on the 
study of Italian at home will be amply repaid as he proceeds on his 
journey. It is quite possible for persons entirely ignorant of Italian 
and French to travel through Italy with tolerable comfort ; but such 
travellers cannot conveniently deviate from the ordinary track, and 
are moreover invariably made to pay 'alia Inglese' by hotel-keepers 
and others, i. e. considerably more than the ordinary charges. French 
is very useful, as the Italians are very partial to that language, and 
it may suffice for Rome and some of the main routes ; but for those 
who desire the utmost possible freedom, combined with the lowest 
possible expenditure, a slight acquaintance with the language of the 
country is indispensable, f 

t 'Baedekers Manual of Conversation in English, French, German, and 
Italian, with Vocabulary, etc.'' (Stereotype Edit., Baedeker, Leipsic), which is 
specially adapted for the use of travellers, with the addition of a pocket- 
dictionary, will soon enable the beginner to make himself understood. — 
A few words on the pronunciation may be acceptable to persons unac- 
quainted with the language. C before e and i is pronounced like the 
English ch; g before e and i like j. Before other vowels c and g are 


IV. Passports. Custom House. Luggage. 

Passports, though not required in Italy, are occasionally useful. 
Registered letters, for example, will not be delivered to strangers 
unless they exhibit a passport to prove their identity. The counte- 
nance and help of the British and American consuls can, of course, 
be extended to those persons only who can prove their nationality. 
The Italian police authorities are generally civil and obliging. 

Custom House. The examination of luggage at the Italian 
custom-houses is usually lenient. Tobacco and cigars are the articles 
chiefly sought for. At the gates of most of the Italian towns a tax 
(dazio consumo) is levied on comestibles, but travellers' luggage is 
passed at the barriers (limite daziario) on a simple declaration that 
it contains no such articles. 

Luggage. If possible, luggage should never be sent to Italy by 
goods-train, as it is liable to damage, pilferage, and undue custom- 
house detention. If the traveller is obliged to forward it in this 
way, he should employ a trustworthy agent at the frontier and send 
him the keys. As a rule it is advisable , and often in the end less 
expensive, never to part from one's luggage, and to superintend the 
custom-house examination in person. 

V. Public Safety. Begging. 

Brigandage. Italy is still sometimes regarded as the land of 
Fra Diavolo's and Rinaldo Rinaldini's, and the impression is fostered 
by tales of travellers, and sensational letters to newspapers ; but 
the fact is , that travelling in Northern and Central Italy is hardly 
attended with greater hazard than in any of the northern European 
countries, while Southern Italy is unsafe in its more remote recesses 
only. Even the Roman Campagna can now scarcely be looked on as 
less safe than lonely districts in the neighbourhood of other large 
cities. For information as to the safety of the roads the traveller 
should apply to the Carabinieri, or gensdarmes (who wear a black 
uniform , with red facings and white shoulder-straps , and cocked 
hats) , a respectable and trustworthy corps. The traveller should 
avoid, the poorer and less frequented parts of Rome and other towns 
after night-fall. 

Weapons, which for the ordinary traveller are a mere burden, 
cannot legally be carried without a license, obtainable through the 
traveller's consul or ambassador. Those of a secret character, such 

hard. Gh and gh, which generally precede e or i, are hard. Sc before e 
or i is pronounced like ah ; gn and gl between vowels like nyi and lyi. 
The vowels a, e, i, o, u are pronounced ah, a , ee, o, oo. — l n ad- 
dressing persons of the educated classes 'Ella' or 'Lei', with the 3rd pers. 
sing., should always be employed (addressing several at once, 'loro' with 
the 3rd pers. pi.). 'Voi' is used in addressing waiters, drivers, etc., 'tu' by 
those only who are proficient in the language. 'Voi' is the usual mode of 
address among the Neapolitans, but is generally regarded as inelegant or 


as sword-sticks and stick-guns, are entirely prohibited and are liable 
to confiscation. 

Begging, which was countenanced and even encouraged under 
the old system of Italian politics, still continues to be one of those 
national nuisances to which the traveller must habituate himself. 
The present government has adopted energetic measures for its sup- 
pression, but hitherto with only partial success. The average Italian 
beggar is a mere speculator, and not a deserving object of charity. 
The traveller should therefore decline to give anything, with the 
words, 'non c'e niente', or a gesture of disapproval. If a donation 
be bestowed, it should consist of one of the smallest possible copper 
coins. A beggar, who on one occasion was presented with 2c. and 
thanked the donor with the usual benedictions, was on another pre- 
sented with 50c; but this act of liberality, instead of being grate- 
fully accepted, only called forth the remark in a half-offended tone : 
— 'Ma, signore, e molto poco!' 

VI. Intercourse with Italians. 

In Italy the pernicious custom of demanding considerably more 
than will ultimately be accepted has long been prevalent; but 
a knowledge of the custom, which is based on the presumed igno- 
rance of one of the contracting parties, tends greatly to mitigate the 
evil. Where tariffs and fixed charges exist, they should be carefully 
consulted. In other cases, where a certain average price is establish- 
ed by custom, the traveller should make a distinct bargain as to 
the article to be bought or service to be rendered, and never rely on 
the equity of the other party. Nor should any weight be attached to 
the representations of waiters , drivers , and guides in matters in 
which they have an interest, and with whom even the inhabitants 
of the place often appear to act in concert. 

Individuals who appeal to the generosity of the stranger, or to 
their own honesty, or who, as rarely happens, are offended by the 
traveller's manifestation of distrust, may well be answered in the 
words of the proverb, 'patti ehiari, amicizia lunga 1 . The equanimity 
of the traveller's own temper will greatly assist him if involved in 
a dispute or bargain , and he should pay no attention whatever to 
vehement gesticulations or an offensive demeanour. The slighter 
his knowledge of the Italian language is, the more careful should he 
be not to involve himself in a war of words , in which he must ne- 
cessarily be at a great disadvantage. 

In a country where trifling donations are in constant demand, the 
traveller should always be provided with an abundant supply of 
copper coins. Drivers, guides, porters, donkey-attendants, etc., in- 
variably expect, and often demand as their right a gratuity (buona 
mano, mancia, da here, bottiglia, caffe, fumata), in addition to the 
hire agreed on, varying according to circumstances from 2-3 sous to 

Baedeilbb. Italy II. 8tU Edition. b 


a franc or more. The traveller need not scruple to limit his dona- 
tions to the smallest possible sums , as liberality is often a source 
of annoyance and embarrassment. Thus if half-a-franc is bestowed 
where two sous would have sufficed , the fact speedily becomes 
known, and the donor is sure to be besieged by numerous other 
applicants whose demands it is impossible to satisfy. 

The demeanour of the stranger towards the natives should be 
somewhat modified in accordance with their various natural char- 
acteristics. The Italians of the North resemble the inhabitants of 
the South of France, and those of Italian Switzerland. The char- 
acter of the Tuscans is more effeminate , their language and man- 
ners more refined. The bearing of the Roman is grave and proud. 
With these, the stranger will find no difficulty in associating; and 
acts of civility or kindness will not be misplaced, even when con- 
ferred on persons of the lower orders. 

VII. Conveyances. 

Bailways. With the exception of the Bologna and Ancona line, 
the whole of the railways in Central Italy belong to the Strade Ferrate 
Romane company. As already remarked in the first volume of the 
Handbook, the rate of travelling is very moderate , and the trains 
are often behind time. The first class carriages are tolerably com- 
fortable, the second are inferior to those of the German railways, 
and resemble the English and French , while the third class is 
chiefly frequented by the lower orders. Among the expressions 
with which the railway-traveller will soon become familiar are — 
'pronW (ready), 'partenza! (departure), 'si cambia convoglio 1 (change 
carriages), and 'uscita! (egress), which are shouted by the officials 
with characteristic vigour. 

When about to start from a crowded station, the traveller will 
find it convenient to have as nearly as possible the exact fare ready 
before taking tickets ('fare il biglietto , J. In addition to the fare a 
tax of 5c. is payable on each ticket, and the express fares are 10- 
1272 per cent higher than the ordinary. It is also very important 
to be at the station early, as, in accordance with the regulations, 
the ticket-office closes 5 min., and the luggage-office '/ 4 hr. before 
the departure of the train. At the end of the journey tickets are 
given up at the uscita, except in the case of the very large stations, 
where they are collected before the passengers alight. 

The traveller is recommended to ascertain the weight of his lug- 
gage, if possible, before going to the station, in order to guard 
against imposition. No luggage is allowed free (but see below, inter- 
national through-tickets), except small articles taken by the pas- 
senger into his carriage. Porters who convey luggage to and from 
the carriages are sufficiently paid with a few sous, where there is no 
fixed tariff. Those who intend to make only a short stay at a p] ape 


especially when the town or village lies at a distance from the rail- 
way, should leave their heavier luggage at the station till their re- 
turn (dare in deposito, or depositare, 10c. per day and cwt.). 

The best collection of time-tables is the 'Jndicatore Ufficiale 
delle Strode Ferrate , etc. (price 1 fr.) , with which every traveller 
should be provided. The local time-tables of the Tuscan, Roman, 
and Neapolitan lines, which may be procured at the railway-stations 
for a few sous, are also useful. 

Through Tickets to different parts of Italy are issued in London 
(at the principal railway-stations ; by Messrs. Cook & Son, Ludgate 
Circus ; etc.), in Paris, and at many of the principal towns in Ger- 
many and Switzerland. They are generally available for 30 days, 
and each passenger is allowed 56 Engl. lbs. of luggage free. Trav- 
ellers about to cross the frontier in either direction are strongly re- 
commended to superintend the custom-house examination of lug- 
gage in person. — Through-tickets from Italy to Switzerland, Ger- 
many, etc., must be partly paid for in gold, the amount being stated 
in the Italian time-tables in the case of the most important foreign 
towns. The traveller should provide himself with the necessary 
amount of gold beforehand, as the money-changers and ticket-clerks 
at the station charge a very high percentage on banknotes. It is, 
however, usually practicable to book to the frontier-station only, 
and there take a fresh ticket. Information on this and other points 
may be obtained in the larger towns from the Agenzie di Citta (in 
Rome, Via della Propaganda 8). 

Circular Tickets (viaggi circolari) to the principal towns in 
Italy , available sometimes for 50 days , may be purchased in Lon- 
don, in France, and in Germany, as well as in Italy, at a reduction 
of 45 per cent (but usually without a free allowance of luggage). 
Farther particulars will be found in the time-tables. For Central 
Italy alone there are five different circular tours , for which 10-30 
days are allowed. These tickets require to be stamped at the office 
at each fresh starting-point. 

Return Tickets may often be advantageously used for short 
excursions , but they are generally available for one day only. It 
should also be observed that if the traveller alights at a station short 
of his destination he forfeits the whole of the rest of his ticket. 

Steamboats. There are now so many different railway-routes 
from N. Italy to Rome that few travellers will care to travel by 
steamer from Genoa or Leghorn to Civita Vecchia, or from Trieste 
to Ancona , although many will still prefer the sea-voyage to the 
long railway-journey if bound for Naples direct (see vol. iii. of the 
Handbook). In fine weather , especially in summer , when sea- 
sickness need rarely be apprehended, a voyage on the Mediterranean 
is very enjoyable , but as the steamers generally ply at night the 
finest parts of the scenery are often missed. The boatmen charge 
1 fr. for embarkation or disembarkation. 



Diligences. As several of the most interesting places described 
in the following pages lie at some distance from the railway (such 
as Urbino, Gubbio, Viterbo, and S. Gimignano), the traveller must 
visit them by carriage or by diligence. The Corriere , which carries 
the mails, has seats for 2-3 passengers only, and the fares are high. 
The Diligenza, or ordinary stage-coach, conveys travellers with tol- 
erable speed, and generally at the same fares as similar vehicles in 
other parts of the continent. They are in the hands of private specu- 
lators, and where several run in competition, the more expensive are 
to be preferred. When ladies are of the party the coupe (fare one- 
third higher) should if possible be secured. The drivers and ostlers 
generally expect a few soldi at the end of each stage. — For a 
party of two or four persons the expense of a carriage with one or 
two horses hardly exceeds the diligence fares, while the travellers 
are far more independent. A carriage with one horse may generally 
be hired for 3/4- 1 fr. per miglio, and a single seat in a carriage may 
often be obtained. 

Walking Tours. An Italian rarely walks if he can possibly drive ; 
and how walking can afford pleasure is to him an inexplicable mys- 
tery. The remark has frequently been made to the Editor: 'Lei £ 
signore e va a piedi ? ' ' In the more frequented districts , however, 
such as the vicinity of Rome , the natives are accustomed to this 
mania of foreigners , and are no longer surprised to find them ex- 
ploring the Campagna and the Sabine and Alban Mts. on foot. 
There seems, however, to be a growing taste for walking among 
the Italians themselves , as a great many stations of the Italian 
Club ALpino have recently been established for the purpose of ren- 
dering the Apennines more accessible to travellers. Cool and clear 
weather should if possible be selected , and the scirocco carefully 
avoided. The height of summer is of course unsuitable for tours of 
this kind. 

Biding. A horse (cavallo) or donkey (sommurd), between which 
the difference of expense is slight , will often be found serviceable, 
especially in mountainous districts. The attendant (pedone) acts as 
a guide and servant for the time being. Riding is now common 
among the Alban and Sabine Mts. , where animals are provided for 
the use of ladies also. A previous bargain should be made , tutto 
compreso, a gratuity being added if the traveller is satisfied. 

VIII. Hotels. 

First Class Hotels , comfortably fitted up , are to be found at 
Rome, Siena, Perugia, and at most of the principal resorts of tra- 
vellers in Central Italy. Several of those ut Rome are kept by Swiss 
and German landlords. Room 2 l ji-bir., bougie 75c. to 1 fr., atten- 
dance 1 fr., table d'hote 4-6 fr., and so on. Families, for whose re- 
ception the hotels are often specially fitted up , should make an 

HOTELS. xxi 

agreement with the landlord with regard to pension (8-15 fr. each 
person per day). Visitors are expected to dine at the table d'h6te ; 
otherwise the charge for rooms is raised , or the inmate is informed 
that they are required for some one else. The cuisine is a mixture 
of French and Italian. 

The Second Class Hotels are thoroughly Italian in their ar- 
rangements , and they are rarely very clean or comfortable. The 
charges are little more than one-half of the above. There is no 
table d'hote, but there is generally a trattoria connected with the 
house , where refreshments <i la carte or a dinner a prezzo fisso 
may be procured at any hour. These inns will often be found con- 
venient and economical by the voyageur en garfon, and the better 
houses of this class may even be visited by ladies. As a rule, it is 
advisable to make enquiries as to charges beforehand. A dinner, 
for example at 2-3 fr. , may be stipulated for, and in bargaining as 
to the charge for a room the 'servizio e candela' should not be for- 
gotten. Exorbitant demands may generally be reduced without dif- 
ficulty to reasonable limits, and even when no previous agreement 
has been made an extortionate bill may sometimes be successfully 
disputed, though never without long and vehement discussion. 

The best hotels have fixed charges. Attendance, exclusive of 
boots and commissionnaire, is charged in the bill. This is not ihe 
case in the smaller inns , where 1 fr. per diem is usually divided 
between the waiter and the facchino , or less for a prolonged stay. 
Copper coins are never despised by such recipient^. 

H6tels Garnis and Private Apartments are recommended 
for a prolonged residence. A distinct agreement as to rent should 
be made beforehand. When a whole suite of apartments is hired, a 
written contract on stamped paper should be drawn up with the aid 
of some one acquainted with the language and customs of the place 
(e.g. a banker), in order that 'misunderstandings' maybe prevented. 
For single travellers a verbal agreement with regard to attendance, 
linen, stoves and carpets in winter, a receptacle for coal, and other 
details will generally suffice. 

The popular idea of cleanliness in Italy is behind the age, dirt being 
perhaps neutralised in the opinion of the natives by the brilliancy of their 
climate. The traveller will rarely suffer from this shortcuming in hotels 
and lodgings of the best class ; but those who quit the beaten track must 
be prepared for privations. Iron bedsteads should if possible be selected, 
as they are less likely to harbour the enemies of repose. Insect-powder 
(polvere di Persia, or Keating's) or camphor somewhat repels their ad- 
vances. The zanzare, or gnats, are a source of great annoyance, and often 
of suffering, during the autumn months. Windows should always be care- 
fully closed before a light is introduced into the room. Light muslin 
curtains (zanzarierO round the beds, masks for the face, and gloves are 
employed to ward off the attacks of these pertinacious intruders. The 
burning of insect powder over a spirit-lamp is also recommended, and 
pastilles may be purchased at the principal chemists' for the same purpose. 

A list of the Italian names of the ordinary articles of underclothing 
(la biancheria) will be useful in dealing with the washer-woman : Shirt 
(linen, cotton, woollen), la eamiecia (ditela, di cotone, dilana); collar, il 



collare; cuff, il manichino; drawers, le mutande; woollen undershirt, una 
giuba di fianella; petticoat, la sottana; stocking, la calsa; sock, lo scap- 
pino; handkerchief (silk), il fazolelto (di seta). To give out to wash, dare 
a bucato (di bucalo, newly washed); washing-list, la nola; washerwoman, 
laundress, la stiratrice, la lavandaja; buttons, i bottom. 

IX. Restaurants, Cafes, Osterie. 

Restaurants (trattorle) are chiefly frequented by Italians and 
gentlemen travelling alone , but those of the better class may be 
visited by ladies also. Dinner may be obtained a la carte, and 
sometimes a prezzo fisso, at any hour between 12 and 7 or 8 p. m., 
for 2-5 fr. ; the waiters expect a gratuity of 2-5 soldi. The diner 
who wishes to confine his expenses within reasonable limits, should 
refrain from ordering dishes not mentioned in the bill of fare. 
Besides the old-fashioned trattorie, a number of 'restaurants' 1 of a 
better class have recently been opened in Rome. The cookery is 
generally French, and the charges and arrangements are similar to 
those in the other European capitals. The waiter is called came- 
riere, but the approved way of attracting his attention is by knock- 
ing on the table. 

A late hour for the chief repast of the day should be chosen in 
winter, in order that the daylight may be profitably employed, but 
an early dinner is preferable in summer when the midday heat pre- 
cludes exertion. 

List of the ordinary dishes at the Italian restaurants : — 

Minestra or Zuppa, soup. 

Consume, broth or bouillon. 

Zuppa alia Sante, soup with green 

vegetables and bread. 
Gnocchi, small puddings. 
Riso con piselli, rice-soup with peas. 
Risotto (alia Milanese), a kind of rice 

pudding (rich). 
Maccaroni al burro, with butter ; al 

pomidoro, with tomatos. 
Lesso or Bollito, boiled meat. 
Manzo, boiled beef. 
Fritto, fried meat. 
Frittura mista, a mixture of fried 

liver, brains, and artichokes. 
Fritlata, omelette. 
Arrosto, roasted meat. 
Arrosto di vitello , or di mongana, 

Bistecca, beefsteak. 
Coscetto , loin. 

Testa di vitello, calf s head. 
Fegato di vitello, calf's liver. 
Bracciolelta di vitello, veal- cutlet. 
Costoletto alia minuta , veal -cutlet 

with calves 1 ears and truffles. 
Palate, potatoes. 
Quaglia, quail. 
Tordo, field-fare. 

Lodola, lark. 

Sfoglia, a kind of sole. 

Principi alia tavola, or piattini, ho 

Funghi, mushrooms (often too rich). 
Presciutto, ham. 
Salami, sausage. 
Polio, or pollastro, fowl. 
Gallotta, turkey. 
Umido, meat with sauce. 
Stvfatino, ragout. 
Erie, vegetables. 
Carciofi, artichokes. 
Piselli, peas. 
Lenticchi, lentils. 
Cavoli ftori, cauliflower. 
Fave, beans. 

Fagiuolini, French beans. 
Sale, salt. 
Pepe, pepper. 
Mostarda, simple mustard. 
Senape, hot mustard. 
Ostriche, oysters (good in winter 

Giardinetto or frutta, fruit-desert. 
Croslata di frutti, fruit-tart. 
Crostata di pasta sfoglia , a kind of 

Fragole, strawberries. 

Pera, pear. 
Mela, or porno, apple. 
Persiche, peaches. 
Uva, bunch of grapes. 
Limone, lemon. 


Arancio or porlogallo, orange. 

Finocchio, root of fennel. 

Pane francese, bread made with yeast 

(the Italian is made without). 
Formaggio, cacio, cheese. 

Wine (nero or rosso, red; bianco, white; dolce, sweet; asciutto, dry; 
del paese or nostrale, wine of the country) is usually placed on the table 
in large bottles at the Tuscan restaurants and charged for according to the 
quantity drunk. At Rome and some other places the visitor is asked if 
he wishes un mezzo litro or un quinto ('/5th litre). 

Cafes are frequented for breakfast and lunch, and in the evening 
by numerous consumers of ices. 

Gaffe nero, or coffee without milk, is usually drunk (20-25c. per 
cup). Caffi latte is coffee mixed with milk before being served (20-30c); 
or caffe e latte, i.e. with the milk served separately, may be preferred 
(30-40c). Mischio or Aura is a mixture of coffee and chocolate (20-30c), con- 
sidered wholesome and nutritious. 

The usual viands for lunch are ham, sausages, cutlets, beefsteaks, and 
eggs (uova da here, soft ; toste, hard ; uova al piatto, fried). 

Ices (sorbetto or gelato) of every possible variety are supplied at the 
cafes at 50 c. per portion ; or a half portion (mezzo) may be ordered. 
Qranita, or half-frozen ice (limonata, of lemons; aranciala of oranges), is 
much in vogue in the forenoon. The waiter, who expects a sou or more, 
according to the amount of the payment, is sometimes inaccurate in chang- 
ing money if not narrowly watched. 

The principal Parisian newspapers are to be found at all the larger 
cafes, English rarely. 

Wine Shops (osterle), especially at Rome, are a favourite haunt 
of the lower classes , who bring their own eatables from the pizzi- 
carolo, or dealer in comestibles. The rooms are generally dirty and 
uninviting, but the wine is often good. 

Cigars in Italy are a monopoly of Government, and bad ; those 
under 3-4 soldi scarcely smokable. Good imported cigars may be 
bought at the best shops in Rome for 25-60 c. — Passers-by are 
at liberty to avail themselves of the light burning in every tobac- 
conist's, without making any purchase. 

X. Sights, Shops, etc. 

Churches are open in the morning till 12 or 12.30, and generally 
again from 4 to 7 p.m. , while some of the most important remain 
open the whole day. Visitors may inspect the works of art even 
during divine service, provided they move about noiselessly, and 
keep aloof from the altar where the clergy are officiating. On the 
occasion of festivals the works of art are often entirely concealed 
by the temporary decorations. The verger (sagrestano , or nonzolo) 
receives a fee of i/ 2 fr. or upwards, if his services are required. 

Museums , picture-galleries , and other collections are usually 
open from 10 to 3 o'clock. By a law passed in 1875 all the col- 
lections which belong to government are open on week-days at a 
charge of 1 fr., and on Sundays gratis. 

In Rome the collections of the Vatican and the private galleries are 
closed on Sundays and on ecclesiastical festivals. The national collections 


are closed only on the holidays recognized by government, vii. Easter 
Sunday, Sept. 20th (anniversary of the entry of the Italian troops in 1870, 
see p. 172), Nov. 1st (All Saints Day), and Christmas Day. In smaller 
towns museums and galleries are also often closed on New Year's Day, 
during the Carnival , on Palm Sunday, Ascension Day, Whitsunday and 
Whitmonday. Fete de Dieu (Corpus Christi), the Festa dello Statuto (first 
Sunday in June), and the Assumption of the Virgin (15th Aug). The 
day sacred to the local patron saint is often observed as a holiday. 

Valets de Place (servitori di piazza) may be hired at 6-7 fr. per 
day. They are generally respectable and trustworthy, but, as they 
are seldom good judges of -what is really worth seeing , the traveller 
should specify to them the places he desires to visit. Their services 
may generally well be dispensed with by those who are not pressed 
for time. Purchases should never be made, nor contracts with vet- 
turini or other persons drawn up , in presence or with the aid of a 
commissionnaire, as any such intervention tends considerably to in- 
crease the ) rices. 

Theatres. Performances in the large theatres begin at 8, 8.30, 
or 9 , and terminate at midnight or later , operas and ballets being 
exclusively performed. The first act of an opera is usually suc- 
ceeded by a ballet of three acts or more. Verdi is the most popular 
composer. The pit (platea) is the usual resort of the men, while the 
boxes and sometimes the stalls fpoltrone or posti distinti) are fre- 
quented by ladies. A box (palco) must always be secured in ad- 
vance. — A visit to the smaller theatres, where dramas and com- 
edies are acted , is recommended for the sake of habituating the 
ear to the language. Performances in summer take place in the 
open air, in which case smoking is allowed. — The theatre is the 
usual evening-resort of the Italians, who never observe strict silence 
during the performance of the music. 

Shops rarely have fixed prices. As a rule, even where prezzi 
fissi are professed, two-thirds or three-quarters of the price de- 
manded is a fair offer. The itinerant dealers often ask double and 
more the value of their wares. "With artizans and drivers there is the 
same necessity for bargaining. On these occasions the expression 
'Non volete?' (then you will not?) will generally have the effect of 
bringing the matter to a speedy adjustment. Purchases should never 
be made in presence of valets-de-place (see above). 

XI. Post Office. Telegraph. 
Letters (whether 'poste restante 1 , Italian 'ferma in posta\ or to 
the traveller's hotel) should be addressed very distinctly, and the 
name of the place should be in Italian. When asking for letters the 
traveller should present his visiting card instead of pronouncing his 
name. Postage-stamps (francoboUo) are sold at the post-offices and 
at many of the tobacco-shops. — Letters of 15 grammes (i/ 2 z. 
about the weight of three sous) to any of the states included in the 
postal union (now comprising the whole of Europe) 25c; post-card 


(cartolina postale) 10 c. , with prepaid answer (con riposta pagata) 
20 c. ; book-packets (stampe sotto fascia) per 50 grammes 5 c. ; re- 
gistration-fee (raccomandazione) 25 o. 

Letters by town-post 5c; throughout the kingdom of Italy 20c. 
prepaid, or 30c. unpaid. Post-card 10c. 

In Rome the post-office is open daily from 8 a.m. to 8 or 9.30 
p.m. (also on Sundays and holidays); in smaller places it is gener- 
ally closed in the middle of the day for two or three hours. 

Telegrams. For telegrams to foreign countries the following 
rate per word is charged, in addition to an initial payment of 1 fr. : 
Great Britain 47 c, France 14, Germany 25, Switzerland 6-14, 
Austria 6-20, Hungary 8-12, Holland 31, Belgium 26, Denmark 37, 
Russia 66-93, Sweden 44, Norway 50 c. — To America from 3 3 / 4 fr. 
per words upwards, according to the state. 

"Within the kingdom of Italy, 15 words 1 fr. , each additional 
word 10 c. 

Telegrams with special haste (telegrammi urgenti, which take 
precedence of all others) may be sent at thrice the above rates. 

XII. Climate. Health. 

The climate of Rome is determined by its situation in the Cam- 
pagna, almost equidistant from the Apennines and the sea (14 M.), 
and about 100 ft. above the level of the latter. During winter the 
prevalent wind is the Tramontana, a term applied not only to the 
N. wind but also to the N.N.E. wind (Greco); it blows more and 
more frequently from October to December, then becomes gradually 
rarer, and by April or May ceases altogether. This dry and cool 
(sometimes even cold) wind is generally accompanied by a clear 
sky, and except when unusually violent (in which case it irritates 
the mucous membrane) is not found tTying even by invalids.. The 
Scirocco, a general name for the S.E., S., and S.W. winds, is 
especially prevalent in October and April. It has an alleviating 
effect upon colds and coughs , but is apt to take away the appetite 
and impair the nervous energy. 

The most favourable month for a visit to Rome is October, dur- 
ing which the average temperature is about 63° Fahr. The rain that 
then falls is drunk in greedily by the parched earih, and all nature 
seems to awaken to a second spring. November, with a mean tem- 
perature of 54° and an average of 12y 2 days of rain, is also often a 
pleasant month. In December the N. and S. winds contend for 
mastery, and wet weather alternates with cold, the mean tempera- 
ture being 47° and the average number of rainy days eleven. Jan- 
uary (mean temp. 45Y2 j wet days ll 1 /^), and February (mean temp. 
46 1 /2°, wet days 10), during which the N. wind prevails, are the two 
coldest months. Travellers arriving at this season from the Riviera, 
where the mean temperature in these months is from 48° to 54°, 


should be careful to guard against the sudden change by warmer 
clothing. March (mean temp. oO'^ * rainy days 10), though often 
cold, and as usual in the S. the windiest month of the year, seldom 
passes without some charming spring days. After October April and 
the first half of May form the pleasantest time for visiting Rome. 
The heat then rapidly increases, and from the end of May till Octo- 
ber it is almost insufferable (June 72°, July 76°, August lb , Sept- 
ember 69 1/2 ° F.). 

Health. Malaria or Roman fever is, of course, most prevalent 
in summer, particularly from the middle of August till the begin- 
ning of September, but also occurs in spring and even in the milder 
and damper months of winter. Large parts of the city, however, 
enjoy an almost perfect immunity from it. The most conspicuous 
of these is the central district bounded towards the W. by the Via 
del Babuino, the Via Sistina, and the Via delQuirinale, extending 
on the S. to S. Pietro in Vicoli and the Capitol, and on the E. al- 
most reaching the Tiber. The streets on the Esquiline, Palatine, 
and Caelius are, on the other hand, all dangerous in summer, 
and few of the inhabitants of the S. E. district between the 
Colosseum and the Monte Testaccio escape an annual visitation 
of fever. Some of the suburban districts, such as the "W. slopes 
of the Pincio, and many of the streets on the Viminal, are now com- 
paratively healthy, while on the right bank of the Tiber the neigh- 
bourhood of the Piazza S. Pietro and the quarter between the Ponte 
Sisto and the Ponte Rotto are almost exempt from the scourge. 

The visitor should exercise some care in choosing his apartments 
and in seeing that they are supplied with all needful comforts. Car- 
pets and stoves are indispensable. A southern aspect is absolutely 
essential for the delicate, and highly desirable for the robust. An 
Italian proverb says : 'Dove non va il sole, va il medico\ Rooms on 
the upper floor are dryer than those on the ground-floor. Windows 
should be closed at night. 

Inhabitants of more northern countries generally become unusu- 
ally susceptible to cold in Italy, and therefore should not omit to be 
well supplied with warm clothing for the winter. Even in summer 
it is advisable not to wear too light clothing. Flannel is strongly 
recommended. — The Pincio is the safest promenade in Rome, but 
a prolonged sojourn in the somewhat damp gardens of the Villa 
Borghese is not advisable. The visitor should be careful not to drive 
in an open carnage after dark, or to sit in the evening in such 
malarial places as the Colosseum. In visiting picture-galleries or 
churches on warm days , it is advisable to drive thither and walk 
back, as otherwise the visitor enters the chilly building in a heated 
state and has afterwards no opportunity of regaining the desirable 
temperature through exercise. Exposure to the summer-sun should 
be avoided as much as possible. According to a Roman proverb, dogs 
and foreigners (Inglesi) only walk in the sun, Christians in the shade. 


Umbrellas or spectacles of coloured glass (grey, concave glasses to 
protect the whole eye are best) may be used with advantage when a 
walk in the sun is unavoidable. Blue veils are recommended to 
ladies. Repose during the hottest hours is advisable, and a siesta of 
moderate length is often refreshing. 

The drinking-water of Rome is very palatable, but strongly im- 
pregnated with lime, which makes it unsuitable for those suffering 
from gout, and sometimes causes constipation. Persons with delicate 
chests often find a winter in Rome very beneficial. It is less dusty 
than the Riviera, and not so windy as the Sicilian health-resorts. — 
Typhus Fever does not occur in Rome as an epidemic. 

There are several good English and German doctors in Rome, 
but it is sometimes wise, in the case of maladies arising from local 
causes , to employ native skill. German and English chemists are 
preferable to the Italian. Foreigners frequently suffer from diarrhoea 
in Italy, which is generally occasioned by the unwonted heat. Ice 
and rice are two of the commonest remedies. The homreopathic tinc- 
ture of camphor may also be mentioned. In such cases, however, 
thorough repose is the chief desideratum. 

XIII. Chronological Table of Recent Events. 

1846. June 16. Election of Pius IX. 

1848. March 18. Insurrection at Milan. 

22. Charles Albert enters Milan. 

22. Republic proclaimed at Venice. 

May 15. Insurrection at Naples quelled by Ferdinand II. 

('Re Bomba'). 

Radetsky's victory at Curtatone. 

Radetsky defeated at Goito ; capitulation of 

25. Radetsky's victory at Custozza. 

Radetsky's victory at Milan. 


Murder of Count Rossi at Rome. 
25. Flight of the Pope to Gaeta. 

1849. Febr. 5. Republic proclaimed at Rome. 

17. Republic proclaimed in Tuscany, under Guerazzi. 
March 16. Charles Albert terminates the armistice (ten 
days' campaign). 

23. Radetsky's victory at No vara. 

24. Charles Albert abdicates (d. at Oporto, July 
26th); accession of Victor Emmanuel II. 

March 26. Armistice; Alessandria occupied by the Austrians. 

31. Haynau captures Brescia. 
April 5. Republic at Genoa overthrown by La Marmora. 
11. Reaction at Florence. 














1849. April 30. Garibaldi defeats the French under Oudinot. 
May 11. Leghorn stormed by the Austrians. 

15. Subjugation of Sicily. 

16. Bologna stormed by the Austrians. 
July 4 Rome capitulates. 

Aug. 6. Peace concluded between Austria and Sardinia. 
22. Venice capitulates. 

1850. April 4. Pius IX. returns to Rome. 

1855. Sardinia takes part in the Crimean War. 

1856. Congress at Paris. Cavour raises the Italian 

1859. May 20. Battle of Montebello. 
June 4. Battle of Magenta. 

24. Battle of Solferino. 

July 11. Meeting of the emperors at Villafranca. 

Nov. 10. Peace of Zurich. 

1860. March 18. Annexation of the Emilia (Parma , Modena, 


22. Annexation of Tuscany. 

24. Cession of Savoy and Nice. 
May 11. Garibaldi lands at Marsala. 

27. Taking of Palermo. 
July 20. Battle of Melazzo. 
Sept. 7. Garibaldi enters Naples. 

18. Battle of Castelfidardo. 

29. Ancona capitulates. 
Oct. 1. Battle of the Volturno. 

21. Plebiscite at Naples. 
Dec. 17. Annexation of the principalities, Umbria, and 
the two Sicilies. 

1861. Febr. 13. Gaeta capitulates after a four months' siege. 
March 17. Victor Emmanuel proclaimed King of Italy. 

1864. Sept. 15. Convention between France and Italy. 

1866. June 20. Battle of Custozza. 
July 5. Cession of Venetia. 

20. Naval battle of Lissa. 

1867. Nov. 3. Battle of Mentana. 

1870. Sept. 12. Occupation of the States of the Church by Italian 
20. Occupation of Rome. 

1878. Jan. 9. Death of Victor Emmanuel II. ; accession of Hum- 
bert I. 
Febr. 7. Death of Pius IX. 
- 20. Election of Leo XIII. 

Ancient Art. 

An Historical Sketch, 

from the German of 

Prof. Reinhard Kekule. 

"As the streams lose themselves in 
the mightier Ocean , so the history of 
the peoples once distributed along the 
Mediterranean shores is absorbed in that 
of the mighty Mistress of the World". 

The traveller who would not wander through the galleries of 
Rome in mere vacant wonderment may bear in mind these words of 
Niebuhr. As a preface to the following pages, they will not only 
help the intelligent observer to a worthy appreciation of the master- 
pieces presented to him, but enable him to invest them with appro- 
priate historical associations. 

Amongst the crowd of statues which fill the galleries and cham- 
bers of the Vatican and Capitol of Rome are to be seen the noblest 
examples of Antique Sculpture. These do not, however, stand in 
the same relation to Imperial Rome as, for example, the frescoes of 
Fiesole in the Cloisters of St. Mark, or those of Andrea del Sarto in 
the Church of the Annunziata to Florence , or as the master-pieces 
of Raphael and Michael Angelo to mediaeval and pontifical Rome. 
These latter originated, so to speak , with her, were her peculiar 
attributes, the fitting emblems of her ecclesiastical supremacy. The 
genius which created them, she inspired, fostered , and rewarded. 
On the other hand, Rome, the mistress of the World, the Rome 
of ancient history, though attracting to herself the accumulated 
treasures of entire epochs of Greek art, though through her inter- 
position names , which otherwise must have remained mere phan- 
tom sounds , survive to receive individually the homage due to 
their transcendent genius, had nevertheless as little influence 
on the marvellous development of Greek art, as London had upon 
the Italian Renaissance, on Giotto and Masaccio , on Raphael and 
Michael Angelo. In fact, those particular works, which, while they 
till the mind with a wonder akin to awe, minister to our noblest 
gratification, and in the presence of whose marvellous perfection all 
subsequent efforts are dwarfed into insignificance, occupied in Rome 
ages ago, and still occupy, a place corresponding to that which 


the master-pieces of the Italian and other schools of painting All in 
the galleries of London, Paris, and Dresden. Winckelmann was the 
first to trace in hold and comprehensive outline the history of Art 
amongst the Ancients , from its infancy and earlier growth to its 
maturity and gradual decline. Following in the wake of Winckel- 
mann, unceasing research, patiently and persistently pursued, has 
served to confirm and extend his survey, and to supply, in addition, 
a host of particulars pregnant with interest. Those indeed, who have 
conducted this laborious quest , stimulated and directed by the for- 
tunate recovery of monuments and various relics of antiquity, have 
been the means of determining the history of Antique Art, so far at 
least as Sculpture and Architecture are concerned ; and this not only 
in its more salient features , but with an elaboration of detail , so 
careful and so well authenticated, that the authorship of numerous 
works is clearly established , and the interest and value of their 
discoveries in so far unspeakably enhanced. Much indeed remains 
to be done, and the path of the explorer is beset with doubt and 
difficulty; but the future promises farther encouragement, if not 
complete solution. 

In Art, the Greeks were content to learn from nations whose 
civilisation preceded theirs. Long before the first image was graven 
by Grecian hands, the Egyptians, as far as history acquaints us, had 
been the first to overcome those difficulties in the choice of a suitable 
form of expression inseparable from every fresh manifestation of Art. 
They had established a well defined system, a traditional style, 
which was exemplified as well in their Sculpture as in their Archi- 
tecture. On the other hand the richly-elaborated Art of the Baby- 
lonians and Assyrians, with its sumptuous wealth of decoration, must 
also of necessity have had its influence on the Greeks of Asia Minor. 
Grecian Art had, to begin with, not only adopted the method, 
implements, and workmanship of their predecessors ; it had possess- 
ed itself of their forms and not unfrequently of the motives of 
their imagery. Greece did not, however, accept this heritage of 
art in the spirit of slavish imitation. Architectural models were not 
adopted in their entirety. Each part separately, each ornament in 
itself, became the centre of a new conception, and this conception 
once embodied became a distinct type , the expression of a taste 
purely Greek. In like manner they treated the conventional render- 
ing of the human form transmitted to them. This, by constant 
reference to the living model , they continued to manipulate and 
modify until they attained to that profound and comprehensive 
grasp of nature, which to this day remains the subject of wonder 
and delight to our greatest artists. The way thus traversed was 
long and wearisome. It carries us back through an incalculable suc- 
cession of ages into the impenetrable past. The oldest Ionic and 
Doric temples, although well-nigh of prehistoric antiquity, exhibit 
in all essential particulars a clearly-defined architectural system • 


and, let it be borne in mind, the architecture of the Greeks did not 
start into being as Athena from the head of Jupiter, fully armed 
and equipped. Careful observation will detect in the Orders associ- 
ated in name with the two principal Hellenic races evidences of a 
very gradual development. Subsequently, to these two orders was 
added a third, known as the Corinthian. It was inevitable that in 
the practice of Sculpture as well as Architecture divergences arose 
which may be characterised as provincialisms ; and it is equally 
intelligible that as Art in Greece assumed more and more majes- 
tic proportions , these provincialisms should have become less and 
less observable. 

They were finally obliterated by the glories of what may be distin- 
guished , in reference to art , as the Age op Pbkicles ; glories 
associated with the talismanic names of Phidias, Myron, and Poly- 
cletus in Sculpture, and of Ictinus and Mnesicles in Architecture. 
The golden age of the Italian Renaissance, when Raphael filled the 
world with rapturous wonder, can alone be compared to a time 
which witnessed the surpassing achievements of art in Greece. Of 
the painters of this period, of Polygnotus for example, who flourished 
somewhat earlier, little can be ascertained. Their works have 
perished ; and all that we can learn of them is at best too hypothe- 
tical to be worthy of record. 

The name of Polycletus belongs to the Peloponnesus. The con- 
noisseur of his day claimed for him the merit of having presented 
the human form complete in its minutest details, correct in pro- 
portion, perfect in symmetry. One of his works in particular, the 
figure of a powerful youth armed with a spear (Doryphorus), 
was upheld as an example of the master's peculiar excellence, 
and hence was surnamed the Canon. As a counterpart to the Dory- 
phorus, and in like manner regarded as a type or model, is the figure 
of a youth of distinguished beauty, who with both hands folds a 
band round his head (Diadumenus). Of one of his Amazons it was 
said, that it surpassed even the Amazon of Phidias in beauty. 
Finally, especial glory was claimed for his statue of Hera placed 
in a temple dedicated to this goddess at Delphi. — Myron's chief 
delight was to pourtray the human form in action, but his success 
was, to say the least of it, partial. Thus he represents his Disco- 
bolus actually doubled up in the act of throwing the discus. In 
a group on the Acropolis at Athens the same artist has chosen for 
his subject the incident of Marsyas in the act of seizing the pipes 
which the Goddess Athena has rejected, and on which he plays 
while dancing with delight. He recoils in terror and bewilderment 
as the Goddess, suddenly appearing, dashes the pipes from his hand. 
Finally the Cow of Myron was especially popular. It was boasted 
of her that so life-like was she that she deceived both man and beast : 
nay imposed even on a living calf. But mightiest amidst this 
sculptor band was Phidias. His colossal Statue of Zeus excited 


wonder even in Olympia. It was accounted a reproach not to have 
seen it. His principal works were, however, devoted to the adorn- 
ment of his native city Athens. The colossal figure of Athens' tute- 
lary deity, the virgin goddess Athena in the Parthenon, was from 
the hand of Phidias. With him, we may assume , originated those 
plastic decorations of her temple the remains of which are preserved 
in Athens and in London ; and in all that his friend Pericles under- 
took with a view to enhance the beauty and glory of their native 
city, the creative genius, if not always the hand of Phidias was 
active. So completely indeed had he subjected to his irresistible 
will the resources of his art, so far had he distanced all competi- 
tors, whether in the present or past, that the force of his genius, 
overstepping the narrow confines of Attica, imposed its sway upon 
successive generations of artists. Alcamenes and his favourite Ago- 
racritus were his most distinguished and successful pupils. The 
Statue of a Victor in the pentathlon by Alcamenes was, in a simi- 
lar way to the Doryphorus of Polycletus , distinguished by the title 
of 'Enkrinomenus', or 'the classical'. 

In the history of Art, as in the history of Poetry, there usually 
succeeds to what Winckelmann terms the 'lofty style', which 
delights rather in depicting the sublime and majestic, a reaction in 
favour of a vein of sentiment more tender, more expressive of beauty 
in her gentler and more graceful aspects ; while at the same 
time freer and more forcible utterance is given to joy and anguish, 
and generally to the emotions and passions. Tenderness and grace 
were the divine attributes of Praxiteles and the family of whom he 
was chief. At this time when Athens, weary of conflict with the 
Hellenic confederacy, longed for peace , one of the family, Cephiso- 
dotus (the Elder) , produced his Irene and Plutus , the Goddess of 
Peace bearing in her arms the infantine god of riches, of which there 
is a copy in the Glyptothek in Munich. Praxiteles himself belongs 
to a succeeding generation. Above all his Eros in Thespia, his Satyr 
and the Aphrodite in Cnidus , were the wonder and delight of anti- 
quity. His sons Cephisodotus (the Younger) and Timarchides had 
also considerable repute. Scopas is usually regarded as the re- 
presentative of the more pathetic and impassioned expression in 
Art ; and amongst his numerous works a Group of Sea Deities and 
fantastical Sea Monsters are accounted particularly impressive. — 
The Niobe and her Children , afterwards carried to Rome , was at- 
tributed variously to Praxiteles and Scopas. Leochares, another 
contemporary of Scopas, is believed to be the author of a group re- 
presenting Ganymede borne to Olympus on the wings of an eagle. 

It is said that Alexander the Great would entrust the execu- 
tion of his portrait to none other than Lysippus of Sycium in the Pe- 
loponnesus : and with the name of Lysippus is associated a revolution 
in taste which culminated in this period. The painter and sculptor 
Euphranor, a contemporary of Lysippus, but older than he, whose 

ANCIENT ART. xxxiii 

especial delight it was to celebrate heroic exploit , had already 
with purpose and deliberation modified the recognised rules of pro- 
portion. Lysippus moulded the head smaller, and the figure rela- 
tively taller than had hitherto been the practice. In posing the 
figures too, either standing or in movement, as well as in the entire 
conception and rendering of Nature, he appears to have developed 
anew and with dazzling effect what hitherto had not been more 
than suggested. His forms, though of unmistakably Greek charac- 
ter, are more in conformity with modern taste than those of eariier 
artists. Among the best known works ofLysippusistheApoiri/ommws, 
the figure of a youth fresh from a struggle in the Palaestra, in the 
act of using the scraping iron. Gods and heroes, scenes of war and 
the chase, furnished him with subjects for a host of other works. 
Among his sons and pupils Laippus, Boedas, and Euthycrates, the 
last is most highly esteemed. Not only those of their generation but 
posterity agreed that Lysippus and the painter Apelles had reached 
the highest attainable point in the truthful rendering of nature, 
as well as in the more technical mastery of their art. The influence 
of Lysippus endured throughout and beyond the end of the follow- 
ing century. His method sufficed for the schools which succeeded 
him because the new spirit in which they worked had already 
triumphed in Lysippus. 

The conquests of Alexander and all that followed in their train 
— the glories and treasures of the East unfolded, mighty monarchies 
founded , stately cities built, and growing into centres of wealth and 
luxury, new forms of worship consequent upon a more intelligent 
study of nature — afforded conditions both material and other, 
which stimulated afresh the arts of Architecture and Sculpture. 
Henceforward Greek art vied , in the splendour of its colossal pro- 
portions, with that of the East. The deeds of victorious monarchs 
were her favourite theme : she was indefatigable in the contrivance 
of new forms of luxury and fresh splendour for city, mansion, and 
palace. Meanwhile, however, the Past was losing its hold upon her. 
The traditions of the Periclean age, which told how art was content 
to serve the household Gods with simple piety and to adorn domestic 
life, were but feebly remembered. Places once instinct with art 
life were lost in the new and overwhelming growth of cities, now 
the emporiums of the world's commerce : Alexandria in Egypt, 
Antioeh on the Orontes in Syria, Pergamum, and Rhodes. — As an 
example of what Greek art was doing about this time in Egypt, we 
may mention the reclining figure of the River-god of the Nile. Around 
this colossal personage , so benignant in aspect , play, with true in- 
fantine grace , sixteen cherub-like children. These are symbols of 
the 16 cubits , the measure of that periodical rise in the Nile's 
waters which annually submerges the land and endows Egypt with 
perennial fruitfulness. — A pupil of Lysippus, one Eutychides, re- 
presented the city nf Antioch in a group of considerable grace. The 

Bakdkkek. It»lv II. itk g Ailing, c 


tutelary deity (Tyche) of the eity is seated on a rock. In her right 
hand she holds ears of corn , and on her head she wears a mural 
crown ; while at her feet appears, in the shape of a youth rising out 
of the earth , the river-god Orontes (the river actually flows under- 
ground for some distance). 

The sculptors of Pergamum celebrated the victories of their kings 
over the Celts. The statue of the Dying Gaul (the so called 'dying 
gladiator') in the museum of the Capitol, and the Group of Gauls 
in the Villa Ludovisi are most impressive examples of the manner 
in which they were inspired by the theme. The northern barbarian, 
differing widely as he did in configuration, costume, and habit from 
the Greek, was a study of engrossing interest to the sculptor, and 
was reproduced with physiological accuracy. At the same time, 
that the fame of the victor might be magnified to the utmost, the 
sculptor sought to embody all that was admirable in the character 
of the vanquished : his ill-trained but chivalrous valour , his 
inflexible determination to die rather than suffer disgrace. So late 
as the 4th century A.D. there was still to be seen on the Acropolis 
a votive offering of King Attalus in the shape of a group with 
numerous figures representing the struggles of the gods with the 
giants, of the Athenians with the Amazons, of the Athenians with 
the Persians, and Attalus himself with the Celts. Quite recently, 
figures have been recognised as belonging to these groups in the 
collections of Venice, Rome, and Naples. — Of the Rhodian School 
we have examples in the so-called Farnese Bull in the museum of 
Naples, and in the Laocoon. The date of the Laocoon has not been 
established. Since the days of Winckelmann, who assigned it to 
the time of Alexander, and of Lessing, who maintained that it 
belonged rather to that of Titus, there has been a constantly 
recurring controversy on the subject. It is, however, highly im- 
probable that the Rhodian School retained, as late as the reign of 
Titus, the vitality necessary for the production of so considerable 
a work. 

From the preceding pages it will be gathered how many crises 
and how varied a development had been experienced by Greek art 
down to the time when Home heTself came to be included within 
the charmed circle of Greek culture. Transplanted to strange lands, 
and subjected to new influences and associations, Greek art ex- 
changed its distinctive Greek character for one universal and cos- 
mopolitan. Rome had not been, it may be remarked, without an art 
she could call her own. The old City- Walls raised in the time of 
the Kings, the Career Mamertinus, and the Cloaca Maxima prove 
that the Romans could in times comparatively remote carry out 
architectural works on a grand scale, although principally for utili- 
tarian purposes. The rudiments of Sculpture they probably acquired 
from Etruscan artists , whose earliest attempts would be the exe- 
cution of images of the gods in wood and clay. In Etruriu 


where Greek influence had long been active, considerable proficiency 
as well as activity prevailed in the pursuit of art. although but 
scanty traces of the purity and elevation of Greek taste are dis- 
cernible. In Rome, however, the Greeks of Southern Italy grafted 
their art on that of the Etruscans. A bronze toilet casket (the so 
called Ficoronian Cistd) found in Palestrina, which was executed in 
the workshop of Novius Plautius in the 3rd century B.C. , exhibits 
in its tracery a purity of design unmistakably Greek, although 
differing little in shape and plastic accessories from the very ordin- 
ary and often rude vessels of the period. The Romans highly esteem- 
ed faithful Portraits. Likenesses of ancestors were preserved in wax 
masks, and displayed on occasions of ceremony. The plastic art of 
the Etruscans gives evidence of a certain grasp of portraiture, which, 
though not profound, was still effective. As Roman rule extended 
itself over Southern Italy and Sicily , and later to Greece and the 
Asiatic continent, a constantly increasing number of works by Greek 
artists found their way to Rome, for the most part, probably, as spoil 
of war. Presently, too, the wealthy patrician, following the bent of 
his individual taste ot the prevailing fashion, gave commissions for 
works to be executed in Greece, or in Rome itself, to which ne- 
cessity had brought many artists. Rome thus became the recognised 
centre of a taste and fashion which she could call her own. Both 
stood in close relation, not only in point of time, but in a community 
of idea and aspiration , to the art of a period immediately following 
the reign of Alexander. There is no doubt, however, that a vast 
number of works are accepted as specifically Roman only because all 
traces of the Greek models have been lost. From these, it may be 
taken for granted, the artists of Imperial Rome derived the designs 
or at least the suggestion of works of utility, as well as of buildings 
devoted to mere display , such as temples , palaces , triumphal 
arches, and tombs. 

The student familiar with the three orders of Architecture, viz. 
the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, as they are to be seen in Athens, 
and comparing these examples with their reproductions in Rome, 
will have little difficulty in detecting a divergence which cannot 
be explained by differences either in forms of worship or in the 
general scope of the design (a conspicuous basement with flights of 
steps in front). The delicate modelling of the best period of Greek 
art was in Roman hands either simplified, and so denuded of its true 
artistic significance — looking in short like the work of the handi- 
craftsman — or so overloaded as to become hopelessly confused. 
Even in their most admirable buildings a mere profusion of super- 
ficial decoration is substituted for that perfect harmony pervading 
and animating the Greek structure , whether as a whole or in its 
minutest detail, which we find in the Parthenon for example. The 
Doric and Ionic orders found comparatively little favour with the 
Romans , and where they appear , it is rather in the form of mural 


columns than entire shafts. The exquisite taper of the shaft was 
thus sacrificed , the capitals were not happily disposed , and the 
Doric column instead of springing, as with the Greeks, direct from 
the flooring received a separate base. The favourite style was the 
more ornate Corinthian ; and the Romans thought yet to add to the 
wealth of ornament by superimposing upon the capital already 
veiled with the graceful form of the acanthus leaf, the volute and 
abacus of the Ionic capital. The entablature of the earlier orders 
is easily distinguished. In the Doric the architrave rests on the 
column and is un articulated, while the frieze above the architrave 
receives the triglyphs at short, regular intervals. The Ionic archi- 
trave on the other hand is divided into three horizontal courses, 
the frieze being without triglyphs. The Corinthian entablature re- 
sembles the Ionic, but the cornice is more richly articulated, cor- 
bels are substituted for the indentations , and the whole is richly 
wreathed with acanthus leaves and other ornamentation. 

The noblest, happily also the best-preserved building of old Rome 
is unquestionably the Pantheon of Agrippa, built in the time of Au- 
gustus. In spite of much disfigurement received in later times, this 
vast edifice, comprised in its interior within the precincts of one 
majestic circle, and obtaining the light of heaven from the centre 
of its wondrous dome , continues to impress the beholder with un- 
failing, overwhelming effect. Therefore it is that the Pantheon, hav- 
ing survived the period of art's extinction and revival, better re- 
presents the solidity, the daring, and the splendour of Roman archi- 
tecture than the stupendous remains of palace, bath, and circus. 

An important innovation which Plastic Art experiences in the 
latter days of the Roman republic remains to be mentioned. The 
introduction of Eclecticism may be attributed to Pasiteles, a native 
of Southern Italy. It would appear that he had striven, by way of 
protest against the unrest and violence apparent in the works of 
his predecessors of the Rhodian School , to restore to art something 
of her primitive simplicity, and to combine the excellences of the 
older schools while he avoided their errors. His aim was to revert 
to the stern simplicity and thoroughness of the earliest sculptors. 
At the same time he studied nature independently and carefully ; 
while he was not neglectful of the minor graces of his art. Ste- 
phanus was his pupil , whose pupil again was Menelaus, from 
whose chisel we have a group now in the Villa Ludovisi, com- 
monly known as Electra and Orestes. Though the real intention 
of the author will probably never be known, this work serves to 
teach us how earnest was the endeavour, and how happy the result of 
art-study in the school of Pasiteles . It is not, however, given to eclectic 
schools to exercise a powerful or enduring influence. Accordingly 
we find a comparatively small number of works belonging to the 
school of Pasiteles. 

That school of art, too, which was especially encouraged by the 

ANCIENT ART. xxxvii 

Emperor Hadrian, adopting as it did not only Greek but also Egyp- 
tian models, was eclectic in the most extended sense of the word. 
Amongst its better known works is the figure of Hadrian's favourite 
Antinous, in which with undoubted beauty of form is combined a 
somewhat lugubrious solemnity together with a smooth glossy and 
superficial elegance little to the taste of the modern connoisseur. 
Far more attractive are the basreliefs on various public monuments 
— such as the Arch of Titus and Trajan's Column — celebrating 
the triumphs of Roman arms. With Greek artists a characteristic 
mode of representing in relief the triumphs, actual or mythical, 
of their heroes was to express battle by means of isolated groups 
of single combatants. And not only are the more stirring incidents 
of the battle thus signalised. Appeal is made to the gentler emo- 
tions : a dying warrior is carried off the field ; or the victor spares 
the life of a prostrate adversary. For plastic purposes this was 
found to be the most effective mode of representation, serving as 
it does to awaken the interest and rivet the attention of beholders. 
The Assyrians had , however , already executed reliefs in which 
the effect of pitched battle was rendered with more literal accuracy ; 
and that the Greeks, too, could on occasion meet the requirements 
of this more arbitrary taste, we learn from the friezes of the so- 
called Nereid monument discovered in Lycia, where the con- 
tending hosts close with each other in elaborate order of battle. 
The painter, favoured by conditions more submissive to his will, had 
already grouped the combatants in larger and denser masses. How 
admirably they contrived along with the crowd and confusion of 
battle, to give effect to traits of individual heroism and to give to 
single and central figures their appropriate expression , is exem- 
plified in the celebrated mosaic to be seen in Naples of the Battle 
of Alexander, which, there is no doubt, was copied from a painting of 
the period. It may be premised therefore that this condensed and 
elaborated treatment in relief — obviously akin to painting — in 
which the marches, battles, and triumphs, the operations of Roman 
armies and their imperial chiefs, were set forth with the utmost 
attainable accuracy, with all detail of equipment and armament of 
camp and battle-field, was not the newly gathered fruit of Roman in- 
ventiveness , but must rather be ascribed to the age of Alexander 
and his successors. And the same may be assumed of the archi- 
tectural form of these monuments. In Portraits, too, whether of full 
length or only busts, of emperors and empresses, warriors and states- 
men, as of persons of less exalted position, there were not wanting 
impressive examples in Greek art ; and here again Roman taste 
coincides with that of the Diadochan age. It may be conceded, 
however, that owing to the interest long taken in portraiture by the 
Romans and to the attention which this branch of art had so long 
received in Rome and Etruria, it had acquired a more distinctly 
Roman and Italian character , and so had a perceptible influence 

xxxviii ANCIENT ART. 

on Greek artists resident in Rome. Thus is it that portraits of the 
Emperors exhibit a degree of power in execution and expression 
scarcely to be looked for at so late a period. Not unfrequently the 
Emperors were represented in the costume proper to religious cere- 
monies ; or in fashion like to the gods themselves, and invested -with 
their attributes. Most commonly, however, they appear in the 
costume and character of a general in the act of haranguing his 
cohorts. We have striking examples of these imperial portraits in 
the equestrian statue in bronze of Marcus Aurelius on the Capitol, 
and in the marble statue of Augustus in the Vatican. This latter 
gives unmistakable evidence of having been painted. From the 
reliefs on the richly ornamented armour which set forth with due 
regard to historical accuracy the more conspicuous and familiar in- 
cidents of a reign especially favoured by the gods, we are justified 
in the conclusion that this figure was executed about the year 17 
B.C. In his treatment of the female figure, too, whether seated or 
standing , the sculptor knew how to impart a distinguished and 
imposing view by a sumptuous arrangement of the drapery. There is 
a peculiar gratification in finding, after a caTeful study of these 
portraits — many of them of personages famous in history — an exterior 
so closely corresponding to the picture of the historian. Many of the 
heads, indeed, which thus impress the beholder have not been identi- 
fied. In portraiture, the Greek sculptor adopted the Hermean form, 
while the work of the Roman is recognised almost infallibly in the bust 
form. The latter largely preponderate, although amongst the collective 
works of sculpture preserved, the Greek element is considerably in 
excess of the Roman. An attentive observer will not fail to mark 
this distinction , and learn also to detect the handiwork of the 
modern restorer which too often disfigures these antique marbles. 

The same tendency which led the wealthy citizens of Rome to 
adopt the literature and culture of Greece was observable in the taste 
displayed in the works of art they chose for the decoration of their 
palaces and villas, whether executed in Rome itself or in Greece. 
In other respects they appear to have been attracted by the same 
objects of interest as English collectors of the present day. Antique 
art taken as a whole would probably fail to interest the average 
man of rank, unless it were associated with some historical inci- 
dent, some names of renown, or some startling anecdote. But of 
such works as the figures of the Three Graces in bas-relief (though 
rigid in execution") which the ciceroni of the Acropolis shew as the 
work of Socrates, and the group of Harmodius and Aristoyiton, the 
Tyrant slayers, in the market place of Athens, of archaic antiquity 
which had been carried off by Xerxes and restored to its wonted place 
by Alexander : — of works such as these copies at least would be in 
request. The powerful development displayed in the figures of Po- 
lycletus, and the action expressed in those of Myron, appear to have 
possessed greater attractions for the Romans than the works of Phi- 

ANCIEN ART. xxxix 

dias. Numbers of statues belonging to the Periclean age have come 
to light in Rome, replicas for the most part of Victors in the Games 
and of Amazons. Figures of the Gods, with few exceptions, belong 
to a later period. The most numerous, and also very charming, were 
the graceful forms of more recent Attic art, represented by Praxiteles 
and his compeers ; also the elegant and animated creations of the 
Lysippian and post-Lysippian schools. It is hardly conceivable that 
in the museums of Rome, filled as they are with works of sculpture 
collected on the spot, no original works are to be found. Assuredly 
there has been a time when they have not been wanting in Rome: 
and it seems improbable that one and all should have been lost 
in the devastation which has more than once made wreck of the 
Eternal City. Certain it is , however , that the greater part of what 
we now see are either replicas or copies. This fact is determined 
by the material. The great statues of Phidias and Praxiteles set 
apart for the temples were of gold and ivory, while Polycletus and 
Lysippus worked in bronze. In Attica, too, this costly material was 
preferred by the earlier sculptors. It was only by degrees that 
marble came into use for groups as well as single figures. The 
'Discus thrower' of Myron, as well as the groups of Marsyas 
and Athena were originally in bronze. In the Palazzo Massimi 
alle Colonne there is to be seen a striking figure readily recogni- 
sed as that of Myron's 'Discus thrower', but it is in marble. In 
like manner the Marsyas in the Lateran is of marble, and so also is 
the Apoxyomenus in the Vatican museum. Just as we moderns 
delight in the copy or engraving of some celebrated picture, the 
amateur of old gave his commission for the copy of some favourite 
statue, to be executed in bronze, or, more frequently, in marble. 
At any rate comparatively few works in bronze, of importance in 
point of size, are preserved. It was not enough to have simply 
repeated the celebrities of sculpture. The artists of the so-called 
New Attic School, which flourished in the last centuryB.C, we find 
reproducing the works of their predecessors very effectively with 
such departures from the original as are to be seen in a more arti- 
ficial and highly wrought arrangement of drapery, a more decorative 
rendering of the detail generally, and an attempt to impart increased 
animation to the figure as a whole. Such piracies, when tolerably 
successful , became in their turn models for numerous imitations. 
The results of this process aTe exactly what the connoisseur will 
be prepared to find , and such as present themselves in the collec- 
tions of antique art in Rome. He must not expect to find himself in 
the presence of the simplicity and directness as well as grandeur of 
aim characteristic of Greek art in her loftiest moods : but rather of 
her attenuation in the shape of imitations and adaptations, the 
growth of thelmperial age. Antique art, however, exhibits through- 
out its career an astonishing vitality and continuity. The spirit of 
the Greek is mighty even in expiring: and nowhere can the course 


of her marvellous development be studied with the same complete- 
ness as in Rome. 

Monumental works, inconspicuous and unfamiliar as they so of- 
ten are, appeal less powerfully to the imagination than statuary, 
where dazzling beauty enthrals the senses. These monuments, 
however, will have a charm of their own for the discriminating 
observer. In the Egyptian department of the Vatican he can con- 
template the relics of a primaeval antiquity, while in the Gregorian 
Museum he is reminded of the mysterious Etruscans. It will be 
interesting to compare the attitude and proportions of Egyptian 
with Graeco-Roman figures , and to discover in the Sphinxes of the 
Villa Albani, in the Lions by the approach to the Capitol, as well 
as in the numerous obelisks , to he seen in the piazzas of Rome, 
evidence of the mastery acquired by the Egyptian in Art. And their 
works were in the Roman's eye fitting objects wherewith to celebrate 
his triumphs, and adorn the capital of an empire including within 
its far reaching hounds people of almost every race and climate. 

In the Gregorian Museum the portrait busts in terracotta by the 
Etruscans exhibit a mode of expressing individuality peculiar to 
themselves; the bronze vessels display that skill in the working of 
metals for which they had long been famous; while the large copies 
of mural paintings which adorned the tombs bring to light the method 
of painting as practised by the Etruscan as well as , in the choice 
of subject, their preference for scenes of sensualism and bloodshed. 

Here, too, is to be seen a collection of Painted Greek Vases ex- 
ceedingly rich and beautiful, discove ed, it is true, in Etruria, but, 
as is evident from the subjects represented, from the drawing, but 
chiefly from the inscriptions, imported from Greece — the greater 
part indeed from Athens. It is not difficult to distinguish those speci- 
mens, which, though borrowed from the Greeks, were of Etruscan 
manufacture. They are inferior in taste and execution, as well as 
in design and modelling, and are not to be mistaken for the work 
of artists. But the Greek vases themselves vary in character; those 
for instance having the black figures on a red ground being of earlier 
date than those showing the reverse arrangement of these colours. 
Nevertheless the painters of these vases, mere handicraftsmen as we 
must suppose them to havebeen, could render mythological subjects, 
and scenes of everyday life, with a vivacity and poetry of conception ■ 
they knew so well how to draw, and, with means and resources 

necessarily very limited, were so far masters of expression, that 

despised though they may he by the superficial and ignorant they 

bear not only remarkable testimony to the quality of workmanship 
then prevailing in Attica, but afford a glimpse at the art of their day 
in Athens as seen through the eyes of these unpretending artificers. 

Finally there remain to be noticed the Sarcophagi, which vari- 
ously ornamented with reliefs, are to be seen in museum, in villa 
and in palace court. The only specimen preserved to us from the old 


Roman time is the Sarcophagus of L. Cornelius Scipio Barbatus in 
the Museum of the Vatican. It resembles an altar both in shape and 
style of ornamentation, and is almost the counterpart of one still 
standing in Pompeii. It is only consistent with the then prevailing 
religious rites that sepulchral monuments should have been thus 
architectural in character. In Greece itself this was conspicuously 
the case: all sarcophagi which have been discovered within the con- 
fines of Geece proper showing a distinctly architectural treatment. 
The Roman sarcophagi combine much that is essentially Greek with 
adaptations from the funeral urns of Etruria. They give signs, how- 
ever, of an independent development, and although including a di- 
versity of shapes and decoration , have for the most part their bas- 
reliefs arranged on the front and sides (and, where extraordinary rich- 
ness of effect was desiderated, on the back also) as a frieze or band. 
One naturally endeavours to trace in the decoration bestowed on 
these repositories of the dead, some indication of their purpose. In 
many instances, however, it is evident, that appropriateness of design, 
if originally acknowledged as indispensable, was presently lost in a 
promiscuously lavish decoration. Certainly there is no obscurity in 
such allusions to the goal of life as we discover in Cupids rowing te 
the lighthouse tower, or when we see them careering round the goal in 
the circus. In such symbolical figures as those of the seasons we are 
taught to reflect on the inevitable course of creation, existence, and 
decay succeeding to maturity. AsHylas is borne away by the Nymphs, 
and Ganymede by the eagle, so we may fancy the soul begrudged 
from its earthly existence. Hippolytus may serve to recal the virtues 
of such as came to an untimely end, Niobe, the grief of the survivors ; 
sleeping Cupids may symbolise sleep favoured by the Gods, while 
Ariadne discovered by Dionysus, Endymion visited by Selene 
present death itself as but sleep in unfamiliar guise. On the 
other hand scenes of Bacohanalian revelry can hardly be accepted as 
allusions to the future state ; and even in a less degree are Nereids 
and Medeahs , and more of the like, in bas-relief, capable of such 
interpretation: and rarely, too, does any reference of a distinctly per- 
sonal character go beyond a mere vague allusion to life and death. 
It is tolerably certain that these sarcophagi were made in large 
numbers, in advance of immediate requirements. A somewhat extra- 
ordinary expedient for introducing a reference to particular indi- 
viduals, was that of bestowing the lineaments of the departed upon 
such heroes of mythology as were made to figure in these reliefs. 
Thus it is we find portraits of the deceased in such mythical per- 
sonages as Admetus and Alcestis, in Hippolytus, and, what is more 
remarkable, in Phsedra herself. In a considerable number of cases 
these reliefs are almost identical, and are evidently made after one 
model, with such modifications as might be effected by the intro- 
duction or omission of single figures or groups, showing nevertheless 
more or less of artistic intelligence and resource. They form a 


group displaying the established forms and traditional models, 
which in respect of means of expression and motive are the 
worthy inheritance of Greek art at its best. Yet these sarcophagi, 
regarded even as Roman works, aTe by no means of early origin. It 
must not, however, be forgotten in estimating the quality of work 
bestowed upon the sarcophagus, that it was not intended to be 
closely inspected by the light of day, but would be consigned to the 
twilight of the tomb, where a stray gleam of light might but for 
a moment reveal its detail. Hence, in the execution of these Teliefs 
the object was to give prominence to leading features, without an 
overscrupulous nicety of finish , and this end has been attained 
with a success worthy of all admiration. It has been ascertained 
beyond doubt, that the introduction of the sarcophagus as described 
above was coeval with a mode of burial which became the fashion 
in Imperial times ; otherwise the artistic merits of these monuments 
might well have misled us in computing their age. The great 
majority of Roman sarcophagi belong to the 2nd and 3rd centuries 
after Christ, and to an even later period. 

The Early Christian Sarcophagi simply repeat and perpetuate 
preceding pagan models. It is a peculiar coincidence that these in- 
conspicuous memorials should have contributed to the revival of art 
in the middle ages. Niccolo Pisano found a fertile source of inspi- 
ration in the Roman sarcophagi of the Campo Santo in Pisa ; nor 
did Peruzzi and Raphael disdain to use them as models. 

With this passing glance at the homage thus done by Raphael and 
his compeers to the art of antiquity, these pages may fitly conclude. 
The endeavour has not been to fetter the judgment of the reader, 
but rather so to direct his observation and stimulate his interest as 
to give him that self-reliance which alone will arouse in him an 
intelligent interest, and afford him a genuine pleasure in what 
be sees. To praise the creations of great artists in empty or mere 
conventional phrase would simply offend. They alone will exper- 
ience the full measure of delight to be derived from the contem- 
plation of these treasures , who rely upon their own judgment and 
cultivate to the utmost the delicacy of their perceptions. 

Roman Art, 



Prof. A. Springer of Leipsic. 

Rome as Mistress of the world became the centre of contempora- 
neous culture. Art had found with her a new term : and Greece as 
fitting tribute to the conqueror laid at her feet the accumulated 
wealth of ages — the treasures of her art, which long had embodied 
the loftiest conception of the beautiful. 

Her supremacy secured, Rome became the chief resort of artists, 
and their liberal patron . She dictated the tone, alike in taste and 
fashion , and determined the destinies of art. Down to mediaeval 
times Rome continued to receive the proud title of 'Caput mundi'. 
Presently, however, she laid claim to supremacy in another realm 
than that of art; and this latter, as the ancient traditions 
were gradually outlived, finally fell into neglect. In more recent, 
as in former times Rome has failed to create for herself, as the out- 
come of her individuality, an art peculiar to and a part of herself. 
Her destiny seems to have been to gather from external sources 
the wealth in which she revelled, with the difference that while 
ancient Rome furnished nothing beyond a magnificent arena for 
the art of her day, in later times the artist found in Rome herself 
his sources of inspiration , compelled as he was to contemplate 
perfection reflected in the dazzling mirror of antique art. Ten 
centuries , however , elapsed ere Rome resumed this proud pre- 
eminence. A glance may now be directed to the interval between 
the fall of old Rome and the period when , animated with a new 
life, Rome drew to herself the foremost representatives of the 
Renaissance, to whom she afforded inspiration for their grandest 
efforts. It is not, however, the 16th century, not the glories of 
the Renaissance, that give to the Rome of our day her distinctive 
character, but rather the new and imposing exterior which she re- 
ceived at the hand of her architects in the 17th century. The mind 
must be disenchanted before the veil can be penetrated and the 
Rome of antiquity adequately comprehended. 

The protracted suspension of all activity in art makes it appa- 
rent that Roman art has a history distinct from Italian art. For 

xliv ROMAN ART. 

several centuries the towns of Tuscany were the principal abodes of 
a natural art life. But just as in Rome Italian art achieved its 
most signal triumphs in the persons of Raphael and Michael Angelo 
and the masters of that period : so in Roman ground we find that Chris- 
tian art first took root and attained to its most important dimen- 
sions. In Rome then we find the strongest inducements as well as 
the richest opportunity for the study of Early Christian Art. 

In the 4th century heathendom, long tottering to its fall, was, in 
appearance at least, absorbed in the younger Christian world. A new 
era in art is inaugurated. Not that we are to assume the simulta- 
neous extinction of the pagan art of ancient Rome , nor that it was 
at once superseded by an altogether new style provided as it were 
for the emergency. The eye and hand are to a greater extent crea- 
tures of habit than the mind. New views and altered conceptions 
of the Supreme Being as well as of the destiny of man found 
acceptance. But to embody them the artist had to resort to the old 
established forms. Then heathen rules were by no means uni- 
formly hostile to Christianity (the period of bitterest persecution 
began with the 3rd century A. D.); and that the new doctrine 
should have expanded and taken root, should have been permitted 
to organise itself in the very midst of heathen society , is evidence 
that it was received even with favour. 

As a consequence of these conditions it will be observed that 
the art of the early Christians presents no remarkable con- 
trast to that which precedes it, and that they were content to adopt 
and perpetuate the traditions of the antique. The Roman Cata- 
combs afford abundant proof of this. Encircling the city as with 
a subterranean trench, they were originally far from being what 
they subsequently became — secret, carefully concealed places of 
refuge for the early Christians; but rather their regularly ordained 
and publicly accessible places of burial (e. g. the Catacomb of Nico- 
medus and that of Flavia Domitilla), and were first designedly con- 
signed to darkness and concealment during the 3rd century, a period 
of constantly recurring persecution. The Christian community, 
reared as it was in the midst of Roman paganism, probably did 
not dream of subverting the principles of antique art. In the adorn- 
ment of the Catacombs they retain the types transmitted to them • 
so also in the particulars of drawing and colour the precedent of 
the Antique is closely followed. Christ represented as the Good 
Shepherd, Orpheus as the symbol of Christ, and evidences of the long 
standing repugnance to any rendering of the Passion-history, afford 
proofs of the readiness to accept the art heritage of their precursors 
The older these catacomb paintings are the more closely they ap- 
proximate to the types of antiquity. Even the Sarcophagus 
Sculpture of the 4th and 5th centuries differs in purpose only not in 
technical rendering of form, from the typical reliefs found on pagan 
tombs. It was only in the latter half of the 6th century that a 


new style declared itself in painting which like other branches of 
plastic art had more or less fallen into a state of decay meanwhile. 
Architecture adapted itself to the exigencies of Christian worship, 
and in allying itself to the new architectural forms, painting 
acquires a new character. 

The term Basilica is understood to apply to Christian temples 
up to the 10th century. The subsequent belief that a more inti- 
mate relation than that suggested by a common name subsisted 
between these early Christian edifices and the forensic Basilica 
of ancient Rome, was altogether an erroneous one. The latter 
were in fact the Roman courts of law and places of public meet- 
ing. They had a place in most of the towns of the Roman em- 
pire and were erected in the forum, but have nothing, whether of 
origin or form , essentially in common with the early Christian 
temple or church. These forensic basilicas were not adapted to 
purposes of Christian worship , nor did the old Roman basilica 
serve as a model for the building of Christian places of worship. 
In proof of the one assertion may be adduced the fact that the 
forensic basilicas at the end of the 4th century retained intact 
their original destination , and in individual cases have been 
restored; while the other will be justified by an unprejudiced exam- 
ination of the various parts of the Christian basilicas , which 
give evidence of having sprung from another source than that of 
the old Roman basilica. Neither did the Temple of antiquity fur- 
nish the model for churches built by the early Christians. The 
church of SS. Cosma e Damiano, of the 6th century, is the earliest 
example of a pagan temple applied to Christian use. The Chris- 
tian basilica may be said rather to have grown out of the Roman 
dwelling-house, where at first the community was in the habit 
of assembling. The plan for future ecclesiastical edifices was 
acquired by simply extending the proportions of the dwelling-house. 
The church of S. Clemente in Rome is relatively the most perfect 
example existing of the architectural properties and internal arran- 
gement of the early Christian basilica. A small portico supported 
by pillars leads to the outer court (of riurri), enclosed by a colonnade 
and having in its midst a fountain (cantharus). The eastern colon- 
nade leads into the interior of the church which was usually divi- 
ded into three aisles. Two rows of columns divide the side aisles 
from the loftier one in the centre known as the nave ; the nave 
and aisles abut upon a half circle or apse. At right angles to 
these aisles, between them and the apse , was sometimes inter- 
posed a third space — the transept; the altar stood within the apse 
and apart beneath a canopy supported by pillars , and in its front, 
enclosed by rails or cancelli, was the choir for the officiating priests 
and two pulpits (ambones), one used for reading the Gospel, the other 
the Epistles. In marked contrast to the temple of antiquity, little 
care was bestowed upon the external architecture of these early 

xlvi ROMAN ART. 

Christian basilicas , the most impressive effect being reserved for 
the interior. And to this end, especially in earlier medisval times, 
a ready expedient for supplying decorative material was adopted in 
the plunder of the monuments of antiquity. Columns were carried 
off and set up in Christian churches without regard to congruity 
of material or consistency of style. Thus in the churches of 
8. Maria in Trastevere and S. Lorenzo Fuori le Mura are to be seen 
pillars of different material and workmanship. The churches of 
$. Sabina, S. Maria Maggiore and others give evidence of similar 
depredations. Crosses and lustres in metal , tapestries bestowed by 
papal piety contributed to the ornate effect of these interiors. But 
the principal decorative feature were the pictures in mosaic which 
covered the recess of the apse in particular as well as the arch which 
connected the apse with the nave (the Triumphal Arch). These 
Mosaic Pictures, as far , at least, as the material was concerned, 
demanded a novel artistic treatment , massive and monumental in 
character. In them we find the traditions of antiquity abandoned, 
giving place to a style which from its harshness as well as austere 
solemnity of conception has been confounded with the Byzantine 
style. In reality the art was of indigenous growth; and its salient 
characteristic may be denned as the substitution of the real for the 
symbolical in general treatment. Now for the first time the pop- 
ular mind became thoroughly imbued with ecclesiastical senti- 
ment, of which the crucified Saviour was the chief embodiment. 
The oldest mosaics , composed of glass cubes , are to be seen in 
the church of 8. Pudenziana. They date from the 4th century 
like those in S. Costanza and the Baptistery of Naples ; while those 
in >S. Maria Maggiore and S. Sabina belong to the 5th century. 
The mosaics in SS. Cosma e Damiano in the Forum (526-30) may 
be pronounced as the most beautiful. 

The rudiments of Christian art are to be found in Rome ; but 
its further development was promoted in an equal degree by other 
Italian states. Building was still active in the 9th century , while 
the Popes, especially Leo III. , of the 7th and 8th centuries 
did good service in church decoration. But during this period 
there is no evidence either of progress or continuous develop- 
ment in the Mosaic art and as little in architecture itself. The 
experiment (as seen in 8. Prassede, 9th century) of combining piers 
with the pillars of the nave as a support to the walls and of con- 
necting these with transverse arches was not repeated. Finally it 
may be said of the Mosaics ($. Prassede, SS. Nereo ed Achilleo 
S. Marco), that, while they bear a superficial resemblance to the 
works of the 5th and 6th centuries, they show unmistakable signs of 
corruption and decline. This may be accounted for to some extent 
by the evil times which had fallen upon Rome since the 9th century 
culminating in a conflagration • — the work of an incendiary Guis- 
cardo — which laid waste the entire southern quarter of the city 

ROMAN ART. xlvii 

extending from the Forum to the Lateran and to the slopes of the 
Esquiline. The chief employment of the architect was the con- 
struction of fortified towers and places of strength rendered neces- 
sary hy the ceaseless warring of factions within the city. In 1257 
Brancaleoni demolished 140 of these strongholds, the majority of 
which had been erected on the ruins of some monument or other of 
antiquity. The most striking example of the rudeness of early 
mediaeval architecture is to be seen in the Casa di Pilato or di 
Rienzi. Built by one Nicolao , son of Crescentius (probably in the 
12th century), its chief ornamentation consists of marble fragments 
apparently picked up at random and put together in the wildest 

At the close of the 12th century brighter days dawned for 
Roman art. 'Magister Romanus' now became a title which the 
artist was proud to append to his surname. A speciality in decora- 
tive art appeared in Rome about this time which did not connect 
itself, it is true, with the traditions of antique art, though ready 
to utilise its material, without, however, resort to the depredations 
of a bygone age. And material was still at hand in richest abun- 
dance, in an endless array of shattered marbles. These were divided 
and subdivided, cut or sawn into minute slabs, arranged in patterns, 
enlivened by the introduction of stained glass and gold leaf, pre- 
senting as a whole a richly coloured decorative effect. These marble 
mosaics adorn the flooring of churches, altar sides, episcopal chairs, 
pulpits, and doorways ; they enliven monumental sculpture, they 
fill the flutings of the elegantly twisted columns which bore the 
Easter candles or adorn the entablature of cloistered courts. This 
art became the monopoly of particular families and was regularly 
transmitted from generation to generation. The monumental 
marbles of this time are generally known as Cosmato Wokk, a name 
derived from two members of a family thus privileged. Such work 
is frequently to be met with in Rome. Conspicuous among the 
mosaic floorings are those of S. Maria Maggiore, 8. Maria in Tras- 
tevere, and 8. Lorenzo Fuori le Mura (12th century). S. Clemente 
and S. Giorgio possess altar tabernacles of Cosmato work and 8. 
Lorenzo the finest example in its pulpit. Of similar work in cloisters 
(S. Sabina, Lateran) the best specimen is in the convent of S. Paolo 
(13th century). Cosmato work is not infrequently found elsewhere 
than in Rome. It is uncertain how far this Roman work is connected 
with kindred examples to be met with in Southern Italy. In tech- 
nical detail some differences are to be detected, such as the more 
copious use of the glass pastes by the artists of the South. On the 
other hand we fancy that the identity of pattern in the mosaics of 
theCappella Palatina in Palermo with those of S. Lorenzo cannot be 

Along with this decorative mosaic work , the Mosaic Painting 
of apse and choir- arch had since the 12th century successfully 

xlviii ROMAN ART. 

asserted itself. That impress of the antique borne by the early 
Christian mosaics is gone ; the drawing has lost its incisiveness as 
well as its traditional typical character, and in lieu of this, receives 
a new and more lively impulse from colour and wealth of ornament. 
The mosaics in front of the church of S. Maria in Trastevere, in 
the apse of S. Clemente (12th century), those in the altar-tribune of 
the Lateran (13th century) and finally those in the apse of S. Maria 
Maggiore , the work of Jacobus Torriti in 1295 , are examples of 
this mosaic painting. — Wall-Painting also came once more into 
use as we see from paintings discovered in 1858 in the lower 
church of <S. Clemente — that basilica which in 1 108 was lost by a new 
structure being built upon it. — And, if church-architecture was con- 
fined to the rehabilitating of older edifices or the mere reproduction 
of earlier types , the numerous Belfries (the best is that of 8. 
Maria in Cosmediri) show an abundant fertility of resource in the 
architects of that period. They tower aloft, story upon story follow- 
ing in light and airy succession, relieved by flights of slender pillars, 
and stand, eloquent tributes to the genius of mediaeval Rome. 

The condition of art in Rome , however (particularly in the 
14th century), was far behind that of Tuscany. While in Tuscany 
popular forces directed by the municipalities provided an ample field 
for the cultivation of artistic tastes , Rome was distracted by the 
incessant war of factions and families , or the quarrels of the 
popes. Strangers were invited to execute works which where beyond 
the ordinary resources of art as it then existed in Rome. Dominican 
Friars introduced Gothic architecture into Rome — Fra Ristoro, 
Fra Sisto are probably the builders of the church of S. Maria sopra 
Minerva — and Giotto (chief of the Florentine school) was summoned 
to Rome during the pontificate of Boniface VIII. , and at the in- 
stance of his patron Cardinal Gaetano Stefaneschi, to execute a 
mosaic (Navicella) for the Porch of St. Peter's , and to paint a 
Oi&077«m(inpart preserved in the Sacristy of St. Peter's); probably 
also to execute a commission from the Pope, to represent the pro- 
clamation of the Jubilee of the year 1300. Of Giotto's Roman con- 
temporary Pietro Cavallini we have unfortunately no certain 

It was not until the return of the Popes from their exile at 
Avignon, when Italians held exclusive possession of St. Peter's 
chair, and aimed at supremacy amongst the secular powers of the 
peninsula ; when the Humanists acquired their shortlived ascen- 
dency at the Papal court — that Roman art first approaches its 
maturity. Rome indeed had no direct share in the creation of the 
Renaissance. To Florence belongs the exclusive and imperishable 
renown of this achievement. On the other hand it must not be for- 
gotten how powerful an impression the spectacle of the mighty relics 
of antiquity must have made upon the receptive minds of the first 
Humanists, exciting their emulation and inciting to a more reverent 

ROMAN ART. xlix 

study of the Antique; neither must it be forgotten that by study of 
old Roman artBrunelleschi and Donatello became familiar with those 
forms in which they were wont to express their artist ical thought, 
and so were led to new and unexplored paths in the realm of art. 

Once more Rome occupies a foremost place in the history of art 
when Pope Nicholas V. (1447-1455), a Humanist, vies with the 
Medici in his passion for books and building. He is bent upon a re- 
novation of the Vatican Quarter; his ambition is to erect a papal 
residence of surpassing splendour; nay, he entertains designs on 
the St. Peter's pile itself and contemplates its reconstruction. The 
most imposing work of this period was the Venetian Palace begun by 
PietroBarbo(1455), afterwards Pope Paul II., which, like the Albergo 
dell' Orso recently as it were again discovered, is to a great extent 
mediaeval in character. Leon Battista Alberti, who resided in Rome 
about this time and died there in 1472, is supposed to have furnish- 
ed the plans for this palace. 

So far indeed had the fostering of art become obligatory on the 
occupants of the papal chair, that they could not neglect this 
function without forfeiting their individual influence, and impairing 
the dignity of their office. The right powers were not, however, 
immediately at hand, which should give effect to the building pro- 
jects of these Sovereign Pontiffs, enamoured as they were of splen- 
dour in every shape. The architect who during the pontificate of 
Sixtus IV. (1471-1484) was most employed, Baccio Pintelli, was 
a practitioner of moderate skill, and far behind the great Florentines 
of his day. The building of S. Agostino and S. Pietro in Montoriu, 
as well as the facades of 88. Apostoli and 8. Pietro in \incoli were 
from his plans. His most celebrated work is the Popes' private 
Chapel in the Vatican , called after the Pope Sixtus the Sistine 
Chapel, which owes its chief attractions far less to its architectural 
merits, than to the artistic decoration of wall and ceiling. 

Abundant employment together with the favour which artists 
found with dignitaries of the Church had already allured numerous 
Tuscan and Umbrian Painters to Rome. Amongst those thus engag- 
ed in beautifying the churches of Rome and the Vatican Palace we 
meet such Florentine celebrities as Maestri Sandro Botticelli, Filip- 
pino Lippi, Domenico Ohirlandajo, Cosimo Rosselli; and from the 
Umbrian School the immediate forerunner of Michael Angelo , bold 
Luca Signorelli, along with Perugino and Pinturicchio. An attempt 
is made to found an Academy, or Guild of St. Luke at Rome. Amongst 
its members we find (1494) Melozzo da Forli, the painter of a fresco 
(transferred to canvas) in the Vatican Gallery , representing the 
foundation of the Vatican library. — The execution of the Wall 
Paintings in the Sistine Chapel, by order of Sixtus IV., was a moment- 
ous event in a time prolific in art enterprise. In accordance with the 
then prevailing point of view the acts of Moses are represented as 
symbolically parallel to those of Christ. On the left wall are incidents 

Baedekek. Italy II. 8th Edit. d 


in the life of Moses by Botticelli, Rosselli, Signorelli, on the right 
wall events in the life of Christ by Botticelli, Rosselli, Ghirlandajo, 
and Perugino. Those lovers of art who are unable to visit Florence 
before going to Rome are recommended to make these wall paintings 
their especial study. They will learn from them to appreciate the 
descriptive power of the Florentines and will be familiarised with 
the field subsequently occupied by the heroes of Italian Art. 

Tuscan Sculptors , too , find their way frequently to Rome 
and are constantly employed either as workers in bronze or marble. 
Little attention seems , however, to have been paid to the former. 
The great bronze doors of St. Peter, the joint work of Filarete 
and Simone, are interesting Tather from the wealth of mythological 
imagery with which they are embellished , than from their artistic 
pretensions, which will not compare with those of Ghiberti's famous 
gates. So much the more powerfully does the sculptor appeal to us 
in marble. A taste for profusion and splendour of monumental de- 
coration in adorning the tombs, which fact declares itself in the 15th 
century — a result probably of that thirst for fame which is identi- 
fied with the Renaissance — gave the sculptor unceasing opportunity 
for the exercise of his art, particularly in its purely decorative phases. 
There is scarcely a single church of a certain date which does not 
contain sepulchral monuments from the close of the 15th century. 
The church of S. Maria del Popolo possesses the largest number. 
These monuments — perfected in Florence and probably naturalised 
in Rome by Mino da Fiesole — are nearly uniform, viz. a sarcopha- 
gus surmounted by a statue of the deceased, and supported by a 
pedestal ornamented with a garland of fruit and flowers, and 
genii. A niche or panelled screen finished with a medallion of the 
Madonna form the usual background. The majority of these sculp- 
tures cannot be traced to any particular artist. It would appear 
indeed that the sarcophagi, as with the ancient Romans, were rather 
articles of manufacture than works of art, made wholesale fashion 
after some favourite pattern and bought 'ready made', a com- 
mission being given to the sculptor for a portrait of the deceased 
to which would be added the armorial bearings with inscription. 

Whoever might have visited Rome in the earlier years of the 
16th century would have found himself in the presence of an in- 
tense movement in the art world ; he would have found Archi- 
tect, Sculptor and Painter alike occupied with projects of more or 
less grandeur. So far, however, Rome did not in this respect sur- 
pass the other chief towns of Italy ; so far art had not assumed that 
particular form of life and direction which only the atmosphere of 
Rome could sustain, or which the genius of the Vatican alone could 
quicken — during the Pontificate of Julius II. (1503-1513) where 
the golden era of Roman art began, this consummation was actu- 
ally achieved. 

To Julius belongs the glory of having associated with Rome three 


names, Bramante, Michael Angelo, Raphael, everlasting beacons in 
the path of art — three men who in the course of the 16th century 
(cinquecento) raised modern art to its loftiest pitch of splendour. 
His successor Leo X. (1513-1522) of the house of Medici owes 
it to his lineage only that he should have transmitted to posterity so 
splendid a reputation, — that his name should be associated insepa- 
rably with the greatest triumphs of art in modern times. Leo X. 
inherited the well-earned fame of his predecessor, but knew not how 
either to value or to use his inheritance aright. It was not given him 
to sway the imperious temper of Michael Angelo, nor fully to com- 
prehend the mighty schemes of Bramante. The latter's chief work, 
the rebuilding of St. Peter's, can be adequately studied only in the 
collection of original drawings in Florence which set forth the gran- 
deur of Bramante's designs in all their completeness ; for so many 
different hands were employed in giving effect to these, that little 
remains of the original plan. Happily this little, viz. the dome with 
the overwhelming impression of vastness it conveys, is of the very 
best. Bramante contemplated a central structure in the form of a 
Greek cross, rounded at its extremities, which, crowned by a gigantic 
dome, should present an ensemble at once simple and majestic. 
Succeeding generations have failed to embody Bramante's ideal. 
His career, extending probably from 1444 to 1514, is involved in ob- 
scurity. Of his works, Rome possesses numerous examples. The cir- 
cular chapel in the monastery of S. Pietro in Montorio , the court 
of S. Maria delta Pace, the arcades in the first court of the Vatican 
(Cortile di S. Damaso), the Palazzo Oiraud and above all the Cancel- 
leria are perfect examples of Renaissance. 

We are wont to wonder at the profusion and splendour, too, of 
works to which the cinquecento gave birth. How much richer, how 
much more splendid would have been this profusion , had only 
these works been carried out as originally designed by the artist's 
creative genius ! 

The same fatality which pursued Bramante's mightiest projects 
served to mar Michael Angelo's (1475-1564) supreme effort in the 
realm of Plastic Art. The Tomb of Julius II., begun while that 
pope was still living, was to consist of a large detached edifice with 
statues of Moses, St. Paul, and other colossal figures at its projecting 
angles, and ranged along its wall the naked forms of men in chain?. 
The work, however, soon came to a standstill, and at last, 30 years 
after its commencement (1545), it was placed in the church of 
S. Pietro in Vincoli where it now stands, deplorably, a mere fragment 
of the original design. Its most striking feature is the tremendous 
figure of Moses, rising in wrathful indignation at the worship of the 
golden calf, to denounce the idolatry of the Israelites. In addition 
to the Moses, Rome contains two conspicuous works from the hand 
of Michael Angelo : thePieta, badly placed in one of the chapels in 
St. Peter's, and the Statue of Christ in S. Maria sopra Minerva. The 



former surpasses all other efforts of the great sculptor in the deli- 
cacy of its modelling as well as in the force with which it appeals 
to human sympathies. 

As Fbesco Paintek. Michael Angelo figures exclusively in 
Home. Tradition tells us how loathe he was to exchange the 
chisel for the brush, when at the behest of the imperious Julius II. 
he undertook the decoration in fresco of the ceiling of the Sixtine 
Chapel. These frescoes are nevertheless the most important of Mi- 
chael Angelo's contributions to art. They afford a wider field for 
the exercise of his creative power than sculpture, where plastic 
forms, unequal as they are to the demands of his prolific genius, be- 
tray him into exaggeration. These frescoes of Michael Angelo are 
closely akin to the wall paintings of Florentine and Umbrian artists 
at the close of the lf)th century, in which the deliverer of the Israelites 
is made to prefigure the Saviour of mankind. How salvation came 
to the world, and how proclaimed, is the theme which Michael 
Angelo undertakes to illustrate. In the centre piece is depicted the 
Creation, the history of Adam and of Noah ; how sin came into the 
world , but with sin the promise of redemption. Forecasting all 
this we next see the figures of Prophets and Sibyls. In the mar- 
ginal pictures we see continued reference to the Redemption , in 
the various deliverances of the Jewish people (the brazen serpent, 
David and Goliath, the fate of Haman, and Judith), in conformity 
with medieval conceptions, together with symbols of the Redemption. 
Connecting themselves with the above are the groups occupying the 
lunettes, pourtraying expectation, the anguish of suspense, and con- 
trition, which include at once matters of fact and a twofold allusion 
to the vicissitudes of the Israelites and the events of our Saviour's 
life (progenitors of Christ and Jews captive in Babylon). The sub- 
limity of the work is to be attributed veTy much to the skill with 
which mere matters of fact are everywhere subordinated to 
the claims of individual action as well as artistic purpose. Moreover 
Michael Angelo has contrived so to dispose the various portions of 
his vast work, ascending by figures , single and in groups, from the 
simply decorative margin to the crowning effort in the centre, so to 
adapt them to the place they occupy, that the entire work becomes 
architecturally, so to speak, self-supporting; while the compo- 
sition as a whole is wielded with a wealth of resources together 
with a power of organisation such as no other artist has attained to. 
The thoughtful beholder will not confine himself exclusively to the 
study of the central pictures. The figures in monochrome and minor 
decorations are replete with a beauty peculiar to themselves. 

Of the '■Last Judgment', painted by Michael Angelo at a much 
later period(1541), it is difficult, owing to its dilapidated condition 
to form an accurate estimate. The unerring audacity, however 
with which figure and group alike are thrown into every conceivable 
attitude and movement, must command a mute and amazed attention. 

ROMAN ART. liii 

With the names of Bramante and Michael Angelo is associated 
that of Raphael (1483-1520), whose youthful genius had very 
early declared itself, firstin Perugia and later in Florence. In Rome 
are to be seen interesting mementoes of both these periods. In the 
Coronation of the Virgin in the Vatican Gallery we see him still in 
the trammels of the Umbrian School; the effects of his Florentine 
training are visible in his Entombment of Christ in the Borghese 
Gallery (belonging to later periods are the so called Fornarina in 
the Barberini Gallery , the Violin Player in the Palazzo Sciarra, 
Navagero and Beazzano in the Doria Gallery, the Madonna di Fo- 
ligno, and the Transfiguration, the master's last work, both in the 
Vatican Gallery). The majority of Raphael's easel pictures are to 
be found elsewhere than in Rome. 

But in Rome only could Raphael have found a field suited to 
the exercise of his highest powers in Fresco Painting. The 
mural paintings in the state apartments of the Popes in the Vatican 
palace must first be noticed. In order rightly to appreciate these, 
it must not on the one hand be forgotten that fresco painting 
never completely loses its decorative character ; nor on the other 
must the peculiar position of the Pontificate in the beginning of 
the 16th century be lost sight of. In the palace of the Vatican the 
same courtly tone , the same pursuit of sensuous pleasures, of the 
mere joys of existence , prevailed as in the courts of the younger 
Italian dynasties ; expressions of national sentiment met with a 
favorable reception , while an active agitation on the part of the 
Humanists did not appear to have compromised the dignity of 
the Papal Court. These conditions are more or less distinctly 
reflected in the frescoes of Raphael. The courtier repeatedly asserts 
himself; even a delicate compliment to the patron is not disdained, 
nor the ceremonial spectacle excluded. Political as well as personal 
allusions are not wanting , while ample space is devoted to the glo- 
rification of the Humanistic ideal. Finally, when it is borne in 
mind that Raphael was constantly compelled to defer to the exigen- 
cies of the allotted space, to study the separate requirements of wall 
and ceiling , we gain an insight into the nature and extent of the 
restraints imposed upon the Artist. They beset him indeed on 
every hand, and constantly compel him to alter or modify his design. 
Curiously enough these restrictions are to this day interpreted as 
an act of the Artist's free and daring will. One wonders at the 
amount of theological learning, of philosophical erudition displayed 
in the Disputa and the School of Athens, as well as at the inventive- 
ness which could connect subjects so remote from one another as 
the Heliodorus driven from the Temple , and the expulsion of the 
French from Italy. Through the entire range of subjects there 
runs a vein of profound and continuous thought. But especially 
admirable are alike the discernment which enabled Raphael to 
select, from apparently the most heterogeneous sources, matter 


suitable for pictorial embodiment; the resolution with which he 
guarded the realm of fancy; and his sense of the beautiful, 
whereby he was enabled to bring the most intractable material into 
subjection to his purpose. These qualities are most conspicuous 
in the picture known as the Burning of the Leonine Quarter 
(the so-called Borgd) of Rome, or rather, as the artist's patron 
would have it, the conflagration, extinguished by intercession 
of the Pope. The spectator forgets the preposterous demand that 
a miracle should be thus palpably depicted: Raphael relegates 
the action to the heroic age , fills his picture with figures and 
groups of surpassing grandeur and animation (such as succeeding 
generations have striven in vain to imitate) and depicts the 
confusion, the preparation for rescue and flight with surpassingly 
graphic effect. The picture was not what he had been commissioned 
to paint ; but in lieu of this we have a creation teaming with ima- 
ginative power and masterful execution. In like manner Raphael 
disposed of the celebrated frescoes in the first Stanza, the Disputa 
and the School of Athens. Had he not been required to illustrate a 
chapter from the history of dogma (the proclamation of the doctrine 
of transubstantiation) or to present a pictorial extract from the 
history of ancient philosophy, the task of depicting a procession of 
historical celebrities known to fame as fathers of the church or 
mundane philosophers could not be particularly inviting. And 
further , while Raphael mingled with historical personages figures 
purely typical, and in the Disputa represents the assembled com- 
pany of believers as beholding a vision , where each individual 
present is naturally more or less overpowered by emotion — while 
in the School of Athens he especially emphasises the blessedness 
of knowledge, the good fortune which leads to the higher paths of 
learning (whether his representation literally coincides with the 
Diogenes Laertius or Sidonius Apollinaris or not) — he has asserted 
with brilliant success the Artist's right to supremacy in the realm 
of creative fancy. 

After the foregoing remarks the unprejudiced reader will need 
a hint only as to the mental attitude he shall assume as a student 
of Raphael's works. If the mere subject of the picture exclusively 
occupies his attention, if he must know the name and history of 
every figure, and feels it incumbent upon him to admire the in- 
tellectual grasp of an artist who gathered his materials from the 
remotest provinces of learning and who abounds in literary allusions 
he is no longer in a condition fairly to test the artistic value of 
Raphael's works. From this point of view he will fail to detect in 
them any essential difference from the allegorical pictures of the 
period, nay he may even give precedence to many of these : to 
the wall paintings in the Capella degli Spagnuoli (S. M. Novella 
in Florence) for example, which indisputably exhibit greater versati- 
lity, a superior daring in the embodiment of the preternatural and 


a loftier conception of the didactic capabilities of art. It is still 
a matter of uncertainty how far the erudition displayed by Raphael 
was an acquirement of his own or how far he may have relied on 
the contributions of contemporary scholars, such for example as Cas- 
tiglione, Bembo, and Ariosto, who would in so far share with him 
the meritdue to fertility of thought. Assuming, however, thatRaphael 
himself supplied the wealth of literary research which the frescoes of 
the Stanze are said to reveal, he would not as Artist become more in- 
telligible to us. His intellect might thus have been exercised, but 
not his imagination. Raphael's pictures will not only be more tho- 
roughly enjoyed, but Ms individuality and purpose will be more per- 
fectly apprehended when the effort is made to understand, how the 
painter by force of his imagination could out of material for thought, 
dead in itself, create new and living forms ; how he imparted to 
single figures so distinct a pyschological impress that the mere bear- 
ers of historical names are made to appear as representative hu- 
man characters ; how subtly he balanced action and repose in his 
groups, not dwelling too long on mere beauty of outline and con- 
tour, but intent on giving harmonious expression to a more profound 
intellectual antithesis. From this point of view, interest in the 
works of Raphael will be enlightened and enduring. Numerous pro- 
blems will present themselves to the amateur for solution : what 
motive Raphael might have had in treating the Disputa and the 
School of Athens so differently in respect of colour ; how far in the 
latter picture the architectural character of the background is 
essential to the collective impression to be conveyed; for what 
reason the domain of portraiture is here narrowed to the utmost, 
while there (Jurisprudence) it is extended ; what were the grounds 
for the manifold changes in composition which are accurately 
traced in his numerous sketches, etc. 

The condition of the Stanze frescoes is such, alas, as to afford any- 
thing but unqualified gratification, just as in the Loggie we regret- 
fully trace the departed glory of unique examples of decorative art, 
and with difficulty recognise the summit of Raphael's attainments in 
the grievously injured Tapestries. These latter, it is true, in th'.: 
detail of their composition may be studied in the cartoons now 
in the Kensington Museum ; but the subordinate decorations, mar- 
ginal arabesques and the like are still in part preserved in the ori- 
ginal tapestries, and are essential to the festive character of orn; - 
mentation originally designed for the Sistine Chapel. To the ten 
tapestries so long known, an eleventh discovered in the depot of tho 
Vatican has been added. These tapestries were to have adorno I 
the lower compartment of the chapel walls and to this end they 
must correspond with the companion pictures : that, while these re- 
late the history of Redemption, they, the former, should pourtr.i) tli j 
power and grace of God abiding with the Church. 

In apparently irreconcileable contrast to Raphael's works in tlr; 


Vatican we have his frescoes in the gay Villa Farnesina. On the 
one hand we are awed hy devotional fervour, sublime aspiration, 
thought earnest and profound; on the other we find Art revelling in 
the joys of life, each form radiant with an ecstasy of innocent mirth. 
Nevertheless it will cost no great effort to discern in the Farnesina 
frescoes the impress of Raphael's genius. He was indebted for his 
version of the myth of Cupid and Psyche to a work of Apuleius, fa- 
miliar to readers of the 16th century as it had been to the Romans 
of old. Probably no author either in ancient or modern times can 
boast a more captivating illustration than Apuleius , while at the 
same time none has been more freely handled by his illustrator. 
In Raphael's hands the myth is moulded anew. Remembering that 
it was the adornment of a festive chamber he had in hand, Raphael 
sedulously avoided everything repugnant to the festive mood. Pysche's 
woes were consigned to the background ; the painter is intent upon 
recording her triumphs only. The confined space afforded by the 
chamber serves only to stimulate the Artist's mastery of form. Ra- 
phael's representation of the myth is condensed : many scenes are 
but glanced at for a moment, though essentials never escape him ; 
thus the claims of narration and decoration are adjusted without 
restraint. Harmony alike in idea and form ; nobility of proportion 
never overstepping the bounds of refinement ; the power of so losing 
himself in his subject as to present it devoid of individual caprice : 
attributes characteristic of Raphael as these are declare themselves 
in the frescoes of the Farnesina as unmistakably as in the wall 
paintings of the Vatican. The spectator's own unassisted eye will 
not fail to see that the pictures on the ceiling of the principal saloon 
are far inferior in execution to the so-called Oalatea in the neigh- 
bouring apartment. He will find nevertheless that both are such as 
will reward careful study with the highest gratification — a delight 
it must be a lasting desire to renew. 

The inaccessibility of the upper rooms of the Farnesina, adorned 
by Bazzi of Siena (1477-1549 ; p. 22), commonly known as Sodoma, 
with his painting of the Nuptials of Alexander with Roxane, cannot 
be too much regretted. In the embodiment of sensuous grace and 
beauty, Raphael found in Sodoma a worthy rival. 

In the Sibyls of Raphael in S. Maria della Pace (1514) we find 
him competing - — if the expression may be allowed — in another 
field. Here he trenches upon the domain of Michael Angelo • not 
however, that he is for a moment betrayed into disingenuousness by 
contact with a presence so overpowering, or that is he beguiled into 
assuming a style foreign to his genius. True to himself, he accepts the 
limits prescribed by his subject, and combines an air of pleasing sere- 
nity and infinite grace with the expression of prophetic inspiration. 
Around these three Art heroes, Bramante, Raphael, and Michael 
Angelo, is grouped a brilliant circle of pupils and dependents. The 
best works of the School of Raphael are undoubtedly those executed 

ROMAN ART. lvii 

in his lifetime and under his direction. Giulio Romano (1493-1546 ) 
and Francesco Penni (1488-1528) had a considerable share in the 
painting of the Hall of Constantine; the completion of the Loggia 
paintings was entrusted to them , Perino del Vaga (1499-1547), 
Raffaello dal Colle, and others. For the decorative ornamentation of 
the Loggie and the Famesina the master engaged the services of 
Giovanni da L'dine (1487-1564). Romano exhibits himself most 
clearly as a pupil of Raphael in the Villa Madama (Jiulio, less 
so in his Madonnas (Pal. Colonna and Borghese). 

The crowd of Architects, who appeared in Bramante's time, 
showed greater independence : Baldassare Peruzzi (1481-1563; p. 22), 
who built the Famesina and Pal. Massimi, Raphael himself and Giu- 
lio Romano (Villa Madama), Antonio da Sangallo the younger, with 
whom originated the Pal. Farnese and a new plan for St. Peter's, 
and lastly Michael Angelo , whose influence, gradually deposing 
Bramante, irresistibly impelled the architecture of Rome into new 
courses. And just as in Plastic art he scornfully rejects the recognised 
forms and forces upon them a new construction , in like manner as 
Architect he concerns himself little about the accurate adjustment of 
subordinate parts, intent rather upon the effect to be produced by the 
structure as a whole — usually one of ponderous immensity. The 
colonnades in the Palazzo Farnese, the conversion of the Baths of 
Diocletian into the church of <S. Maria degli Angeli — a work subse- 
quently spoiled ■ — and the Porta Pia are among his chief works. His 
chief merit consists in his having reverted to the plans of Bramante 
for the completion of St. Peter's, which since 1546 had been under 
his superintendence. The Cupola at least was carried out according 
to his designs , but the ground-plan, to the injury of the building, 
was much altered, and the Latin substituted for the Greek Cross. 

As long as the 'divine' Michael Angelo lived, Rome was so dazzled 
by the splendour of his renown that no one suspected the Decline 
of Art was at hand. In fact, however, it had already declared itself 
at the death of Raphael. Rome once more captured and pillaged ; 
orthodoxy reinstated ; the church recoiling from the taint of Hu- 
manism : these were incisive events in the history of art, which now 
received a more distinctively ecclesiastical direction. The Foreign 
occupation of Rome expelled a vast number of her artists and laid a 
chasm in the traditions of her art. As she once more recovered herself 
and under the pontificate of Sixtus V. (Felice Peretti, 1585-90) was 
to all appearance again invested with her pristine grandeur, the en- 
couragement of art was revived, but in a spirit which presently pervaded 
and brought into subjection every phase of art. To Sixtus V. the 
Eternal City, which 'forthwith doubled itself , owesher present aspect. 
The Acqua Felice, the Spanish Staircase, the Via Sistina, the Piazza 
di S. Giovanni in Laterano , the Obelisk in the Piazza of St. Peter, 
the restoration of the Columns of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius are his 
work. Domenico Fontana of Ticino was foremost in giving effect to 

lviii ROMAN ART. 

this Pope's projects. The authors of the degenerated Renaissance 
known as Baroque were really Vignola (1507-73) and Fontana's 
nephew Carlo Maderna (1556-1639). In the Jesuit church of Oesii 
(1568) the former furnished the type of the style which prevailed 
during the following century, especially in the numberless Jesuit 
churches then built. Maderna with Borromini and Carlo Fontana were 
the leaders of that band of Artists who conspired to rob architecture 
of its fitting repose, and by the introduction of figures posed in start- 
ling attitudes, aroused or convulsed by agency unseen, of curves in- 
stead of straight lines, of pillar piled upon pillar, substituted a tur- 
bulent unrest. Not that the style was without striking and artistic 
effect. An undoubted vigour in the disposition of detail, a feeling 
for vastness and pomp , together with an internal decoration which 
spared neither colour nor costly material to secure an effect of dazz- 
ling splendour : such are the distinguishing attributes of the Ba- 
roque style as in Rome it is to be seen on every hand, not only in an 
endless succession of churches (S. Jgnazio, 8. Andrea della Valle, 
S. Carlo alle Quattro Fordone, etc.), but in numerous palaces, 
the Barberini being a conspicuous example. The reader will, how- 
ever, scarcely dwell on these works longer than will suffice to give 
him a clear general impression of their character. 

A greater tenacity of life is, however, inherent in the art of 
Painting. An altogether deplorable interval now ensued, during 
which artistic talent was beguiled by Michael Angelo's overwhel- 
ming ascendency into a slavish imitativeness, content with the least 
possible effort to crowd into a given space the greatest possible 
numberof unmeaning figures, not devoid, however, of a certain super- 
ficial charm sufficient to captivate the eye. After an interval thus 
occupied and identified with this supremacy of the Mannerist 
School (Arpino, Zuccaro), painting once more, at the close of the 
16th century, was galvanised into a new life, destined to be of 
brief duration — Rome becomes a scene of conflict in which painters 
and their partisans are the combatants. During the reigns of the 
popes from Sixtus V. to Clement VIII. the fashionable artists were 
Circignani, sumamed Pomarancio, and his pupil Roncalli. It was 
not, however, till the accession of Paul V. (leOS-^l), a member of 
the Borghese family, that the interest in art became again widely 
spread. It was about this period that Rubens visited Rome, where 
he profited by a study of the best qualities of every school, without 
identifying himself with any. 

Curavagg w(1569-1609) was the chief of the Naturalist School. 
He was triumphant in the possession of popular favour. On the other 
hand it was objected that his drawing was bad, that he failed in the 
essential of grouping the figures in his larger compositions. Never- 
theless the mass is presented with such startling reality, and ani- 
mated with gesture so impassioned, that every figure fitly asserts it- 
self, while a corresponding force in colour conveys an impression 


powerfully suggestive of the turbulent license then prevailing. — 
The Eclectics took an opposite direction. Trained in a regularly- 
constituted school of art, such as had been established at Bologna, 
initiated moreover in the art of Correggio and the Venetians , full 
of reverence for more remote traditions , thoroughly versed in the 
rules of drawing and composition as well as familiar with the fresco 
painter's art — thus formidably equipped, Annibale Carracci, Do- 
menichino, Guido Reni, Guercino appeared amongst the rival aspi- 
rants to fame in Rome. They supplanted the Naturalists, appro- 
priating as much of the latters' method as appeared available, and 
finally monopolised the favour of the court and aristocracy. Nor 
was the struggle by any means confined to the pallette and the 
brush. Personalities arose, and amongst themselves the partisans of 
Carracci were seldom at peace. Their contributions are in part, at 
any rate, of the highest excellence. Annibale CarraccVs frescoes in 
the Palazzo Farnese ; Guido Reni's Aurora in the Casino Rospigliosi ; 
the frescoes of Domenickino in S. Luigi dei Francesi , S. Andrea 
della Valle , in Grotta Ferrata near Rome are not mere master- 
pieces of technical skill , but are replete with artistic beauty and 

The Neapolitan sculptor Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) flourishes 
up to the close of the 17th century. His works occupy the concluding 
chapter in the history of Roman Art. It is superfluous to bid the be- 
holderbeware of being led captive by art essentially flimsy and mere- 
tricious ; rather perhaps it is necessary, as a set off against the now 
prevailing depreciation of Bernini's works , to plead the important 
historical significance they possess amidst all their too conspicuous 
defects; to bear in mind that throughout the course of nearly a 
centUTy they were regarded as the most brilliant production of 
that period and were very generally imitated. 

Since the 17th century , Rome has not given birth to nor nur- 
tured any distinctive art life , though the past has held Artists of 
all nations spell-bound, compelling the conviction that Rome is still 
the true High School of Art, whose teaching is indispensable to 
every true Artist. So late as the close of the 18th and the beginning 
of the present century, Rome continued to give proofs of the potency 
of her influence. Without the suggestions which Rome alone could 
furnish , David would never have received that classical impulse 
which he turned to such admirable account in France. Asmus 
Carstens , the father of the classical style of modern German art, 
also made his home in Rome. Amid the art-collections of Rome 
alone could Thorvaldsen , the 'Greek of the 19th century', have 
worthily perfected his talents. In the absence of such inspiration 
as the spectacle of Rome's master-pieces alone can afford, Cornelius 
and his associates would never have had the courage to attempt the 
revival of fresco-painting. 

Thus it was that Rome reacted on the destinies of modern art, 


though without an art life she could call her own. During the last 
fifty years , however, she has lost much of her importance even in 
this respect, through the altered tendencies of the artistic schools 
of France, Belgium, and Germany. Foreign painters and sculptors 
still visit Rome, but it has entirely ceased to dictate the tone of 
European art. Tn place of this, Rome may perhaps become the 
centre of a new Italian school of art, though the productions of 
modern Roman artists have hitherto scarcely warranted the suppo- 
sition. At the beginning of this century building wholly ceased at 
Rome, and the works of monumental painting , such as Podestis 
frescoes in the Stanza dell' Incendio, prove that the traditions of 
the classic period had been utterly forgotten. Since, however, 
Rome has been the capital of a united Italy, increased activity has 
been manifested in the field of art, and the clever Roman stone- 
masons have had abundant opportunity to show their skill in the 
ornamentation of handsome modern edifices. The resuscitation of 
a truly elevated style of sculpture is hindered by the tendency to 
exaggerated realism and the undue value laid upon mere mechanical 
dexterity, which seem nowhere so much out of place as at Rome. 
In painting Rome has not yet outstripped the flourishing schools of 
North Italy. 



1. From Leghorn or Pisa to Rome 

by the Maremme. 

2071/2 M. (from Pisa 207 M.). Railway. Express in 8'/-i hrs., fares 42 fr. 
95, 29 fr. 50 c. (from Pisa 42 fr. 80, 29 fr. 45 c.) ; ordinary trains in 10- 
I31/2 nrs., fares 36 fr. 75, 25 fr. 40, 17 fr. 85 c. (or 36 fr. 65, 25 fr. 35, 17 fr. 
80 c). 

The Makemme Railway coincides with the ancient Via Aurelia, con- 
structed by jEmilius Scaurus, B.C. 109. During the present century the 
Tuscan government caused a road to be constructed here for the benefit of 
the coast-district. Although this is one of the less important routes to 
Rome , the country it traverses is by no means destitute of picturesque 
scenery, and the traveller who desires to explore it may devote several days 
to the journey ; but, owing to the malaria, this is not practicable between 
the end of May and the end of October (comp. p. 2), a period which most 
of the inhabitants spend in the hill-district of Siena. Even in October 
whole villages are still deserted. The railway is occasionally exposed to 
inundations which interrupt the traffic. It runs inland as far as Cecina, 
where it approaches the coast, commanding fine views of the sea with its 
promontories and islands. — Views always on the right. 

Steamboat. Another route from Leghorn to Rome is by sea as far 
as Civita Vecchia, and thence by railway. This route is somewhat more 
expensive than the railway journey. Embarkation at Leghorn in the 
inner harbour 1 fr., in the outer harbour 1>/j fr. The steamers generally 
weigh anchor towards evening. Arrival at Civitti Vecchia , and journey 
thence to Rome, see pp. 6-8. 

Leghorn and Pisa, see Baedeker's Northern Italy. — The lines 
unite at the first station Colle Salvetti, which is 10 M. distant from 
Leghorn and 9^2 M. from Pisa. To the right we see the Monte Nero, 
a celebrated place of pious resort, with an ancient picture of the Vir- 
gin brought from the East and especially revered by sailors. 

13 M. (from Pisa) Fauglia; 18 M. Orciano; 24 M. Acquabuona, 
the station for Bosignano , situated on a hill to the right; 28 M. 
Vada. All these villages are of recent origin and uninteresting ; they 
testify, however, to the rapid improvement of this once so dreary 
district during the present century. The train crosses the Cecina, 
the ancient Caecina. The family of that name was once settled in 
this district, as is proved by numerous inscriptions at Volterra. 

31!/2 M. Cecina (halt of 5-10 min. ; poor cafe), a modern place, 
where a branch-line to Saline (Volterra) diverges (see p. 8). 

Baedeker. Italy II. 8th Edition. 1 

2 Route 1. PI0MB1N0. From Leghorn 

The line now approaches the coast. The loftily-situated, ancient 
Etruscan Populonia becomes visible to the right, on a chain of hills 
projecting into the sea; beyond it the island of Elba (p. 1'2J. 

42 M. Castagneto; 47 M. 8. Vincenzo, with a small harbour. 

53'/2 M. Campiglia; the small town lies to the left on the height, 
with a ruined castle and Etruscan tombs of no great interest. 

Fkom Campiglia to Piombino, V/2 M., diligence every evening in about 
2 hrs., returning thence at noon. 

Piombino (plain inn), a small town with 4000 inhab., lies at the S. 
end of a wooded promontory, bounded on the land side by a flat district. 
A weather-beaten tower on the harbour commands a grand "View of the 
sea and the island of Elba (in front of which rise the cliffs of Cerboli and 
Palmajola), of S. Giglio and the coast, and Corsica in the distance. 

Piombino originally belonged to Pisa, in 1399 became a principality of 
the Appiani, in 1603 was acquired by Spain, and then by the family of 
Buoncompagni-Ludovisi, from whom it was wrested by Napoleon in 1805 in 
favour of his brother-in-law, the Corsican Felix Bacciocchi. In 1815 it was 
restored, and till 1859 remained under the Tuscan supremacy. — Steamboat 
to Elba daily, returning the following morning (p. 12). 

A forenoon suffices for a visit to (6 M.) the ancient Populonia, the 
Etruscan Fupluna, at the N. end of the peninsula. The shorter route 
through the woods requires a guide. The town with its mediaeval castle, 
situated on a lofty and precipitous hill, is conspicuous from all sides. Once 
a prosperous seaport, it suffered greatly from a siege by Sulla; in the time 
of Strabo it had fallen to decay , and is now a poor village. In ancient 
times the iron of Elba was smelted here. The old town-walls may still be 
distinctly traced, and are particularly well preserved on the side next the 
sea; they consist of huge blocks, approaching the polygonal style. The 
views towards the land and the sea are striking and extensive. Several 
vaults, erroneously said to belong to an amphitheatre, and a reservoir may 
also be mentioned as relics of the Roman period. The Etruscan tombs in 
the vicinity are hardly worthy of a visit. 

The district now begins to exhibit the distinguishing charac- 
teristics of the Maremme: a world of its own, consisting of forest 
and swamp , uncultivated , and in summer poisoned by malaria. 
During the Etruscan period the Maremme were richly cultivated 
and possessed several considerable towns : Populonia , Vetulonia, 
Rusellae, Cosa. On the decline of agriculture in Italy and the 
conversion of the farms Into pasture-land , the desolation of the 
coast - district made rapid progress ; for in this flat district, where 
the water easily becomes stagnant , high cultivation is alone ca- 
pable of keeping the poisonous exhalations in check. Even Pliny 
describes this district as unhealthy , and in the middle ages its de- 
solation was still more complete. During the present century, 
under the wise administration of the grand-dukes of Tuscany, much 
was done to counteract the malaria by the drainage and filling up 
of swamps and the establishment of new farms; but the evil is still 
very great. Charcoal-burning and in winter cattle-grazing are the 
chief resources of the inhabitants , all of whom withdraw to the 
Tuscan hill-country in May, when the malaria begins. A few only 
of the more densely peopled localities enjoy a tolerably healthy at- 
mosphere. Those of the natives who are compelled to remain suffer 
severely from fever, and their gaunt and emaciated countenances 
afford a sad indication of the curse of the district. 

to Rome. GROSSETO. 1. Route. O 

64 M. Follonica, near the sea, a small but industrial place which 
is deserted in summer , possesses considerable smelting-foundries 
for the iron from Elba. Beautiful view towards the sea; to the right 
the promontory of Piombino and Elba, to the left the promontory 
of Castiglione with a lighthouse, and the small, grotesquely shaped 
island of Formica. On a hill to the left is Massa Marittima, one of 
the largest towns of the Maremme, with 13,000 inhabitants. In the 
■vicinity are extensive copper-mines. — The train again quits the 
coast and skirts the Promontory of Castiglione. 

73 M. Potassa, station for Gavorrano, situated higher up, to the 
right. Farther on, also to the right, on a hill, is Colonna; and in 
the distance, at the mouth of the Bruna, the small fortified har- 
bour of Castiglione delta Pescaia is visible. Here, as in the other, 
seaports of the Maremme, wood and charcoal form the chief exports. 

8'2y2 M. Monte Pescali , junction of a branch-line from Siena 
(see p. 17), which runs parallel to our line as far as Grosseto. 

90!/2M. Grosseto (*Aquila), the capital of the Maremme, a plea- 
sant town with 7400 inhabitants. The cathedral was begun in 1294 
and restored in 1855. Branch-line to Asciano (Siena), see p. 16. 

About 3 : /2 M. to the N.E. of Grosseto (carriage-roaii) lie the sulphur- 
eous Bagni di Roselle, whence the ruins of Busellae are reached in '/s hr. 
(guide necessary). Eusellse , anciently one of the twelve capitals of the 
Etruscan confederation, has been deserted since the middle of the 12th cent, 
and is thickly overgrown with underwood. The walls , which are nearly 
2 M. in circumference , and in most places accessible , consist partly of 
horizontal courses, partly of polygonal blocks (6-8 ft. high, 7-12 ft. long). 

Around Grosseto, and to the W., in the direction of Castiglione, extends 
a considerable plain, in ancient times a lake (the Lacus Prelius of Cicero), 
which gradually became shallower and productive of malaria (Palude di 
Castiglione and di Grosseto). By skilful drainage, and by conducting hither 
the deposits of the neighbouring rivers, the government has almost entirely 
filled up the morass and converted it into a valuable pasture, 12-15 M. long. 

Beyond Grosseto the Ombrone is crossed. 99 M. Albarese. The 
line skirts the wooded Promontory of Talamone; towards the S. the 
imposing Monte Argentario (see below) is visible. 

At (105 M.) Talamone a beautiful view of the sea is disclosed. 
The village lies at the end of the promontory and possesses an an- 
chorage sheltered by the island of Giglio and the Mte. Argentario 
(steamer to Elba, see p. 12). The creek has been much diminished 
by alluvial deposits. Here, in B.C. 225, the Roman legions landed 
and signally defeated the Gauls who were marching against Rome. 

The train crosses the small river Osa, then the more important 
Albegna (ancient Albinia), at the mouth of which are salt-works. 
109 M. Albegna. 

1131/2 M. Orbetello (halt of 11-15 min.; Rail. Restaurant). On 
the arrival of the train an omnibus (1 fr.) starts for (l'/2 - VI Orbe- 
tello (poor inns ; the best is the Trattoria del Buon Gusto, or Sac- 
coccione~), with 6000 inhab., situated at the extremity of a pro- 
montory, near the foot of Monte Argentario, which rises immediately 
from the sea , and is connected with the mainland by two narrow 


4 Route 1. OORNETO. From Leghorn 

tongues of land, whereby a large salt-water lagoon is formed. The 
place contains nothing of interest except the polygonal walls on the 
side next the sea, which testify to the great antiquity of the town, 
although its ancient name is unknown. 

From Orbetello an embankment has been constructed across the shallow 
lake, which abounds in fish, to M. Argentario. A carriage-road leads to the 
N. harbour Porto S. Stefano (steamboat to Elba, every Friday at 5 a.m., see 
p. 12), and to Porf Ercole on the S. side. The Monte Argentario (2087 ft.) 
culminates in two peaks , on one of which is situated a monastery of the 
Passionists. The ascent is very interesting (from Orbetello, 2-3 hrs. ; guide). 
The "View embraces the coast of Tuscany and the surrounding district as 
far as Mte. Amiata , and the sea with its numerous rocky islands as far as 
Sardinia. If time is limited, the first and lower eminence, 3 /t hr. from 
Orbetello, with a picturesque view of the coast, should be visited. 

Orbetello is the most convenient starting-point for an excursion to the 
(i'/2 M.) interesting ruins of the ancient Gosa, the present Ansedonia; and 
also for a visit to the ancient, towns of Saturnia and Sovana, 30-35 M. in- 
land. Cosa is an old Etruscan town, deserted in the 5th century. The 
polygonal walls (1600 yds. in circumference) with their towers are admir- 
ably preserved. A beautiful prospect of the sea and coast is enjoyed hence. 

The train soon enters the former Papal territory, and traverses 
the Roman Maremma ; scenery unattractive. 125 l /% M. Chiarone. It 
then crosses the Fiora and reaches (135 M.J Montalto, a poor village. 

From Montalto the traveller may ascend by the Fiora to the ancient 
Ponte della Badia and the site of Vulci, where thousands of Etruscan vases 
and other antiquities have been discovered since 1828. The ancient 
Etruscan city itself, the circumference of which is ascertained to have 
been 5 31., has disappeared with the exception of its tombs. 

Beyond Montalto the country is undulating. "We cross the small 
rivers Arrone and Maria, the outlet of the Lake of Bolsena. 

1441/., M. Corneto, situated on a hill (348 ft.) iy 2 M. to the 
left of the station (seat in a carriage 1 fr.J, is an antiquated town 
with numerous towers (Albergo Orassi and Alb. Benedetti , in- 
different, both in the Palazzaccio, see below; opposite, Trattoria 
Grassi, tolerable). The town sprang up at the beginning of the middle 
ages after the decline of Tarquinii. A genealogical tree 'al fresco' 
in the Palazzo Comunale, professing to trace, the origin of the place 
to a remote mythical era , shows an amusing disregard for history. 
The Romanesque churches have nearly all been modernised by sub- 
sequent restorations. 8. Maria in Castello alone, on the N. buttress 
of the plateau on which the town stands , has been left unaltered ; 
it was begun in 1121 and consecrated in 1208. Some frescoes of 
the school of Perugino have recently been discovered in the choir 
of the cathedral. The handsome Gothic *Palace of the Vitelleschi, 
called 11 Palazzaccio , dates from 1437. The lower story of the 
Museo Municipale, opened in 1878, contains a number of sarco- 
phagi, the most interesting of which is the so-called 'Sarcofago del 
Magnate', embellished with reliefs (battles of Amazons) and with 
handsome polychrome figures on the lid. In the upper floor are 
smaller antiquities, vases, gold ornaments, weapons, etc. Among 
these are an antique set of false teeth (3rd room), and a fine painted 
bowl, which bears the names of Oltos and Euxitheos as the artists 

to Rome. TARQUINII. 1. Route. 5 

and represents the Arrival of Bacchus in Olympus , the types of 
the deities recalling the character of pre-Phidian art. The keys 
of S. Maria in Castello and of the Museum are kept by Frangioni, 
the custodian of the Necropolis of Tarquinii (fee 1 fr.). The town 
commands a fine view of the sea with Monte Argentario and the 
neighbouring islands , and also an interesting survey of the bleak 

On the Turchina, a stony hill opposite, separated from Alontarozzi y the 
hill of the tombs, by a ravine, lay Tarquinii, a town with walls about 
5 M. in circumference, anciently one of the twelve Etruscan capitals, and 
remarkable for the influence which it exercised on the development of the 
national religion of Etruria. It participated in the war of the Etruscan 
confederation against Rome, but was compelled to surrender after the 
Samnite war and to receive a Roman colony. The town continued to 
flourish during the empire, but subsequently declined and was devastated 
by the Saracens ; it was , however , inhabited down to 1307 , when its last 
remains were totally destroyed by the inhabitants of Corneto. No ruins 
are now visible save the scanty vestiges of walls and foundations. Of its 
seaport Graviscae a few relics on the right bank of the Afarta, Ufa M. from 
its mouth, still remain. The palazzo of the Countess Bruschi-Falgari con- 
tains a small collection of antiquities of Corneto , including beautiful 
Etruscan gold ornaments ; but admission is only granted to persons 
specially introduced. The Giardino Bruschi , outside the town, also con- 
tains a few Etruscan and Roman antiquities. There are also several 
private collections of vases, etc., for sale. The Sindaco, Cavaliere Luigi 
Dasti, is very obliging in giving information to visitors. 

Tombs. The principal interest attaching to Corneto is derived from its 
tombs , the "Necropolis of the Ancient Takquinii, which spreads over a 
great part of the hill upon which the town itself stands. Frangioni, the 
custodian of the tombs, should be asked for at the inn; fee for one pers. 
l'/2 fr., for two pers. 2 fr., for a party more in proportion. The Necro- 
polis was accidentally discovered in 1823 by Carlo Avvolta, a native of Cor- 
neto, who while digging penetrated into a tomb, and through the aperture 
beheld a warrior extended, accoutred in full armour. The influence of the 
air caused the body to collapse after a few minutes' exposure. Even in an- 
cient times the tombs were frequently plundered for the sake of the pre- 
cious trinkets they contained, and modern excavations have despoiled them 
of every movable object which remained. A visit to them is nevertheless 
extremely interesting to those who desire to form an idea of the civili- 
sation , art, and religion of the Etruscans ; and for this purpose the tombs 
of Corneto are well adapted owing to the good preservation of their 
paintings. The decoration of the chambers is in a style that was chiefly 
prevalent in the towns of southern Etruria, and indicates a close relationship 
to Hellenic art. The Tumuli which externally distinguished the tombs have 
in the lapse of ages been entirely destroyed; the subterranean chambers 
now alone remain, of which the following are the most interesting: — 

Grotta delta Caccia del Cignale (boar-hunt) , or Grotta Querciola. The 
faded paintings , copied in the Museo Gregoriano (p. 320) , represent a 
banquet with music and dancing, and a boar-hunt. — Opposite to this tomb — 

"Grotta del Convito Funebre, or del Triclinio , also with the represen- 
tation of a banquet. The admirable drawing bears witness to the influence 
of the best period of archaic Greek art. The men here , as in all the 
others , are sketched in outline on the walls in dark red , the women in 
whitish colours. 

Grotta del Morto, small; mourning for the deceased, and dancers. 

"Grotta del Tifone, more extensive, supported in the centre by a pillar, 
on which are Typhons, or winged genii of death terminating in serpents. 
The sarcophagi bear Latin as well as Etruscan inscriptions, a proof that 
they belong to a comparatively recent epoch. To the right on the wall are 
souls escorted by genii ; under them is Charon with the hammer. 

6 Route 1. TOSCANBLLA. From Leghorn 

Grolta del Cardinale, the most spacious tomb of Tarquinii , supported 
bv four pillars, opened last century; colours almost entirely faded. 

" About l'/2 M. from Corneto is the Grotta delle Bighe, discovered in 1827 
by Baron Stackenberg. A copy of the paintings (funereal games and dances) 
is preserved in the Vatican. — In the vicinity : Grotta del Mare, small, with 
sea-horses. — "Grotta del Barone , so called from the Hanoverian ambassa- 
dor by whom it was opened, contains warlike games, riders, etc., partly 
in the archaic style ; colours well preserved. — Grotta Francesco, or Giusti- 
niani, with dancers and races, much faded ; copies in the Museo Gregoriano. 
— Grotta delle Iscrizioni, so called from the numerous Etruscan inscriptions, 
with warlike trials of skill. — Several other tombs have been recently dis- 
covered. The Grotta dei Yasl Dipinti and the Grotta del VeccMo (with 
banquets and dances), and also the Grotta degli Auguri (with funereal 
james; a criminal with veiled head fighting with a lar^e mastiff, hounded 
on by a figure in a mask) date at latest from the 5th cent, before our 
era. To a more recent period belongs the Grotta delV Oreo: in the an- 
terior chamber, a banquet; in the one beyond it a scene from the infernal 
regions, with Pluto , Proserpine, Geryon, Tiresias, Agamemnon, Mem- 
non, and Theseus; in a niche in this chamber is Ulysses blinding Poly- 
phemus. — In the Grotta degli Scudi, banquet scenes. — In the Grotta 
del Citaredo, men and women dancing (covered up again). 

Toscanella is now best visited from Corneto , from which it is 16 M. 
distant, by the Viterbo diligence, which runs three times weekly. 

Toscanella (625 ft. ; Mancinelli), the ancient Tuscania, a small and med- 
itvval-looking town of 4000 inhab., with walls and towers, contains two 
fine old Romanesque structures: "S. Pietro, on the height, with crypt and 
antique columns , and "S. Maria , smaller but even more interesting, with 
good sculptures on the exterior. Both churches are now disused. On the hill 
of S. Pietro stood the ancient citadel. Etruscan tombs in the vicinity. 

The Garden of Countess Campanari, in the lower part of the town, em- 
bellished with sarcophagi and other relics , and containing an imitation of 
an Etruscan tomb, is interesting. The sarcophagi, with the life-size portraits 
of the deceased, framed in living green, are very impressive, and the 
traveller will nowhere acquire a more accurate idea of the contents of an 
Etruscan tomb. Signor Carlo Campanari, late husband of the proprietress, 
and his father conducted many of those extensive excavations which have 
filled the museums of Europe with Etruscan vases, goblets, mirrors, etc. 

From Toscanella to (12'/:> 31.) Viterbo post-conveyance daily and dili- 
gence thrice weekly. 

The train skirts the foot of the hill of Corneto , which remains 
visible for a longtime. To the right , farther on, is the insigni- 
ficant Porto Clementino, which is entirely abandoned in summer on 
account of the malaria. The horizon is bounded inland by the moun- 
tains of Tolfa (see below), which yield an abundance of alum and 
sulphur. The line crosses the small river Mignone, at the mouth of 
which stands the Torre Bertaldo , where , according to a legend, an 
angel dispelled St. Augustine's doubts respecting the Trinity. 

157 M. Civita Vecchia. — Halt of 14 min.; "Railway Restaurant. 

Omnibus to the town (within a few minutes' walk) 25 c. ; one-horse 
carriage l ji fr., two-horse 1 fr. ; porter for a box 40 c. 

Arrival by Sea. Disembarkation 1 /-2 fr. for each person ; for a trunk 
from the steamboat to the station 1 fr. , small article '/2 fr. Custom-house 
examination at the railway-station, outside the town. All these charges 
are the same for embarkation. Carriages to the station, see above. 

Hotels : "Orlandi , to the right at the entrance of the town , a large 
hotel, expensive; Europa, moderate. 

Civith Vecchin, the seaport of Rome, with 12,000 inhab. the 
ancient Centum Cellae founded by Trajan , and sometimes called 

to Rome. CIVITA VECCHIA. 1. Route. 7 

Porttts Trajani, was destroyed by the Saracens in 828, but in 854 
the inhabitants returned into the 'ancient city'. The fortifications, 
built in the 16th and 17th cent., were recently restored by the 
French. The entrance to the harbour, in front of which lies a small 
fortified island with a lighthouse, is defended by two strong towers. 
Visitors are permitted to inspect the Bagno, where the galley- 
convicts are at work. The town is uninteresting. The traveller may 
best spend a leisure hour in walking on the quay. 

A good road leads from Civita Vecchia to the volcanic mountains of 
La Tolfa (2041 ft.) and the loftily -situated village of that name, in the 
vicinity of which are extensive mines of alum. The scenery is picturesque, 
and the locality interesting to geologists. Some mineral springs , with the 
ruins of ancient baths (Aquae Tauri), lie about 3 M. from Civita Vecchia. 

From Civita Vecchia to Rome (50 '/j M.; express in 2, ordinary 
trains in 3y 4 hrs. ; fares 12 fr. 30, 8 fr. 25 c. ; or 9 fr. 20, 6 ft. 45, 
4 fr. 60 c). The best views are on the right till Rome is approached, 
and then on the left. The line traverses a dreary tract , running 
parallel with the ancient Via Amelia near the sea-coast as far as 
Palo. On clear days the Alban and Volscian Mts. are visible in the 
distance, and still farther off the promontory of Circeii. 

163 M. Santa Marinella possesses a mediaeval castle rising above 
a small bay, in the garden of which a date-palm flourishes. 

166 M. Santa Severa, a picturesque baronial castle, formerly the 
property of the Galera, afterwards that of the Orsini family, and 
now of the Santo Spirito Hospital at Rome. Here in ancient times 
lay Pyrgos or Pyrgi, the harbour of the once powerful Etruscan city 
Caere, now Cervetri (p. 387), situated on a height, 6 M. to the left. 

171 M. Furbara. The solitary towers on the shore were erected in 
the middle ages for protection against the dreaded Turkish corsairs. 

177 M. Palo, with a chateau and villa of the Odescalchi, occu- 
pies the site of the ancient Alsium, where Pompey and Antoninus 
Pius possessed country-residences. Relics of antiquity now scarce. 

181 M. Palidoro lies on the river of that name, which has its 
source on the heights near the Lago di Bracciano. The line now 
approaches the plantations of (186 M.) Maccarese to the right, sup- 
posed to be the ancient Fregenae, which lay near the mouth of the 
Arrone, a river descending from the Lago di Bracciano. The Lago 
di Ponente or Stagno di Maccarese is now skirted. 

193 M. Ponte Galera, whence a branch-line diverges to Porto 
and Fiumicino (p. 389). Near (201 M.) Magliana the Tiber becomes 
visible, ai;d the line follows its course (comp. Map, p. 344). A 
freer view is now obtained of the extensive Campagna di Roma ; 
to the right, in the background , the Alban Mts. (at the base of 
which gleam the white houses of Frascati, p. 360; comp. panorama 
p. 330) and to the left the Sabine Mts. ; in the foreground is the grand 
basilica of 8. Paolo fuori le Mura (p. 256). To the left is disclosed 
a view of Rome, the Aventine (p. 252), the Capitol (p. 209), and 
Trastevere (p. 329). The train crosses the Tiber by a new iron bridge 

8 Route 2 CEOINA. From Leghorn 

and .slowly approaches the walls of Rome, of which the S.B. side is 
skirted. Above the wall rises Monte Testaccio (p. 253); adjacent 
is the Pyramid of Cestius (p. 253) with the cypresses of the Pro- 
testant cemetery ; in the vicinity, the Porta 8. Paolo ; farther distant, 
the Aventine with S. Sabina (p. 254). The line then traverses 
gardens and unites with the railway from Naples. The Porta S. Se- 
bastiano, approached by the Via Appia (p. 348), is visible. After 
crossing the latter, we observe the basilica of S. Giovanni in Late- 
rano (p. 269) with the numerous statues of its facade; then the 
church of S. Croce in Gerusalemme (p. 182), with its lofty Ro- 
manesque tower. The train now passes beneath the aqueduct of 
the Acqua Felice and through the Porta Maggiore (p. 182), which 
is crossed by two ancient water-conduits. The line then intersects 
the city-wall. To the left lies a decagonal ruin , generally called a 
Temple of Minerva Medica (p. 181), two stories in height. A view 
is next obtained of S. Maria Maggiore (p. 176), a handsome edifice 
with two domes and a Romanesque tower. The train enters the 
station at the N.W. extremity of the town , opposite the Thermae 
of Diocletian, and we are now in — 

207i/ 2 M. Eome. — Arrival, see p. 104. 

2. From Leghorn to Volterra and Siena. 

From Leghorn to Volterra. A visit to Volterra, the antiquities of 
wliicli are interesting, is best accomplished from Leghorn. Railway via 
Cecina to Saline, 51 M. , in 3'/2 hrs.; express to Cecina (no through- 
connection) 5 fr. 90, 4 fr. 15 c. ; ordinary trains 5 fr. 60, 3 fr. 85, 2 fr. 65 e. ; 
from Cecina to Le Saline 3 fr. 25, 2 fr. 25, 1 fr. 55 c. — Diligence from 
Saline to Volterra in 2 hrs. (fare iy 2 fr.). Those who intend to continue 
their journey southwards by the Maremme line should leave their lug- 
gage at Cecina. 

From Volterka to Siena (about 31 M. to the E.) there is no direct 
conveyance. A diligence runs twice a week only to Colle (generally on Mon. 
and Thurs. at 1 p.m.), where it corresponds with another running thence 
to the rail. stat. Poggibonsi, in time for the afternoon train to Siena and 
Orvieto (comp. p. 14). One-horse carr. to Poggibonsi 14-15 fr., with di- 
gression to S. Gimignano (p. 14) 16 fr., fee 1 fr. ; bargaining advisable. 

Volterra may also be reached from Pontedera, a station on the Flo- 
rence and Pisa line, by driving up the valley of the Era (5-G hrs.). 

From Leghorn to (32 M.) Cecina (Maremme Railway), see pp. 1, 2. 
The branch-line to Saline ascends hence on the right bank of the 
Cecina, traversing a district of great mineral wealth. — b l / 2 M. San 
Martino; 10'/ 2 M. Casino di Terra; 15 M. Ponte Oinori. 19 M. 
Saline, the terminus, in a bleak situation, where malaria prevails 
in summer. The extensive salt-works in the vicinity supply the 
whole of Tuscany with salt and yield a considerable revenue 

The following excursion, for which a carriage may be hired at Saline 
is interesting to geologists. We first drive to Pomarance, a pleasant town' 
famed in the Renaissance period for its earthenware, with a large cha- 
teau of Count Larderello , and in about 3 hrs. reach Larderello on the 
Monte Cerboli, the central point of the boracic acid works belonainff to 
the Larderello family, which are politely shown to visitors The ex 
cursion may be extended towards the S., by Bagno a Morbo, Castelnvovo 

to Volterra. VOLTERRA. 2. Route. 9 

Sasso, and Monterotondo , to Massa Marittima (p. 3), a drive of 3 lirs. 
more. Near Sasso and Monterotondo in particular the country is covered 
with clouds of smoke, and the hot surface of the earth with incrustations 
of sulphur, sulphate of iron, etc. Near Monterotondo is the hot Logo Zol- 
foreo, a small lake strongly impregnated with boracie acid, which is ob- 
tained from it by evaporation by M. Duval, a Frenchman. Count Lar- 
derello's works yield about 850 tons, and M. Duval's 250 tons annually, 
and the whole quantity is sent by contract to England, where it i? chiefly 
used in the manufacture of glass avid pottery. The lagoni, or pools 
through which the soffioni or jets of boracie acid in the form of steam 
bubble up, are all, with the exception of those of Travale, in the region of 
the Cecina and Cornia, and most probably have a common volcanic origin. 

The road from Saline to (5 M.J Volterra ascends. The country 
presents a peculiarly bleak appearance. 

Volterra. — "Albekgo Nazionale, E. l'/ 2 -2fr., D. according to bar- 
gain; Unione. — Cafi Etrusco, opposite the Nazionale. 

The celebrated Alabaster Works of Volterra afford occupation to nearly 
two-thirds of the population , but most of the patterns are unfortunately 
in very bad taste. The ordinary kinds of alabaster are found in the vici- 
nity, the more valuable in the mines of La Castellina, to the S. of Leg- 
horn. The traveller should visit the interesting work-shops, where sou- 
venirs may be purchased far more cheaply than at Florence or Leghorn. 

Volterra, the ancient Volaterrae, Etruscan Velathri, one of the 
most ancient Etruscan cities, is now an episcopal residence with 
14,000 inhab., loftily situated (1602 ft.), and commanding in cleat- 
weather charming prospects as far as the heights of Pisa, the Apen- 
nines , and the sea with the islands of Gorgona , Elba , Capraja, 
and Corsica. The environs are dreary and desolate ; the effect of the 
rain on the soft and spongy soil is most prejudicial to agriculture. 

Volterra was one of the twelve ancient confederate cities of Etruria, 
and was so strongly fortified that during the civil wars it withstood a 
siege by Sulla's troops for two years. It afterwards became a Roman 
municipium, but gradually fell to decay and was totally destroyed in the 
10th century. It was re-erected under the Othos, but does not now cover 
one-third of its ancient area. In the middle ages it was a free town, un- 
til it became subject to Florence in 1361. The last revolt of the inhabi- 
tants against the Florentines terminated on 17th June, 1472, when the 
town was captured and ruthlessly pillaged. 

Among the ANTiaurriES the ancient *Town Walls, once up- 
wards of 41/2 M. in circumference, and nearly three times as ex- 
tensive as those of Fiesole and Cortona, are especially worthy of 
notice. Their dimensions (40 ft. in height, 13 ft. in thickness) 
and construction of horizontal courses of sandstone blocks .(pan- 
china) are best inspected outside the Porta Fiorentina and in 
the garden of the monastery of Santa Chiara. One of the ancient 
gateways, the *Porta dell' Arco, 20 ft. in height, is also still in 
existence. The corbels are adorned with almost obliterated heads of 
lions, or guardian deities of the city. The Porta di Diana ('il Por- 
tortf!) , another gateway , outside the Porta Fiorentina , has been 
much altered. Outside the same gate, below the burying-ground, 
is situated the ancient Necropolis, about halfway up the hill , at the 
place now called S. Marmi. A number of the curiosities in the 
museum -were found here, but the tombs have all been reclosed. 

10 Route 2. VOLTERRA. From Leghorn 

The Piscina, outside the castle, a reservoir resting on six co- 
lumns, is only shown by permission of the bishop, and is reached 
by means of a long ladder. 

The Thermae, near the fountain of S. Felice, are of Roman 
origin. Traces of an Amphitheatre near the Porta Fiorentina. 

The Palazzo dei Priori or Palazzo Pubblico (PI. 19) in the 
Piazza, a handsome edifice, begun in 1208 and completed in 1257, 
is unfortunately somewhat modernised; the exterior is adorned with 
mediaeval coats of arms. It contains a collection of pictures , of 
which the following are the most important : *Luca Signorelli, Ma- 
donna and saints, 1491 ; Dom. Ohirlandajo, Christ in glory (ruined 
by restoration in 1874), and a Madonna, by the same. 

The *Cathedral (PI. 8) was consecrated in 1120 by Pope Calix- 
tus II. , enlarged in 1254 by Niccolb Pisano , and restored in the 
16th century. The facade dates from the 13th century. 

The Interior is remarkable for its rich marble decorations and sculp- 
tures. The old Pulpit is adorned with sculptures of the 13th cent., and 
those on the high-altar are by Mino da Fiesole. The "Oratorio di S. Carlo 
in the right transept contains several unimportant pictures and an ad- 
mirable "Annunciation by Luca Signorelli, 1491. 

Opposite to the cathedral rises the baptistery of S. Giovanni 
(PI. 6), an octagonal church, supposed to date from the 7th cent., 
and occupying the site of an ancient temple of the sun. To the 
left of the entrance, is an ancient fluted sarcophagus, with a relief 
of Narcissus. The entrance-archway and the capitals of the columns, 
decorated with animals and birds, are works of the 13th cent. ; the 
fine arch of the high-altar is by Balsimelli da Settignano (16th cent.), 
the octagonal font by Andrea di Sansovino (1502), and the ciborium 
by Mino da Fiesole (1471). 

S. Lino (PI. 13), a church and monastery, founded in 1480 by 
Raffaele Maffei, contains the tomb of that scholar with a recumbent 
statue by Silvio da Fiesole. 

S. Francesco (PI. 10), with the Gothic chapel of the Confra- 
ternith della Croce di Oiorno of 1315 , contains frescoes from the 
life of the Saviour and the legend of the Cross by Cienni di Fran- 
cesco di Ser Cienni of Florence, 1410. 

The most interesting object in Volterra is the *Museo Kazio- 
nale, formerly called the Museo Civico , a valuable collection of 
inscriptions, coins , bronzes , statues, and vases, now contained in 
the Palazzo Tagassi (PI. 20), Via Vittorio Emanuele. Tickets (1 fr.) 
aTe obtained in the Cartoleria Maris, Via Guidi (Sun. free). 

The museum, established in 1731, and greatly enriched by the collections 
of the erudite Mario Guarnacci in 1761, has lately been admirably arranged 
by Cavaliere N. Maffei. Seven rooms on the lower floor and as many on 
the upper are occupied by the collection of Cinerary Urns (upwards of 
400). These are generally about 3 ft. in length, and date from the latest 
period of Etruscan art, i.e. the 3rd or 2nd cent. B.C. The subjects are 
more interesting than the execution, which is for the most part very 
mediocre. A few of them are composed of terracotta and sandstone , but 
most of them are of the alabaster of the environs. On the lid is the greatly 
reduced recumbent effigy of the deceased ; the sides are adorned with 

to Volterra. VOLTERRA. 2. Route. 11 

reliefs , and some of them bear traces of painting and gilding. The re- 
presentations on the urns are partly derived from the peculiar sphere of 
Etruscan life, partly from Greek mythology. From the former , parting 
scenes are the most frequent; the deceased, equipped as a rider, is escorted 
by a messenger who bears a long sack containing provisions for the jour- 
ney or is accompanied by Charon with the hammer. Sacrifices and funeral- 
processions occur frequently, as well as banquets , races, contests of skill, 
etc. Greek mythology has supplied an abundant selection of subjects, e.g. 
Ulysses with the Sirens and with Circe, the abduction of Helen, death of 
Clytemnestra, Orestes and the Furies, the Seven before Thebes (the gate a 
copy of the above-mentioned Porta dell' Arco) , Polynices and Eteocles, 
CEdipus with the Sphynx , (Edipus slaying his father. There is a singular 
blending of luxuriance and melancholy in the subjects as well as in the 
treatment of these works, and the same peculiarity is often observed in 
the subsequent development of Etruscan art. — Five other rooms contain 
marble sculptures, vases (mostly of a later style), coins, bronzes, utensils, 
gold ornaments, and fine glass vessels. 

In the third story of the building are the Archives and the Library, 
containing 13,000 vols., ivory carvings, diptychs, etc. 

The Citadel consists of two parts , the Cassero or Rocca 
Vecchia , erected on the ancient town- walls in 1343 by Walter 
de Brienne, Duke of Athens, and the Rocea Nuova, built by the 
Florentines after the capture of the town. At the same time they 
constructed the prison II Mastio for the incarceration of political 
offenders, where the mathematician Lorenzo Lorenzwi was confined 
as a suspected person by the Grand-Duke Cosimo III. for 11 years 
(1682-93). The citadel, now a house of correction, may be visited 
with permission of the Sotto Prefetto. 

The Palazzo Maffei-Ouarnacci, opposite the church of S. Michele, 
with its three towers, the oldest dating from the 13th cent., contains 
pictures and a valuable collection of letters of Salv. Rosa. 

The Gothic Palazzo Inghirami contains a small collection of 
pictures , comprising a *Portrait of the learned Fedra Inghirami, 
pronounced by Miindler to be an original work by Raphael (a replica 
in the Pitti Gallery at Florence). 

The Casa Ducci bears the Roman epitaph of a boy, rive years of 
age, probably a member of the family of the poet Persius, who 
was born at Volaterras in A.D. 34. 

In the Casa Ricciarelli , Daniele da Volterra , the celebrated 
pupil of Michael Angelo , was born in 1509 (he died at Paris in 
1567). The house still belongs to the family of Ricciarelli, who 
possess the artist's *Elias. 

In the neighbourhood of Volterra, in the valley towards the E. , is 
situated the Villa Inghirami, whence the rocky labyrinth named Le 
Buche de' Saracini may be visited. — About 3/ 4 M. to the N.W. of the 
town, between the churches of S. Giusta and La Badia, lies a deep ravine 
called Le Baize, which was comparatively recently formed by the action 
of water and continues to increase. Several buildings have already been 
undermined and destroyed, and the celebrated Camaldulensian abbey of 
San Salvatore, founded in the 11th cent., is threatened with the same fate. 

A pleasant Excursion may be made to the copper -mines of La Cava 
di Caporciano, near Monte Catini, 10 M. from Volterra. The road leads 
across the hill of La Bachetona to Monte Catini on the summit of the Se- 
lagite, a mountain of volcanic origin. The square tower of the old castle 
commands an extensive prospect. The mines have been worked since the 

12 Route -J. COLLE. 

15th cent. , and the operations were very successful till within the last 
few years, but since 1870 the yield has fallen off. The present possessor 
is Count Butturlin. The mineral was found in pockets or clusters , be- 
tween serpentine, known here as gabbro verde, and a peculiar species 
of red rock, gabbro rosso. The whole vicinity is extremely interesting for 
geologists. A number of peaks, such as Monte delV Abete, Poggio alia Croce, 
and Monte Massi , consist of gabbro rosso , which has been upheaved at 
a comparatively recent period through the surrounding sand and limestone. 
The view from -Monte Massi (1910 ft.) or from Poggio alia Croce P/2 hr. 
from Monte Catini) extends from the heights near Massa and Carrara to- 
wards the N. to Monte Amiata on the S., and embraces the sea with the 
islands of Elba, Capraja, and Corsica. 

From Voltebea to Siena. The high-road leads towards the 
E. through an undulating and attractive district. To the left is 
seen S. Oimignano (p. 14), to which a road diverges to the left after 
7^2 M. (reaching it after 11 M. more; pedestrians may take a short 
cut, diverging 1 M. farther on, via Ranza and S. DonatcT). To the 
right of the high-road we ohserve Pomarance (p. 8). 

1572 M. from Volterra lies Colle, where the roads to Siena and 
Poggibonsi diverge. This town, which is frequently mentioned in the 
history of the Renaissance, now consists of two parts, Colle Alto and 
Colle Basso. The first of these contains the palaces of the old, but 
now greatly impoverished aristocracy; the Cathedral, dating from the 
13th cent., with a facade modernised in bad taste, a marble pulpit, 
of which the lower part belongs to the 13th cent. , and the upper 
part, with reliefs of saints, to the 16th, and handsome carved choir- 
stalls and episcopal throne of the 17th cent.; and the house of the 
celebrated architect Arnolfo di Cambio. — At Colle Basso there are 
now important iron and glass works. 

From Colle to Poggibonsi 5 M. , see p. 14. To Siena about 
15 M., a drive of 2 hours. 

Siena, see p. 20. 

3. Elba and the Tuscan Islands. 

A visit to Elba, which is strongly recommended to the scientific traveller 
and the lover of nature, is accomplished either from Leghorn or from 
Piombino (p. 2). Between both these points and Porio Ferrajo, the capital of 
the island, communication is kept up by the Societa Riunite Florio-Rvbatlino. 
From Leghorn to Porto Ferrajo every Sun. forenoon in 4*/2 hrs., return- 
ing on Mon. forenoon. — From Piombino to Porto Ferrajo every afternoon 
in 2 hrs., returning every forenoon. — A steamboat of the same company 
also makes a trip once weekly to the small neighbouring islands (Linea 
delV Arcipelago Toscano). Departure from Leghorn every Wednesday at 
8 a.m., reaching Gorgona at 10.15 a.m., Capraja 11.45 a.m., Marciana 3 p.m., 
Porto Ferrajo 4 p.m.; thence on Thursday at 4 a.m., Eiomarina 5.45 a.m., 
Porto Longone 6.30 a.m., Pianosa at 8.30 a.m., CSiglio at 12.30 p.m., Tala- 
mone 1.45 p.m., Porto S. Stefano (harbour of M. Argentario) 2.30 p.m.; 
returning on Friday at 5 a.m., reaching Porto Ferrajo at 3.45 p.m., leav- 
ing it early on Sat. morning, and reaching Leghorn at 4 p.m. 

Half-an-hour after the harbour of Leghorn has been quitted, 
the cliff Meloria comes in sight, where on 6th August, 1283, the 
Pisans were so signally defeated by the Genoese, that they never 
regained their former supremacy. Farther W. is Oorgona, inhabited 

ELBA. 3. Route. 13 

by fishermen, a sterile island, affording pasture to wild goats only. 
Between the latter and Elba lies Capraja ('island of goats', so called 
by the ancients also), with 2000 inhab., where wine is produced. 

Elba, Lat. Eva, Greek Mihalia, consisting of an imposing 
mountain-group, is reached from Piombino in l!/ 2 nr - The Torre 
di Oiove, situated on the highest point, serves as a landmark to 
sailors. The vessel rounds the Capo della Vita and enters the 
beautiful bay of Porto Ferrajo, enclosed amphitheatrically by moun- 
tains. The island was celebrated in ancient times for its iron ore ; 
in the middle ages it was subject to the Pisans, then to Genoa, to 
Lucca, and to the Appiani of Piombino, and was finally presented 
by the Emp. Charles V. to the Grand-Duke Cosimo I. of Florence, 
who fortified the harbour of Porto Ferrajo in 1548. As the name 
of the town indicates, the export and manufacture of iron form 
the principal occupation of the inhabitants (22,000), others of 
whom are supported by the tunny and sardine fisheries. Elba has 
acquired a modern celebrity as the retreat of the dethroned Na- 
poleon, from 5th May, 1814, to 26th Feb., 1815. The small palace 
occupied by the emperor is still shown at Porto Ferrajo , on the 
height above the harbour, between the forts Stella and Falcone, 
which were erected by Cosimo I., and command a view of the bay 
in front, and of the sea in the direction of Piombino at the back. 
It is now the residence of the governatore , and contains reminis- 
cences of its former imperial occupant. — The island is about 
18 M. long, 6^2 M. broad, and 90 sq. M. in area; it contains several 
fertile valleys, but lofty and precipitous mountains predominate. 
Monte Capanne, the highest point, near the village of Marciana, 
is 3304 ft. in height. The coast on the side next the mainland 
is less abrupt, and produces admirable wine and fruit, especially 
near Capoliveri, where excellent Aleatico is grown. Most of 
the villages, such as the picturesque stronghold of Porto Longone, 
founded by the Spaniards, are on the coast. Rio, where the iron- 
mines are worked, lies more inland. The yield of ore is still abun- 
dant, and in ancient times formed a source of wealth to the Etrus- 
cans. The ferriferous strata lie on the surface , and are recognised 
at a distance by the reddish-black appearance of the hills. 

Between Elba and the mainland are the two small islands of 
Palmajola and Cerboli. To the S. lies the island of Pianosa, the 
ancient Planasia, which, as its name indicates, is perfectly flat. To 
this island Agrippa Posthumus , grandson of Augustus, was once 
banished , and to him are referred the considerable Roman remains 
which still exist here. Farther S. rises Monte Cristo, consisting of 
granite-rock, 6 M. in circumference. It contains numerous springs, 
and the ruins of a monastery destroyed by pirates in the 16th cen- 
tury. Nearer the coast is Qiglio, Lat. Igilium, a considerable is- 
land containing a village and vestiges of Roman palaces. The highest 
point is 1630 ft. above the sea-level. 

4. From Florence to Siena and Chiusi by Empoli. 

114 M. Railway. To Siena, 591/2 M., in 23/4-372 hrs. ; fares 10 fr. 35, 7 fr. 
15, 4 fr. 95 c. (carriages changed at Empoli). — From Siena to Chiusi, 
581/2 31., in 3 hrs. ; fares 9 fr. 45, 6 fr. 45, 4 fr. 45 c. — No quick trains. 

Florence, see Baedekers Northern Italy. — 6 M. S. Donnino; 
the valley of the Arno expands. 7 M. Signa, with its grey pinnacles 
and towers, is famed for its straw-plaiting. The line crosses the 
Ombrone , which falls into the Arno, and enters the defile of the 
Oonfolina, which separates the middle from the lower valley of the 
Arno. Crossing the Arno, the train reaches (16 M.) Montelupo. 
Farther on we cross the small river Pesa. 

20 M. Empoli (Rail. Restaurant , unpretending), a small town 
with 6000 inhab. , with antiquated buildings and narrow streets, 
situated in a fertile district. Halt of 6-20 min. ; passengers to Siena 
change carriages. The main line pursues a W. direction towards 
Pisa and Leghorn ; see Baedeker's Northern Italy. 

The line to Siena traverses the fertile valley of the Elsa, on 
the right bank of the stream. To the right, on the hill, S. Miniato 
dei Tedeschi, picturesquely situated , with a lofty mediaeval tower. 
23 M. Ponte a Elsa. 3072 M. Castel Fiorentino; the town, on the 
height to the left, is the principal place in the Val d'Elsa. 

35^2 M. Certaldo ; the town, on the hill to the left, was the na- 
tive place of Oiovanni Boccaccio, who died here, 21st Dec, 1375, at 
the age of 62. His tomb in the church of S. Michele e Oiacomo (La 
Canonica), erected in 1503, was removed some time after 1783 and 
his bones scattered. The house of Boccaccio, now denoted by a 
tablet, was restored in 1822 by the Countess Carlotta Lenzoni-Me- 
dici, and fitted up in the mediaeval style. The remains of his mon- 
ument were also brought hither. 

43'/2 M. Poggibonsi (Aquila, opposite the station , tolerably 
comfortable); the town (4000 inhab.) lies to the right. On the hill 
above it rise the old castle and the monastery of S. Lucchese. In the 
church of the castle is an altar-piece and in the former Refectory are 
frescoes by Gerino da Pistoja. 

Diligence from Poggibonsi to Colle, corresponding with the diligence 
to Volteeea (twice weekly), see p. 12. Carriage from Poggibonsi to Vol- 
terra about 15 fr., a drive of 3-4 hours. 

On a hill (1181 ft.) about 6 M. to the W. of Poggibonsi (carr. 
from the station 2 fr.) lies the ancient town of — 

S. Gimignano (1180 ft. ; Albergo Qiusti, Piazza della Collegiata, 
well spoken of ; good rooms at the Palazzo Pratellesi ; bargain ne- 
cessary at both), with 8200 inhabitants. In the 13th and 14th cent, 
it was a prosperous and independent place, but in 1353 , after hav- 
ing suffered terribly in consequence of the dissensions of the lead- 
ing families of the Salvucci (Ghibellines) and ArdinghellifQuelphs), 
it became subject to Florence. Its walls, its gate, its towers (whence 
the name 'S. Gimignano delle belle torri') and its streets, all carry 

8. GIMIGNANO. 4. Route. 15 

us back to the middle ages. There is no town in Tuscany which 
presents so faithful a picture of Dante's time, and nowhere can we 
obtain a clearer insight into the rich development of Italian art in 
the 13th-15th centuries. Architecture of the Gothic type prevails, 
and most of the houses are of uniform and symmetrical construction. 

In the centre of the town is the Piazza della Collegiata, or 
del Duomo. The principal buildings in this square are : — 

The *Palazzo Pubblico or Comunale, erected in 1288-1323. 

The Sala del Consiglio contains a 'Madonna with saints and the 
kneeling donor Podesta Nello dei Tolomei , a fresco by Lippo Memmi of 
Siena, 1317, remarkable only for elaborate execution, restored by Benozzo 
Gozzoli in 1467 ; also pictures from suppressed monasteries in the neigh- 
bourhood : 12, 13. Filippino Zippi, Annunciation ; 18. Pinturicchio, Madonna 
with two saints. — The Cappella del Pketoke , or della Garcere (now 
divided by a wall into two parts), contains a "Scene from the legend of 
St. Yvo, and allegorical figures of Truth, Prudence, and Falsehood, fres- 
coes in grisaille by Sodoma. There are also many traces of frescoes in 
other parts of the palace. 

Adjoining the palace is the Torre del Comune (160 ft.), the 
highest of the 13 towers which still exist out of the original number 
of 50. The largest of its three bells dates from 1328. 

The Palazzo del Podesta, on the left side of the piazza, with 
an imposing loggia, is surmounted by a tower on which is indicated 
the height beyond which private individuals were prohibited from 
building. — On the opposite side rises the principal church — 

*La Collegiata, or La Pieve, of the 11th cent., altered in the 
15th by Giuliano da Majano, and now entirely modernised. It con- 
tains numerous frescoes of the 14th and 15th centuries. 

On the entrance-wall, 'Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, a fresco of colos- 
sal proportions by Benozzo Gozzoli, 1465 ; Annunciation, two wooden figures 
by Martinus Bartolomaei of Siena. In theN. aisle, scenes from the Old Testa- 
ment (badly preserved) by Barlolo di Fredi of Siena, 1356; in the S. aisle, 
Life of Christ by Barna da Siena, 1380. In the nave, above the arch, Para- 
dise and the Inferno, by Taddeo Bartoli. — The visitor should particularly 
notice the decorations in the last side-chapel to the right, the ''Cappella 
S. Fina, designed by Giuliano da Majano; altar-piece by Benedetto da Ma- 
jano. The two "Frescoes on the side-walls, representing the vision of the 
youthful saint and her burial, by Dom. Ghirlandajo, are among the finest 
works of that master, and combine a fresh and life-like style with ma- 
jestic gravity. — In the choir, centre of the right wall, Coronation of the 
Virgin , an altar-piece by Piero del Pollajuolo of Florence , 1483 ; to the 
left of this, Madonna and four saints, by Benozzo Gozzoli; on the left wall, 
same subject by Tamani; adjacent, 'Marquetry ('intarsia 1 ) choir-stalls of 
1490. — The Oratorio S. Giovanni contains an Annunciation by Dom. 
Ghirlandajo, 1482, a work of no great importance. 

The following churches are also interesting : — 

*S. Agostino, begun in 1280 (chief entrance usually closed). 

This church owes its fame to the 'Frescoes in the Choir by Benozzo 
Gozzoli (1465), where the master has pourtrayed the life of St. Augustine 
in 17 scenes, from his school-days to his death. Though not of uniform 
excellence, nor in equally good preservation, these pictures alone repay 
a visit to S. Gimignano (the finest are: St. Augustine as teacher of rhe- 
toric in Rome; Death of St. Monica; St. Augustine on the bier). — The 
Cappella S. Guglielmo, to the right of the choir, contains a Nativity of 
the Virgin, by Bartolo di Fredi, in which several touches of real Italian 
life are traceable. — To the left, in the Cappella del S. Sacramento, 

16 Route 4. ASCIANO. From Florence 

are frescoes by Vincenzo da S. Gimignano. — On the N. side of the 
church, St. Geminianus and three worshippers, a fresco by Seb. Mainardi, 
a pupil of Dom. Ghirlandajo; farther on, St. Sebastian, the deliverer 
from the plague, the effects of which are symbolised by flashes of light- 
ning, by Benozzo Oozzoli, 1464, of less importance than the frescoes in the 
choir. To the right of the principal entrance : * Altar-piece by Benedetto 
da Majano, 1494; under the organ are frescoes by Seb. Mainardi, repre- 
senting Saints in simple groups. 

/S. Jacopo, of the 12th cent., the church of the Knights Templar, 
contains frescoes by a Sienese master of the 14th century. 

S. Oirolamo : behind the high-altar , Madonna and saints by 
Vincenzo da 8. Gimignano, with a glory by a later painter. 

The principal saloon of the upper floor of the Palazzo Pratellesi 
contains a Madonna with saints, by Tamani. 

The Library, in the Palazzo delle Scuole, Via S. Matteo, con- 
sists of 6000 vols, and 100 codices. One of its treasures is a copy 
of Alciati's Emblemata (Lyons, 1564), along with which are bound 
up several interesting autographs , including letters from Luther 
and Melanchthon. The palace also contains a small Museum. 

A private garden at the Fortezza , the highest part of the old 
fortifications (ascend to the left past La Collegiata) , commands a 
fine view of the town and neighbourhood. 

We may now drive in 3/ 4 hr. to the venerable church of S. Maria 
Assunta di C'allori , or Cellole, situated outside the Porta Matteo, and 
dating from the 11th, or perhaps from the 10th cent., containing remark- 
able capitals and curious ornamentation in the apse. Fine view. 

Beyond Poggibonsi the Railway begins to ascend considerably. 
To the right, Staggia with a mediaeval chateau ; farther on, to the 
right, the ancient and picturesque chateau of Monte Eiggioni. The 
train then passes through a long tunnel (3 min.). 

591/2 M. Siena, see p. 20. 

Siena is a terminal station, loftily situated, from which the train 
backs out. On the journey to Orvieto, the train returns part of the 
way to Empoli, and then diverges at an acute angle towards the 
S.E. "We traverse the hills which form the watershed between the 
Ombrone and the valley of the Chiana. Six tunnels; Asciano 
(19y 2 M.), the first station from Siena, is reached in V/ 4 hr. This 
district is one of the bleakest in Italy , the chief features being 
grotesquely shaped hills of sand , and barren fissured mountains, 
interesting to the palaeontologist only. 

79 M. Asciano; the pleasant little town (7400 inhab.), l*/ 2 M. 
to the right of the railway, possesses fortifications constructed by the 
Sienese in 1351, and several handsome churches with pictures of 
the early Sienese School. — A carriage may be obtained at the inn 
(*Alb. del Sole) for the excursion to Monte Oliveto (p. 35; 6 M., 
a drive of l 3 / 4 hr. there, and li/ 2 back; fare 12-15 fr. ; the road, 
leading by Chiusure, is rough and more suitable for walking). 

From Asciano to Gkosseto, 59y 2 M., branch-line in 4 hrs. ; fares 10 fr. 
45, 7 fr. 10, 4 fr. 90 c. — Two trains daily in each direction, but not 

to Siena. S. QUIRICO. 4. Route. 17 

always corresponding with the trains on the main line. A local train also 
runs to Monte Amiata. 

8 M. S. Giovanni d'Asso (tolerable inn). The Canonica contains six 
small and ancient paintings of the Sienese school. The Mte. Oliveto is 
reached hence in IV2 hr. (p. 35; a cart with one horse may be obtained). 

14 M. Torrenieri, on the old road from Siena to Borne. 

— [About 51/2 M. to the S.W. of Torrenieri (omnibus 2 fr.) lies Mont- 
alcino (Albergo del Giglio, tolerable, bargaining necessary), a town which 
early in the middle ages belonged to the abbey of S. Antimo, and after- 
wards to Siena. In the Palazzo Municipale is the Cappella delle Carceri, 
which contains a small collection of pictures from suppressed mon- 
asteries, including a Descent from the Cross (1382) and a Coronation of 
the Virgin (1388) by Bartolo di Fredi of Siena. The Cathedral was begun 
in 1818. The dissolved Franciscan Monastery is now a hospital. Over the 
chief entrance of the church belonging to it is a group of the Madonna, 
John the Baptist, SS. Peter and Sebastian, of the school of Delia Robbia 
(1507). A room adjoining the sacristy is adorned with frescoes of the 
latter part of the 15th cent., and the monastery court contains others dating 
from 1438. Fine view from the piazza adjacent to the modern church of 
the Madonna, on the E. side of the town. — From Montalcino we may 
(with a guide) walk in 2 hrs. (or drive in l'/j hr., one-horse carr. 7 fr.) 
to S. Antimo, which was an independent abbey down to the 13th century. 
The handsome church was built of white alabaster and travertine in the 
11th cent., and its rich portal dates from 1292. 

About 4 M. to the S.E. of Torrenieri (omnibus IV2 fr.) lies S. ftuirico 
(Albergo del Lepre , tolerable), which was the residence of an imperial 
governor during the Hohenstaufen regime and was fortified by Siena in 
1472. The handsome 'Collegiate Church in the Lombard style was founded 
in the 8th cent.; highly ornate porch of 1298; interior disfigured in the 
17th cent. ; choir-stalls of the 16th century. The adjacent Misericordia church 
contains a high- altar-piece by Sadoma. The Palazzo Chigi, erected in 
1685-87, deserves a visit (keys at the Fattoria Chigi). The Orti Leo- 
nini (keys at the same place), a neglected park of the 16th cent., adjoin- 
ing the town-wall, afford an admirable view. — The hot Baths of Vig- 
noni, 3 M. to the S. of Quirico, were much frequented in ancient times, 
and again during the Renaissance period , but are now neglected. The 
ante-chamber of the bath-house contains an ancient votive stone. Among 
the famous mediaeval visitors were St. Catharine of Siena and Lorenzo il 
Magnifico. — From S. Quirico to Pienza (p. 19) 4>/ 2 M.] — 

21 M. Monte Amiata , the best starting-point for a visit to the moun- 
tain of that name , the highest in Tuscany. — [By omnibus in 3 hrs. to 
Castel del Piano (2'/2 fr. ; Alb. Bisturrini, well spoken of), where a li- 
censed guide may be obtained at the Municipio ; thence on horse-back in 
3 3 /4 hrs., or on foot in 4'/2 hrs., to the summit of the "Monte Amiata 
(5644 ft.), which affords an admirable survey of the whole country between 
the Tyrrhenian Sea, the Apennines, and the Ciminian Forest. (The rock- 
formation is volcanic and interesting to geologists.) A pleasant return- 
route leads through beautiful wood to Vivo, a suppressed Camaldulensian 
monastery, now the property of Count Cerrini, where a one-horse carriage 
may be hired of the miller. — From Vivo to stat. Monte Amiata 11 M., or 
to Torrenieri 17 M. The latter road leads by Castiglione d'Orcia, not far 
from the Baths of Vignoni (see above), and by S. Quirico (see above).] — 
28 M. S. Angela and Cinigiano. The train follows the right bank of 
the Orcia, the E. affluent of the Ombrone, and crosses the latter. 

32'/2 M. Monte Antico. The train then follows the Ombrone as far as 
Paganico , where it quits the river and begins to thread its way among 
the hills. 42 M. Rocca Slrada, a village (1640ft.) on the right; then Stic- 
ciano. At (53 M.) Monte Pescali the line unites with the Maremme Rail- 
way , to the N. of Grosseto (p. 3). 

82Y2M. Rapolano. The village, to the right, possesses baths which 
are frequented in summer. The country becomes more attractive. 
90y. 2 M. Lucignano ; the mediaeval village lies on the hill to the 
Bakdkkbk. Italy II. 8th Edition. 2 

18 Route i. MONTEPULCIANO. From Florence 

left. The improving cultivation of the soil indicates the proximity 
of the charming valley of the Chiana. To the left in the distance 
the chain of the Apennines is visible. 

94 M. Sinalunga; on the right the village, -where Garibaldi was 
captured on his march to Rome, 24th Sept. 1867. 

98 M. Torrita. Monte Pulciano becomes visible to the right. 

103 M. Montepulciano ; the lonely station is 6M. from the town 
(omnibus in l 1 /^ hr. , meeting nearly every train ; fare'2fr.); the 
road passes through several small villages. 

Montepulciano. — Albergo Bruzzichelli , with trattoria, Via Gari- 
baldi 32, tolerable, R. 1-1 >/2 fr. , D. according to bargain, 2-3 fr. — The 
Wine of Montepulciano is justly celebrated. The red wine is strong and 
somewhat rough. ' Vino santo 1 is a sweet white wine (2 fr. per bottle). 
Vermouth is a white wine flavoured with fragrant herbs and wormwood. 

Montepulciano , a picturesque town with 3000 (or with the ad- 
joining suburbs 13,000) inhab. , surrounded by mediaeval walls, lies 
conspicuously on the slope of a mountain (2073 ft.). It was the 
birthplace of the scholar and poet Angelo Arnbrogini (1454-94), 
surnamed Politianus after this his native place ('Respublica Po- 
litiana'), the friend of Lorenzo il Magnifico and preceptor of his chil- 
dren. The beautiful situation as well as the monuments of the place 
repay a visit. The sights may be inspected in 4-5 hours. 

We follow the main street, generally running from E. to W., 
and ascending from the gate next the railway-station to the plateau 
of the hill on which the town lies. It is first named Via Garibaldi, 
then Via Cavour, and lastly Via Poliziano. — In the Via Garibaldi, 
No. 32, on the left, is the Palazzo Bruzzichelli (containing the 
above mentioned inn), built by Vignola. Opposite, Nos. 35-37, 
Palazzo Avignonesi, dating from the latter half of the 16th century. 
Then, also on the right, S. Agostino, of the 17th cent., with curious 
touches of Gothic. — In the Via Cavour, on the left, Chiesa del 
Gesit, a characteristic example of the Jesuit style. On the right the 
*Mercato (market-halls) by Vignola. — In the Via Poliziano, on the 
left, No. 1, is the house in which Angelo Poliziano was born, a brick 
building of the 14th cent., with an inscription. 

We next reach the Piazzetta di S. Maria, with the small 
church of S. Maria of the 13th cent, (handsome portal). It com- 
mands an admirable view of the lakes of Montepulciano, Chiusi, 
and Trasimeno; to the left rises Monte Amiata; farther up we obtain 
a survey of Pienza, S. Quirico, Montalcino, and the valley of the 
Chiana. — A road hence descends to the left in 12 min. to the — 

*Madonna di S. Biagio , in the valley, designed by Antonio da 
Sangallo and begun in 1518. The fine marble chapel of the high- 
altar, by Giovanozzo and Lisandro Albertini, dates from 1584. 

Returning to the hill, and again following the main street, we 
next reach the Piazza Grande. The interesting fountain in the 
centre dates from 1520. On the left is the — 

to Siena. PIENZA. 4. Route. 19 

Palazzo Municipale, of the 14th cent., Tesenibling the Palazzo 
Pitti at Florence, and containing a few pictures and curiosities. 

Ante-chamber of first floor: Madonna, John the Baptist, and saints, of 
the school of Delia Robbia. — Picture Gallery on the second floor. 
I. Room: Matteu da Siena (?), Madonna. II. Room: 9. Seb. del Piombo, 
Pope Paul III.; 80. Pacchiarotto, Madonna; "86. Umbrian School (ascribed 
to Raphael) , Portrait of a lady. A collection of dies once used by the 
engraver Cerbano is preserved here. 

On the W. of the piazza is the Cathedral, with a ruinous facade. 

In the Interior, over the principal entrance, is the Assumption and 
Coronation of the Madonna by Taddeo Bartoli. The church was once 
adorned with an imposing monument to Bartolommeo Aragazzi, secretary 
of Pope Martin V., erected by the famous architect Michelozzo Michelozzi, a 
pupil of Donatello. It was taken down, however, during last century, 
when several parts of it were lost and others were placed in different 
parts of the church: thus, to the left of the principal entrance, two 
reliefs; by the two first pillars, two allegorical "Statues; by the high-al- 
tar, the marble summit, consisting of cherubs with garlands. 

To the right, opposite the Palazzo Municipale, is the Palazzo 
Contucci, by A. da Sangallo, and adjoining it the Palazzo Nobile- 
Tarugi, attributed to the same master. 

We next enter the Via Ricci, where on the right rises the * Pa- 
lazzo Bombagli, a Gothic brick building. — Crossing the Piazzetta 
della Misericordia, with the church of <S. Francesco (Gothic portal) 
and line view, we now descend the Via del Poggiolo. Immediately 
to the left in this street is the entrance to the Oratorio della Mi- 
sericordia, which contains a Christ in a glory and an Annunciation 
over the high-altar of the school of the Della Robbia. 

A visit to Pienza is most conveniently made from Montepulciano : about 
9 M., one-horse carr. there and back 10, two-horse 20 fr. Comp. p. 17. 

Pienza (Albergo Franci, poor), a small town with about 2000 inhab., 
was originally called Corsignano, but subsequently named the 'town of Pius' 
after Pius II. (jEneas Sylvius Piccolomini, p. 26), who was born here on 
18th Oct. 1405, and who adorned the town with very handsome buildings, 
chiefly designed by the Florentine Bernardo di Lorenzo, an architect who 
was also much employed at Rome by Nicholas V. und Paul II. As all these 
buildings date from about the same period (1460) and are situated in the 
same piazza (del Duomo), they afford a more compact survey of early-Re- 
naissance architecture than is to be obtained in most Italian towns. The 
chief edifices are the Cathedral, with its studiously simple facade; to the 
right of it is the Vescovado or episcopal palace ; opposite the cathedral 
the Palazzo Pubblico, with a colonnade; to the right the finest of all, 
the "Palazzo Piccolomini, which like the Palazzo Rucellai at Florence 
exhibits the rustica style in combination with pilasters (handsome court 
and colonnade) ; in front of the palace is a charming Fountain of 1462. — 
The right transept of the cathedral contains a Madonna with four saints 
by Matteo da Siena; the choir-stalls, carved in the Gothic style, date from 
1462; in the chapel to the left of the high-altar is an Assumption of the 
Virgin by Vecchietta ; in the left transept a Madonna and four saints by 
Sano di Pietro. The Cathedral Treasure comprises a perfect museum of early 
Renaissance works (shown by the sagrestano in presence of one of the 
canonici, sacristan 2 fr.j: crozier in gilded and embossed silver, a Pax- 
vobiscum , a silver censer in the Gothic style , "Mitre of Pius II. de- 
corated with pearls and jewels , reliquary of St. Andrew of Salerno, 
crucifix with rich filigree-work, etc. — The Opera del Duomo, to the left 
of the cathedral, contains the ecclesiastical vestments, including those of 
Pius II., one of which is of Flemish, the other of Italian workmanship. 


20 Route 5. 



Continuation of Journey. To the right we soon observe the 
Monti di Cetona, which are connected with the Monte Amiata 
(p. 17). To the left stretches the long Lake of Monte Pulciano, 
beyond which is the Lake of Chiusi , connected with the other by 
a canal. The lakes exhale unhealthy malaria in summer. 

IO872 M. Chianciano. — 114 M. Chiusi, see p. 55. 

5. Siena. 

Hotels. "Grande Albergo di Siena (PI. a; E, 3), Via Cavour, with 
its back to the Lizza (p. 33), R. from 3, D. 5, B. li/ 2 , L. & A. l'/z, omn. 
1 fr. ; ' s Aquila Nera e Akmi d'Inghilterra (PI. b ; E, 5) , Via Cavour, 
B. 2-3, dej. 3, D. 4, A. >/* fr. — Scala (PI. d; D, 4), Via Diacceto 10, 
near the Piazza S. Giovanni, unpretending, but with large rooms (l'/2fr.); 
Tke Mori (PI. F, 3), Via Garibaldi, near the station, for moderate require- 
ments, E. l'/s fr. — For a prolonged stay : Pension Chiusarelli, Via del 
Paradiso 22, near S. Domenico ; Francesco Tognazzi, Via Sallustio Ban- 
dini 19; Mme. Marion, Via Ricasoli 37; Pasquini, Via delle Belle Arti 19 
(pension at each about 7 fr. per day, even for a short stay). 

Trattorie. Minerva, near the Piazza Tolomei (Via Cavour), poor; Scala, 
see above. — Beer : Bader <£ Bischoff, in the Lizza. — Wine and fine view 
at Talliani's, Via delle Belle Arti 31. 

Caffe Greco, near the Casino de' Nobili (p. 24). 

By Day 




. 50 


two -horse 
1 fr 



At Night 

Ifr. - 
2 50 
1 50 

two -horse 
Ifr. 50 
3 — 
2 — 

3 — 
2 50 
2 — 
- 60 

4 — '"" 
3 — ' 
2 50 
- 80 

Cab Tariff: 

In the town, per drive . . . 

— first hour 

— each additional hour . . 
Beyond the town, as far as 2 M., 

for one hour . . 

— each additional hour. . 
From the station to the town 

— — one seat 

Box above 22 lbs. 30 c. 
Velturino: Celso Vannini, Via Cavour 23; carriage per day 25 fr., half- 
day 8-10 fr. Saddle-horses, per day 7V2 fr., half-day 5 fr. 

Post Office, Via Cavour, near the Pal. Spannocchi, open 8-10 and 11-7. 
— Telegraph Office, Palazzo Reale, Piazza del Duomo. 

Baths. Swimming-bath near the Fontebranda (poor; water cold). 

Good Photographs at Cav. Paolo LombardVs, Alia Costarella No. 8, near 
the Caffe Greco. — Carved Wood (comp. p. 23): Gosi, Guidi, <k Querci, 
Via Belle Arti 31, near S. Domenico; Carlo Cambi, Via del Capitano 5, 
near the cathedral. 

Siena is recommended for a stay of some duration. To the town an 
its treasures of art the traveller should devote 2>/:r3 days at least. On 
2nd July and 15th August, horse-races, called il Pulio, take place, present- 
ing a very picturesque scene (seat on balcony 2-2'/2 fr.)- 

Siena, the capital of the province of that name, with 25,300 
inhab. (incl. the suburbs), the seat of a university which was in 
high repute as early as the 14th cent., and the residence of an arch- 
bishop, is picturesquely situated 25 M. due S. of Florence, and 
1330 ft. above the sea, on three connected hills (the clayey soil of 
which is called 'Terra di Siena'). It is now a busy trading and man- 
ufacturing place ; it also possesses several libraries and scientific 
societies, and is one of the pleasantest towns in Tuscany. The cli- 
mate is healthy, the atmosphere in summer being tempered by the 

34 irfi u"i id >"i u"S ift us 

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s a a 


History. SIENA. 5. Route. 21 

lofty situation; the language and manners of the inhabitants are 
pleasing and prepossessing. Most of the streets are narrow and 
crooked, but contain many palaces and handsome churches. Next 
to Rome, Florence, and Venice, Siena is perhaps the most impor- 
tant town in Italy for the study of the art of the 13th- 16th centuries. 

Siena, the ancient Sena Julia, or Colonia Julia Senensis, is said to have 
been founded by the Senonian Gauls and converted into a Roman colony 
by Augustus, whence it derives its arms, the female wolf and the twins. 
The only Etruscan antiquities here are a few tombs which were discovered 
in 1864 near the Porta Camollia. The town attained to the height of its 
prosperity in the middle ages. After the death of the Countess Matilda 
(1115) her extensive dominions were dismembered, and the citizens of 
Siena, as well as those of Pisa, Lucca, and Florence, succeeded in estab- 
lishing their independence. The government then fell into the hands 
of the nobility, but was wrested from them by the people in 1133. The 
ensuing conflicts, however, terminated in favour of the nobles, and Siena 
became the leader of the Ghibelline party in Central Italy, while Florence 
was the stronghold of the Guelph faction. Farinata degli Uberti and the 
Ghibellines from Florence were then welcomed in Siena, and on 4th Sept., 
1260, a great victory over the Guelphs, the bloodiest recorded in the an- 
nals of Tuscany, was gained near Monte Aperto, on the Arbia (6 M. distant), 
with the aid of the German troops of King Manfred of Naples. Ten years 
later Charles of Anjou succeeded in gaining possession of Siena and in 
making it a member of the Tuscan-Guelph confederation of towns ; but 
the city kept a jealous watch over its privileges, and, notwithstanding 
several attempts on the part of the nobility to re-assert their influence, its 
constitution remained unchanged. In the 14th and 15th centuries Siena 
numbered nearly 100,000 inhab. , and vied with Florence in wealth and 
love of art. At length the supremacy was usurped by tyrants, such as 
(about 1487) Pandolfo Petrucci, surnamed II Magnifico, whom Macchiavelli 
represents as a pattern of a despot. In 1493, when Charles VIII. of France 
arrived in Italy, Siena concluded an alliance with him, and during the 
troubles of the first half of the 16th cent, the citizens for the most part 
sided with the French, by whom the town was usually garrisoned. On 
22nd April, 1555, the French garrison was compelled by famine to capit- 
ulate to the Spanish besiegers, by whose aid Duke Cosimo I. of Tuscany 
succeeded in gaining permanent mastery of the place. 

History of Art. The bitter political fate which overtook Siena, and 
converted the mighty rival of Florence into a quiet provincial town, will 
strike the antiquarian as a very fortunate circumstance ; for here are still 
preserved many monuments and reminiscences of mediseval life compara- 
tively unaffected by the vicissitudes and the progress of subsequent ages. 
The conservative character of Siena has not, however, been produced, as 
in the case of Bruges, by the withdrawal of the stream of history ; for even 
when at the height of its power, particularly as compared with Florence, 
it manifested a preference for old established rules and a dislike for inno- 
vations. In the province of Art, despite the abundant supply of artists at 
their disposal the citizens never seem to have taken the initiative , but 
adhered with remarkable tenacity to the earlier style. The best period of 
Sienese art still belongs to the middle ages, when the towns of Italy had 
begun to pride themselves on their practice of art, but before the pedantic 
element had given way to the pure sense of the beautiful. There is no town 
in Italy which presents such instructive examples of the Italian Gothic 
Architecture of the 13th and 14th centuries as Siena, where we find magni- 
ficent stone buildings vying with graceful structures in brick. If the Ca- 
thedral had been built according to the intentions of the citizens, it would 
have been one of the largest and most imposing churches in existence, 
and even in its reduced proportions it is one of the finest in Italy. In 
the secular buildings (of which perhaps the Palazzo Buonsignori is the 
finest example} the pointed style predominates ; the windows are gene- 
rally divided by small columns, and the whole edifice is crowned with 

22 Route 5. SIENA. History of Art. 

pinnacles. In the 15th cent., when the motive of the castellated mansion 
was clothed with Renaissance forms , Siena was not slow to imitate the 
example of Florence. It is, however, uncertain whether Rosellino and 
Francesco di Giorgio have been correctly designated as the architects of 
the Piccolo-mini, Spannocchi , and Nerucci palaces. The most interesting of 
the Renaissance churches is the small round church degli Innocently ad- 
joining the Spedale della Scala. 

Siena has produced no independent school of Sculpture, though a 
liberal patron of foreign masters. As throughout the rest of Tuscany, 
the development of art did not progress rapidly here till the beginning of 
the 13th century. Niccolo Pisano, the most famous sculptor of the 13th 
cent., and his son Giovanni were employed at Siena; and the sculptures 
on the font of S. Giovanni and on the Fonte Gaja are admirable works 
by Jacopo della Quekcia (.1374-1438), the earliest representative of the 
Renaissance style. 

Fainting was the favourite art of the early Sienese. As early as the 
13th cent, they could boast of Ducoio di Buoninsegna , a painter whose 
works far surpass those of Cimabue in beauty and gracefulness. On his 
completion in 1310 of the 'Majestas' , or Triumphant Madonna, for the 
high-altar of the cathedral of Siena (now in the chapels on the right and 
left of the choir), the picture was carried to the church in solemn pro- 
cession. An equally important master was Rimone Martini (1283-1344), 
who has been immortalised by a sonnet of Petrarch, and who, like his 
contemporary Giotto , practised his art and exercised his influence far 
beyond the limits of his native city. Works by his hand are, or were, 
to be found at Naples, Orvieto, Assisi , and Avignon, as well as in the 
Palazzo Pubblico at Siena. So famous indeed was his name that it was 
usual to attribute to him all the best works of his period. His compo- 
sitions are of a very primitive character, but he certainly possessed great 
skill in his rendering of tender sentiment. Closely akin to these two 
masters was Lirpo Memmi, who executed large frescoes with the same 
elaborate care as miniatures in missals. Several painters of the 14th 
cent, followed in Simone's footsteps , such as Baena or Bekna , Luca 
Thome, and Lippo Vanni, without however exhibiting much individuality. 
The easy narrative style and the imaginative allegory were cultivated 
by the brothers Pietko and Ambbogio Lorenzetti (both of whom pro- 
bably died of the plague in 134S), and the approach of the Sienese 
school to that of Giotto was thus accomplished. A little later, however, 
the works of Bartolo di Fredi (1330-1409) fell short of those of his 
predecessors, and this was still more the case with hose of Taddeo 
Bartoli (1362-1422?), who w;.s far inferior to his Florentine contem- 
poraries. For a time all artistic progress at Siena seemed to be at an 
end, and throughout the 15th cent, the city did not give birth to a single 
master of note. The painters Domenico di Bartolo , Lorenzo di Pietro 
(nicknamed Vecchietta), Benvenuto and JIatteo di Giovanni, and others 
of this period adhered tenaciously to the limited sphere of their prede- 
cessors, from whose influence they wer; 1 unable to emancipate themselves. 
At the close of the century, owing to contact with neighbouring schools, 
whose representatives were frequently invited to Siena, and to the intro- 
duction of the study of Florentine, Umbrian, and Lombard masters, the 
tide of progress at length began to set in. The most distinguished Sie- 
nese masters of this period, far surpassing their contemporaries Fungai, 
Petechia , PacchiaroUo , and others , were ISaldassare Peruzzi and Gio- 
vanantonio Bazzi, surnamed II Sodoma. Peruzzi (1481-1537), who was 
associated with Raphael at Rome, was endowed with an admirable per- 
ception of beauty of proportion, and was famous both as an architect and 
a decorative painter, but Siena now possesses none of his works. Sodoma 
(c. 1473-1549), on the other hand, may be thoroughly studied at Siena. A 
Lombard by birth, he brought to Siena some traces of Leonardo's style, 
but instead of cultivating this, he seems to have trusted to his own na- 
tural ability, and with such success that in one respect he vies with Ra- 
phael himself. In the delineation of beautiful and youthful figures he is 
unsurpassed, and his technical skill in fresco painting and his fertility 

Palazzo Pubblico. SIENA. 5. Route. 23 

are marvellous; but, in spite of Ms strong sense of the beautiful, his 
works are apt to pall upon the taste owing to the superficiality of their 
composition. With Don. Beccafumi (1486-1551), who frequently altered his 
style, begins the final period of decline from which Siena never recovered. 
In the art of Wood Carving Siena has always taken the lead among 
the towns of Italy. In the 15th and 16th cent, the Barili family (particu- 
larly Antonio, d. 1516, and Giovanni, d. 1529) distinguished themselves 
in this branch, and their modern representative is Giusli, whose pupils 
Gosi, Guidi, and Querci are mentioned on p. 20. 

Iii the centre of the town , at the union of the three hills on 
which it stands, is the picturesque *Piazza del Campo, now offi- 
cially called Vittorio Emanuele (PI. D, 5), which has been men- 
tioned by Dante (Purg. xi. 134). It is semicircular in form, and 
depressed towards the centre , somewhat resembling an ancient 
theatre. The popular assemblies and festivals of the ancient re- 
public took place here, and it is here that the Palio horse-races 
(p. 20) are now held. ■ — The piazza is enclosed by pinnacled pal- 
aces. On the diameter of the semicircle rises the — 

*Palazzo Pubblico (PI. 22; D, 5), a huge brick edifice of four 
stories, erected in 1289-1309, with pointed windows divided by 
small columns, and wings lower than the central part of the build- 
ing. (The wings of the second floor are of a later date ; comp. 
p. 27). Adjacent rises the slender tower del Mangia , begun in 
1325 , and finished after 1345 , so named after the stone figure of 
a man which used to strike the hours (a popular figure somewhat 
resembling the Roman Pasquino, p. 201). At the foot of the tower 
is the Cappella di Piazza, in the form of a loggia, begun after the 
cessation of the great plague of 1348 which carried off 30,000 per- 
sons, and completed in 1376, with damaged frescoes by Sodoma. 
The she-wolf on the column in front of the right wing, the arms of 
Siena, dates from 1429. 

The "Interior (custodian '/ 2 -l fr.) is embellished with numerous fres- 
coes of the Sienese school. Among those on the Ground Floor are a 
Coronation of the Virgin, by Sano di Pietro, 1445; a Madonna with SS. 
Ansano and Galgano, by Sodoma; Madonna with saints, by Vecchietta; a 
Risen Christ, by Sodoma, 1535 (?), in the room of the Sindaco. 

On the First Floor, the custodian first shows the Sala del Gran 
Consiglio (or del Mappamondo, or delle Balestre), adorned with large 
frescoes : "Madonna and Child under a canopy borne by saints, by Simone 
Martini, 1315, a somewhat stiff composition with numerous figures, but 
with beautiful details ; opposite, -'Equestrian portrait of Guidoriccio Fo- 
gliani de Ricci by Simone Martini, and *S. Ansano, *S. Vittorio, and S. Ber- 
nardo Tolomei by Sodoma, 1534; then SS. Bernardino and Caterina by 
Sano di Pietro. Adjacent, and only separated from the council-chamber by 
handsome benches carved by Domenico di Mccolo (1429), is the Council 
Chapel, embellished with frescoes of the Death and Assumption of the 
Virgin by Taddeo Bartoli. The altar-piece is a Holy Family by Sodoma ; 
tasteful font by Giov. di Tvrino of Siena. A beautiful iron railing (1436-45) 
separates the chapel from a small Vestibule, which also contains frescoes 
by Taddeo Bartoli (1441), representing St. Christopher, Judas Maccabeeus, 
and six figures of Roman gods and statesmen in quaint juxtaposition. — 
Another Room contains portraits of the eight popes and forty-one cardinals 
to whom Siena has given birth, a Madonna by Matteo da Siena, 1484, and 
S. Bernardino preaching in the Campo, by Sano di Pietro, interesting for 
its representation of the piazza at that period. — The adjoining Sala di 

24 Route 5. SIENA. S Giovanni. 

Ba lia , or de' Priori, is adorned with ostentatious "Frescoes from the history 
of Pope Alexander III. by Spinello Aretino (including a naval victory of the 
Venetians, and the Emp. Frederick Barbarossa and the Doge leading the 
Pope's horse). In the centre of the room are two coffers , one carved by 
Bavili, the other adorned with paintings said to he by Fra Angelico. On 
"the other side is the Sala del Concistoro , with ceiling-paintings by 
Becca/vmi, of subjects from ancient history, and a fine marble doorway by 
Jacopo delta Querela. — The Sala dei Nove, or della Pace, contains fres- 
coes by Ambrogio Zorenzetti, painted in 1337-39 , representing 'Good and 
Bad Government', three pictures which are indispensable to those who 
desire an insight into the disposition of the proud citizens of Siena in 
the middle ages. The allegories and allusions of a more or less ob- 
scure character which they contain are at least interesting as being of a 
much more homely kind than those customary in modern times. One of 
these mural paintings represents the ideal of a state, under the guidance 
of wisdom, justice, and other virtues , while the two others pourtray in 
a realistic style the consequences of good and bad government. The pre- 
servation is imperfect, but the spectator will not fail to admire the heads 
of Peace, Justice, and Concord in the first of the series. 

At the B. end of the Piazza del Campo is the Palazzo del Go- 
verno (p. 28; facade towards the "Via Ricasoli). - — In the centre of 
the piazza, opposite the Palazzo Pubblico, rises the marble *Fonte 
Oaja , with bas-reliefs of scriptural subjects by Jacopo della Quer- 
ela, 1419. (The originals, in a very damaged condition, are now 
preserved in the Opera del Duomo, see p. 27; the copies substitut- 
ed for them are by Tito Sarrocchi.~) A subterranean conduit, 18 M. 
in length, supplies the fountain with delicious water, the merits 
of which were extolled by Charles V. 

Ascending by steps through one of the passages beyond the 
Fonte Gaja, we reach the beginning of the Via di Citta, which 
presents a busy scene, especially in the evening. 

To the right, the handsome *Loggia of the Casino de' Nobili 
(PI. 2 ; D, 5), once the seat of the commercial tribunal. It was built 
in imitation of the Loggia de'Lanzi of Florence in 1417. The sculp- 
tures are by Sienese masters of the 15th cent., such as Ant. Fe- 
derighi (who executed the figures of S. Ansano and S. Savino and 
the stone bench on the right) and Lorenzo di Mariano (to whom is 
due the stone bench on the left). — The N. prolongation of this 
street towards the Porta Camollia is the Via Cavour, see p. 33. 

Proceeding to the left, past theCaffe Greco, and then ascending 
the Via dbi Pellegrini , a side-street to the right , we reach the 
small Piazza S. Giovanni. Here, in the corner to the left, is 
situated the Palazzo del Magnifico (PI. 18; D, 5), which was 
erected in 1508 for the tyrant Pandolfo Petrucci (p. 21), from de- 
signs by Giacomo Cozzarelli. The bronze ornaments and rings on 
the outside are in admirable keeping with the style. One room is 
embellished with frescoes by Pinturicchio, discovered in 1882. 

In a straight direction we obtain a fine survey of the choir of 
the loftily situated cathedral, under which is the old baptistery, 
forming a kind of crypt, now the church of *S. Giovanni (PI. 5), 
with a fine, but unfinished Gothic facade (about 1400). 

The marble "Font is an admirable early-Renaissance work. It is adorned 

Cathedral. SIENA. 5. Route. 25 

with six 'Bronze-reliefs from the history of John the Baptist by J. delta 
Querela (Zacharias led out of the Temple, 1430), by Lorenzo Ghiberii 
(Baptism of Christ and John the Baptist conducted to prison, 1427), by 
f.°"" teUo (Head of John the Baptist brought before Herod and his guests, 
1427), and (the others) by Turin o di Sano and his son Giovanni di Turino. 
The latter also executed the figures of Charity, Justice, and Prudence; 
those of Faith and Hope are by Donatello. — The frescoes by Sienese 
painters of the 15th cent, are of inferior value. — Over the high-altar is 
a Baptism of Christ by And. and Raf. Puccinelli of Brescia. 

From the Piazza S. Giovanni we may either follow the street to 
the right, past the Palazzo Arcivescovile (PL 13), or we may ascend 
the steps to the left. By either way we reach the Piazza del Duomo. 

The **Cathedral, or Chiesa Metropolitana (PI. C, 4, 5), occupy- 
ing the highest ground in the town, is said to stand on the site of a 
temple of Minerva, which was succeeded by a church of S. Maria 
Assunta. The present building was begun early in the 13th cent.; 
the dome was completed in 1264; and about 1317 the choir was 
prolonged to the E. over the church of S. Giovanni (see above). 
Owing to certain structural defects, to which the present irregu- 
larity of the edifice is still perhaps partly due , it was resolved in 
1339 to erect a huge nave, of which the present cathedral was to 
form the transept only. Parts of this building, designed in a 
beautiful style, still exist on the S. side of the cathedral in the 
form of a ruin. After the plague of 1348 this ambitious plan was 
abandoned, and the original structure was then completed. (Length 
97 yds., width 26'/ 2 yds., length of transept 55 yds.) The *Fa- 
cade, constructed in 1270-1380 from a design by Giovanni Phono, 
showing a combination of the pointed and circular styles, is com- 
posed of red, black, and white marble, and richly decorated with 
sculptures representing prophets and angels by different masters; 
the mosaics were added in 1878 by Mussini and Franchi. The cam- 
panile , consisting of six stories , does not taper towards the top. 
On each side of the entrance is a column bearing the wolf of Siena. 

The ''Interior consists of a nave and aisles extending to the choir 
and intersected by a double transept, with an irregular hexagonal dome 
over the centre. The horizontal bands of colour, the continuous rows of 
busts of popes (in terracotta) over the arches, and the pillars with the 
half-columns will at first produce an unfavourable impression on northern 
travellers, but they will find that the pleasing ornamentation in marble 
compensates to a great extent for organic defects. 

The stained glass in the large circular window in the wall of the en- 
trance was designed by Perino del Vaga, 1549. Over the entrance is a 
graceful tribune of 1483, borne by two columns. The 'Basins for holy 
water are by Ant. Federighi, a pupil of Jac. della Quercia, 1462-63. 

The "Pavement is quite unique, being covered with 'Graffito' re- 
presentations in marble : scenes from Old Testament history, Moses, Sam- 
son, Judas Maccabaeus, Solomon, and Joshua by Duccio; Abraham's sacri- 
fice, Adam and Eve, Moses on Jit. Sinai, etc., by Beccafumi; the symbols 
of Siena and the towns allied with it, Hermes Trismegistus, Socrates and 
Crates the Sibyls, and other figures by masters of less note. The exe- 
cution varies. The oldest scenes are simple outlines engraved on the 
white marble and filled with black stucco. Shading was then introduced 
by the use of grey and also of coloured marble, so that the graffito 
gradually developed into an elaborate mosaic. Jlost of these works are now 
replaced by copies; the originals are in the Opera del Duomo (p. 27). 

26 Route 5. MtiJNA. Cathedral. 

Left Aisle: "Altar of the Piccolomini with statues of SS. Peter, Pius, 
Gregory, and James (V) by Michael Angelo, and St. Francis, begun by Torri- 
giani, and completed by Michael Angelo. Farther on , adjoining the door 
of the Libreria, is the Monument of Bandini, with the Risen Christ and 
angels , attributed to Michael Angela. — The entrance-wall of the Li- 
breria is embellished with fine sculptures in marble, by Marrina. Over 
the door: Coronation of Pius III. (Piccolomini), 1503, who reigned 27 
days only, by Bernardino Pinturicchio, who also painted the frescoes in 
the library (see below). 

The Left Transept contains the Cappella S. Giovanni, at the entrance 
to which are two columns resting on richly ornamented Renaissance bases. 
In the interior are a "Statue of John the Baptist by Donatello, 1457; sta- 
tues of SS. Catharine and Ansanus, by Neroccio, 1487; a font, perhaps by 
Jacopo delta Querela ; handsome stucco enrichments in the Renaissance style; 
and live small frescoes by Pinluricchio , three being scenes from the life 
of St. John, and two from the life of Alberto Arringhieri, the donor. 

The "Pulpit, octagonal in form and constructed of white marble, 
borne by ten columns, some of which rest on lions, and adorned with 
admirable reliefs from the New Testament, is by Niccolb Pisano, his son 
Giovanni, and his pupils Arnolfo and Lapo (1268). The flight of steps 
was designed by Bartolo Negroni, surnamed Riccio (1570). 

The Choir contains richly carved choir-stalls, reading-desk, etc., by 
Riccio (1569), and inlaid work (tarsia) by Fra Giovanni da Verona (1503). 
The bronze "Canopy is by Lorenzo di Pietro , surnamed Vecchietta (1472). 
The frescoes, by Beccafumi (1544) , were entirely renewed and altered at 
the beginning of the present century. — The chapels on the right and 
left of tbe choir contain the two halves of a "Picture by Duccio di Buonin- 
segna: on the left the Triumphant Madonna with the Child and saints, 
the once highly revered 'Majestas', which was placed over the high-altar 
in 1310 (p. 221, with the inscription: Mater Sancta Dei, sis caussa Senis 
requiei , sis Ducio vita , te quia pinxit ita. On the right is the Life of 
Christ, in 26 sections, originally forming a background to the Majestas. 
In the pavement in front of it is tbe monument of Bishop Peccio (d. 1426), 
a relief in bronze by Donatello. — By the pillars of the dome are two 
flagstaffs from the standard-waggon of the Florentines (il caroccio), 
captured at Monte Aperto in 1260, or, according to the latest authorities, 
those of the victorious waggon of the Sienese. Over a neighbouring altar 
is the crucifix which the Sienese carried with them on that occasion. 

In the Right Transept is the Cappella del Voto, belonging to the 
C/tigi, built by Alexander VII. (Fabio Chigi of Siena, papal nuncio at the 
Peace of Westphalia in 1648, pope in 1665-67) in 1661, richly adorned with 
lapis lazuli, marble, and gilding, and containing statues of St. Jerome and 
Mary Magdalene (said originally to have been an Andromeda) by Bernini. 

In the left aisle, as already mentioned, is the entrance to the cele- 
brated "'Library of the Cathedral (Libreria; fee Va fr.), formerly the Sala 
Piccolominea , erected by order of Cardinal Francesco Piccolomini, "afterwards 
Pope Pins III., in 1495, and adorned in 1505-07 with ten frescoes by Pin- 
turicchio, representing scenes from the life of JUneas Sylvius Piccolomini of 
Pienza (p. 19), afterwards Pope Pius II. (1458-64): (1) Departure of .Eneas 
Sylvius for the Council of Basle; (2) ./Eneas Sylvius in presence of King 
James of Scotland, to whom he had been sent by the Council; (3) His 
coronation as a poet by Emperor Frederick III. at Frankfort in 1445; (4) 
^Eneas Sylvius doing homage to Pope Eugene IV. in the name of the 
Emperor ; (5) Betrothal of Emperor Frederick III. with Eleonora of Portugal 
at Siena by ./Eneas Sylvius; (6) /Eneas Sylvius created a cardinal by Pope 
Calixtus III.; (7) jEneas Sylvius elected Pope Pius II.; (8) Pius II. at the 
diet of princes in Mantua; (9) Canonisation of Catharine of Siena; (10) 
Death of Pius II. at Ancona, while preaching a crusade against the Turks. 
Some of these pictures, which are connected by beautiful figures of nude 
or half-nude children, are admirably preserved. Vasari asserts that Ra- 
phael assisted in their execution. It is tolerably certain that Raphael 
was at Siena at the same time as Pinturicchio, and it is not improbable 
that he furnished the older and less imaginative master with designs of 

Opera del Duomo. SIENA. 5. Route. 27 

which the latter availed himself more or less freely. Designs for these 
frescoes attributed to Raphael are now preserved in the Ufflzi (that of 
No. 1), in the Brera at Milan ("No. 3), by the Duke of Devonshire at 
Chatsworth (No. 4), and by Sign. Baldecchi at Perugia (No. 5). — The 
:! Missals, embellished with beautiful miniatures, also deserve attention. 

Opposite the S. side of the cathedral , in the corner where the 
steps ascending from S. Giovanni terminate under the arches of the 
uncompleted nave (p. 25), is the *Opera del Duomo (della Metro- 
politana; P1.12; C,5), which contains several interesting works of art. 

In the entrance-passage is the custodian's bell ('/a fr.). 

The hall on the Ground Floor contains a famous antique "Group of 
the Three Graces, found at Rome in the reign of Pius III. and presented 
by him to the cathedral library, but removed thence in 1857 by desire 
of Pius IX. From this work Raphael made his first studies from the 
antique (drawing at Venice). The superb Renaissance pedestal is also 
interesting. The ''Sculptures from the Fonte Gaja (p. 24) by Jacopo della 
Quercia, representing a Madonna, the Virtues, the Creation of Man, and 
the Expulsion from Paradise, which are among the master's finest works, 
are unfortunately much damaged. Sculptures from, the Cappella di Piazza 
(p. 23), and others from the facade of the cathedral before its restoration. 
Drawings and copies of the "Graffiti of the Cathedral Pavement, destined 
to replace the originals; also some of the originals themselves r'omp. 
p. 25). Church-banner with a Transfiguration by Sodoma. — On the 
First Floor several interesting plans and architectural designs. Also 
several early Sienese paintings: four Saints by Lorenzetti; a Credo by 
Taddeo Bartoli; predelle by Duccio; a 'Nativity of the Virgin by Pietro 
Lorenzetti, in a lifelike genre style; and a picture of the 15th cent, 
(perhaps by Sano di Pietro), showing the original form of the Palazzo 
Pubblico (p. 23). 

Adjoining the Opera is the Palazzo Reale (PI. 23), erected by- 
Bern. Buontalenti in the 16th cent., now the seat ofthe prefecture and 
telegraph office. — Farther on , at the other corner of the Via del 
Capitano (see below) which diverges here, is the Palazzo Pecci (PI. 
20), a Gothic brick building of the 13th cent., restored in 1854. 

Opposite the facade of the cathedral are the church and hospital 
of S. Maria della Scala (PI. 0, 5), of the 13th century. Over the 
high-altar of the church is a Risen Christ, a statue in bronze by 
Veechietta. Adjoining the handsome entrance-hall of the hospital 
is a large sick-room called 'II Pellegrinajo', adorned with frescoes 
from the history of the monastery by Domenico di Bartolo, 1440-43, 
and other masters. Pleasing view from the windows (fee !/ 2 ft-)- — 
Descending to the left at the N. angle of the Piazza del Duomo by 
steps and under several arches, we reach the church Degli Jnnocenti 
(PI. C, 4), externally a very rude edifice , but 'with a charming 
interior in the form of a Greek cross' (Burckhardt). 

The above-mentioned Via del Capitano leads to the quarters 
of the town situated on the S. and P.W. hills. It soon crosses the 
small Piazza Postierla, with the Palazzo Chigi, now Piccolomini 
(PL 16- C, 5), on the right, which contains two saloons adorned 
with frescoes by Bernhard van Orley, a Fleming who joined Raphael's 
school. The column with the wolf in the piazza dates from 1487. 

Not far distant, in the Via di Citta which diverges here to the 

left is the Palazzo Piccolomini, now Nerucci (PI. 19), erected by 

28 Rmtte 5. SIENA. Palazzo del Oovemo. 

Bernardo Rosellino in 1463 for Catharine, the sister of Pius II. 
Beyond it is the Palazzo Saracini, the vaulting in the court of which 
is tastefully painted. — In the Via di Stalloreggi, which diverges 
from the Piazza Postierla to the right, is the Casa Bambagini-Gal- 
letti, on the facade of which is a fresco by Sodoma ('Madonna del 

On the left, in the Via S. Pietro, the continuation of the Via 
del Capitano, is the *Palazzo Buonsignori (PI. 15; C, 5), a hand- 
some Gothic edifice of the 14th cent., in brick, with a rich facade, 
restored in 1848. The vestibule, court, and staircase are in a heavy 
rococo style. — At the church of S. Pietro alle Scale (PI. 9 ; C, 6), 
which contains paintings by Salimbeni and Rutilio Manetti (16th 
cent.), the street bends to the right. — Following the main street 
and passing under an archway , we enter the Piazza S. Agostino 
(PI. C, 6), with the R. Collegio Tolomei, formerly a monastery and 
now a much frequented grammar-school, and the church of — 

S. Agostino (PI. C, 6), remodelled by Vanvitelli in 1755. 

Over the 2nd altar on the right, a Crucifixion by Pietro Perugino. 
Slaughter of the Innocents by Matteo da Siena, in a chapel on the right. 
Statue of Pius II. by Dupri. Altar-piece, an 'Adoration of the Magi by 
Sodoma. At the back of the choir, on the left, the Legend of S. Agostino 
Novello in three sections, by Lippo Memmi, probably his best work. Also 
pictures by Salimbeni, Rutilio Manetti, and others. 

Following the Via della Cerchia to the W. of this church, and 
inclining a little to the right, we enter the Via Baldassare Peruzzi, 
on the left side of which are the suppressed monastery (now a 
barrack) and the church of — 

S. Maria del Carmine (PI. B, 5), a handsome brick edifice, with 
campanile and cloisters, by Baldassare Peruzzi. On the right is the 
Cappella del Sagramento with a Nativity of Mary by Sodoma. 5th 
altar on the left, St. Michael by Beccafumi. 

Opposite is the Palazzo Pollini , formerly Celsi (PI. 21 ; B, 5), 
attributed to Peruzzi. — We may now proceed straight on through 
the Via delle Fosse di S. Ansano (with the R. Istituto Toscano dei 
Sordo-Muti, or Deaf and Dumb Asylum) either to the Piazza del 
Puomo, or, by turning a little to the left towards the end of the 
way, we may reach the Porta Fontebranda (see p. 32). 

Outside the Porta S. Marco (PL A, 5) there is a fine view. 

The E. angle ef the Piazza del Campo is occupied by the *Pa- 
lazzo del Governo (PI. 17; D, E, 5), one of the most imposing pri- 
vate edifices at Siena, erected for Giacomo Piccolomini in 1469-1500, 
probably from a design by Bernardo Rossellino. The principal facade 
with its tasteful decorations in wrought iron. (horses' heads, etc.) 
looks towards the Via delle Loggie and the small Piazza Piccolomini. 
The palace now contains the extensive *Archives (director, Cav. 
Banchi), one of the most important collections of the kind in Italy. 

Parchment Charters, 52,000 in number, the oldest dating from 736. 
Under glass are a number of interesting specimens of these documents, 

8. Spirito. SIENA. 5. Route. 29 

Autographs of celebrated men (Pius II., Leo X.), Miniatures, etc. There 
is also a valuable collection of the Covers of the old Treasury Registers 
(Biccherne), in chronological order, painted with scenes from sacred and 
profane history, and affording an admirable survey of the development of 
Sienese art. They include works by Dietisalvi, Duccio, and the Lorenzetti. 

In the vicinity is the University (see p. 30). — The *Loggia del 
Papa (PI. 11 ; E, 5), in the Piazza Piccolomini , opposite the Pal. 
del Governo, was erected in 1460 by the Sienese Antonio FederigUi 
by order of Pius II., and dedicated by the pope 'gentilibus suis'. 

Adjacent is the church of S. Martino (PI. 8; E, 5, 6). 

Over the 2nd altar on the right, a Circumcision of Christ by Guido 
Reni. On each side of the 3rd altar are ornamental sculptures in marble 
by Lorenzo di Mariano, surnamed /( Marrina; on the left: Nativity of 
Christ by Beccafumi. The choir contains gilded wooden statues, attributed 
to Jacopo delta Querela. 

The Via Ricasoli, which begins by the Loggia del Papa , tra- 
verses the crest of the S.E. hill and leads to Porta Pispini and 
Porta Romana, the two S.E. gates. — Immediately to the right in 
this street is the Fonte di Pantaneto, dating from 1352, recently 
restored. To the left, a little farther on, the Via di Follonica 
descends to the Fonte di Follonica, constructed in 1239 and situated 
in a garden far below. — After 5 min. more, a few paces beyond 
the church of S. Giorgio (PI. E, 6), the Via de' Pispini diverges to 
the left, in which we first reach the church of — 

S. Spirito (PI. E, 6,7), with a dome dating from 1508, and a 
portal from 1519, the latter designed by Baldassare Peruzzi. 

The 1st chapel on the right (Cappella degli Spagnuoli) contains "Paint- 
ings by Sodoma: in the lunette, St. James on horseback (fresco); on the 
pillars, SS. Antonius Abbas and Sebastian; in the lunette of the altar, 
The Madonna presenting the gown of the Order of the Dominicans to 
St. Alfonso, in the presence of SS. Cecilia and Lucia (the last three oil- 
paintings). To the right is a Nativity of Christ in terracotta by Ambrogio 
delta Robbia. — Over the door leading to the sacristy, Crucifixion, by Sano 
di Pietro. — Over the 3rd altar to the left, Coronation of the Virgin by 
Pacchia. — In the Cloistees (sagrestano 5-6 soldi) : Crucifixion by a pupil 
of Fra Bartolommeo, probably designed by the great master himself. 

The Fonte de' Pispini dates from 1534. The neighbouring Porta 
Pispini is adorned with a damaged fresco (Nativity) by Sodoma. 

Opposite S. Spirito we enter the Vicolo del Sasso , follow to 
the right the broad Via S. Girolamo, and passing the column with 
the wolf, reach 8. Girolamo (PI. D, 7), belonging to a nunnery (3rd 
altar to the left: Madonna by Matteo da Siena, framed in marble 
by Lor. di Mariano). On the left we next reach the church of — 

SS. Concezione, or Servi di Maria (PI. D, 8) , erected in 1471, 
with a beautiful interior (1511-33) attributed to Bald. Peruzzi. 

First altar to the right: Madonna, by Coppo di Marcovaldo, 1261. 
Fourth altar to the right: Slaughter of the Innocents, by Matteo da Siena, 
1491; above, Adoration of the Shepherds, by Taddeo Bartoli. — In the 
right transept, above the first door leading to the sacristy: 'La Vergine 
del Popolo', by Lippo Memmi, an able work. — At the back of the high- 
altar 'Madonna del Manto' , ascribed to Giovanni di Pietro, 1436. The 
Coronation of the Virgin, by Fungai (1500?) , is one of his earlier works. 

The Porta Romana (PI. D, 8) is adorned with a fresco (Co- 
ronation of the Virgin) begun by Taddeo Bartoli and finished by 

30 Route 5. SIENA. Oratorio diS. Bernardino. 

Sano di Pietro. — About '/ 3 M. beyond the gate is tbe church of 
Madonna degli Angeli, the choir of which contains a Madonna with 
saints, by Raffaele da Firenze, 1502. 

Opposite the N. side of the Palazzo del.Governo (p. 28) the Via 
S. Vigilio leads to the E. to the church of the same name and to 
the University (PI. 28; E, 5). The entrance to the latter is in the 
corner to the right ; in the corridor is the monument of the cele- 
brated jurist Niccolb Aringhieri (d. 1374), -with a bas-relief re- 
presenting the professor in the midst of his audience. 

The neighbouring church of S. Maria di Provenzano (PI. 7 ; 
E, 5) dates from 1594. — Traversing several streets to the E. we 
reaeh the grass-grown Piazza di S. Francesco (PL F, 5), in which 
rise the church of S. Francesco and the Oratorio di S. Bernardino. 

The church of S. Francesco, finished in 1236, contains (in the 
left transept) frescoes by Ambrogio Lorenzetti , representing tbe 
Crucilixion, St. Francis receiving the gown of his order, Martyrs 
in Asia. The chapel of the Seminary adjoining the church contains 
a *Madonna nourishing the Child, by Lorenzetti (wall facing the 
windows), and a Madonna and saints by Barna (left wall). 

The *Oratorio di S. Bernardino (PI. F, 5 ; fee 1 fr.) possesses 
admirable pictures, especially by Sodoma. 

Loweb Oratorio: Scenes from the life of St. Bernardino, of the close 
of the 16th century. — "Upper Oratorio : Presentation in the Temple, 
Salutation, Assumption, and Coronation of the Virgin ; SS. Antony, Louis, 
and ''Francis, by Sodoma, 1518-32, the single figures being of great beauty. 
Betrothal and Death of the Virgin, by Beccafumi, 1518. Nativity of the 
Virgin, Annunciation, and St. Bernardino, by Girol. del Petechia, 1185. The 
visitor should observe the admirable enrichments of the ceiling, the frieze, 
etc., which are among the most tasteful of early -Renaissance works, 
executed by Oiuliano Turapilli after 1496. Altar-piece by Beccafumi, 1537. 

The Via dei Rossi leads straight to the Via Cavouk, which 
with its prolongation, the Via Camollia , extends from the Casino 
de' Nobili (p. 24) to the Porta Camollia, a distance of nearly 1 M. 
Approaching from the Casino de' Nobili, we first reach a small 
piazza, named after the Palazzo Tolomei (PI. 26; E, 4), a Gothic 
edifice of 1205, on the left, and also adorned with a wolf. Farther 
on, the Palazzi Palmieri (1540), Bichi (1520), with a fine loggia 
with modern paintings, Oori (1677), and *Spannocchi (PI. 25; E, 4), 
built in 1470 by a Florentine master, with a bold colonnaded court, 
and recently thoroughly restored. — In the vicinity is the Piazza 
Salimbeni, with a statue of Sallustio Bandini (1677-1766), the 
drainer of the Sienese Maremme, by Tito Sarrocchi, erected in 1880. 

To the left diverges the Via delle Belle Ami, which contains 
the Art Institution and the Library and leads straight to the church 
of S. Domenico. 

The *Instituto delle Belle Arti (PI. 10; E, 4) contains a valu- 
able collection of pictures, principally of the older Sienese school, 
formed at the beginning of the present century of works procured 

Biblioteca Comunale. SIENA. 5. Route. 31 

from suppressed monasteries and from the Palazzo Pubblico, and 
gradually extended since that period. Adm. 9-3 daily [1 fr.), ex- 
cept on Sundays and holidays. 

At the entrance, reliefs of little value. The numbering of the pictures 
is as nearly as possible chronological and begins in the corridor to the 
left with the early Sienese school. I. Corridor : 1-5. Pictures in the 
Byzantine style; 6. Guido da Siena (?), Madonna. The next are by un- 
known masters. 18. Margaritone oVArezzo , St. Francis ; 23. Duccio di 
Buoninsegna , Madonna with four saints; 39. Simone di Martina (?), Ma- 
donna with four saints; 40, 48-52. by Ambrogio Lorenzetti; below, 45. An- 
nunciation (1344); 50, 51, 55-59. by Pietro Lorenzetti (about 1330) ; 66. Niccolb 
di Segna (1345), Crucifix: '90. Lippo Memmi, Madonna. — II. Corridor: 
109. Mino del Pelliciaio (1362), Madonna. — III. Corridor: 125-131. by Tad- 
deo Bartoli (1409) ; 134-139. by Giovanni di Paolo (1445)); 140. Pietro di Gio- 
vanni, S. Bernardino; 141-147, 150-152. by Sano di Pietro (1479), the Fra 
Angelico of Siena. 153-156. Neroccio di Bart. Landi, 153. Madonna and saints, 
1476; 166-170. by Matteo da Siena (1470). 

Small Rooms in the 2nd corridor to the left. 1st Room: 201. Sano 
di Pietro , Madonna appearing to Calixtus III. ; "205. Sodoma, Christ about 
to be scourged, al fresco, from the cloisters of S. Francesco; 219, 220. 
Luca Signorelli (?), two frescoes (^Eneas departing from Troy, and liberation 
of captives), with beautiful frames and handsome pilasters in carved 
wood, executed by Barili, 1511 (from the Palazzo del Magniflco). — 2nd 
Room: 236, 241. Spinello Aretino (1384), Death and Coronation of the 
Virgin. — "We next visit the room at the end of the 1st corridor in a 
straight direction : 294. Sano di Pietro, Madonna with saints, a large altar- 
piece; 296. Pacchiarotto, Annunciation and saints. — We now come to 
a small room containing pictures of a later period. In the last room 
antique sculptures. — We then return to the entrance and enter the — 

Great Hall. Immediately to the right and left : '341 , 342. Sodoma, 
Christ on the Mt. of Olives and in hell, two frescoes; 345. Fungal, Ma- 
donna and saints; 356. Sodoma, Judith; 352. Beccafumi, Madonna; 365. 
Francesco di Giorgio , Nativity of Christ ; 368. Beccafumi , Fall of the 
angels ; 369. Francesco di Giorgio, Coronation of the Virgin ; '377. Sodoma, 
Descent from the Cross. — The following Room contains upwards of 100 
pictures of different schools , including : 26. Old copy of Raphael's Ma 
donna della Perla (at Madrid) ; 36. Caravaggio, Morra-players; 39. Morone,_ 
Portrait; 45. Pinturicchio , Holy Family ; *53. Schongauer (?), Portrait; "54" 
German School, Portrait of Charles V.; '63. Beccafumi, St. Catharine o 
Siena with the stigmata; 71. Sodoma, Same; 73. German School, Portrait; 
'81. Palma Vecchio, Madonna and Child to whom a saint introduces the 
donor; 85. Sodoma, Nativity; 91, 99. Fra Bartolommeo, St. Catharine and 
St. Mary Magdalene; 103. Palma Giovane, Brazen Serpent; 105, 106. Sodoma, 
Pieta and Madonna. — The next Room contains the seven original car- 
toons of Beccafumi from the history of Moses, executed in marble-graffito 
on the pavement of the cathedral. — Several fine works in carved wood 
by Gosi, Guidi, and Querci (p. 23) are generally exhibited here. 

The Biblioteca Comunale (PL 1; D,4), containing 40,000 vols, 
and 5000 MSS., is reputed the oldest in Europe. (In the 17th cent. 
Siena possessed sixteen libraries, and in 1654 even one for women.) 

The chief objects of interest are: the 'Greek Gospels, formerly in the 
chapel of the imperial palace at Constantinople, of the 9th cent., magni- 
ficently bound and mounted in silver; 'Treatise on architecture by Fran- 
cesco di Giorgio, with sketches and drawings by the author; 'Sketch-books 
of Baldassare Peruzzi and Givliano da Sangallo. 

Beyond the library, to the left, we descend the Via Costa S. An- 
tonio . and enter the first side-street to the right , which leads 
straight to the upper entrance of the House of St. Catharine (PI. 3 ; 
D 4) : 'Sponsae Christi Katherine domus'. Visitors knock at the door 

d'l Route 5. SIENA. S. Domenico. 

to the left (72 fr-")- St. Catharine of Siena, the daughter of a dyer, 
was born in 1347 , took the veil at the age of eight , and having 
become celebrated for visions, she prevailed on Pope Gregory VI. 
to retransfer the papal throne from Avignon to Rome (1377). She 
died in the year 1380, and was canonised in 1461. The best-known 
vision is that of her betrothal with the Infant Christ , a favourite 
theme with painters. Her festival is on 30th April. 

The different rooms in the building have been converted into small 
chapels or Okatokies, which belong to the Confraternity di S. Caterina. 
Above the altar in one of the Upper Oratories , once a kitchen , is a 
portrait of the saint, by Fungai\ the other pictures are by Salimbeni and 
Fr. Vanni; attention should also be paid to the beautiful ceiling, the pi- 
lasters and the "Pavement of glazed tiles. — The pretty little court is at- 
tributed to Bald. Peruzzi. — The Okatorio del Crocifisso contains the 
wonder-working crucifix , a work by Qiunta Pisano (?), from which St. 
Catharine, according to the legend, received the stigmata. — Below is the 
Church, containing the following paintings : Girol. del Pacchia, St. Catha- 
rine healing Matteo di Cenni from the plague ; St. Catharine rescuing 
Dominicans from robbers ; The dead body of St. Agnes of Montepulciano 
stretching out her foot to be kissed by St. Catharine. The fourth picture, 
representing the saint being attacked by Florentine soldiers , is by Sa- 
limbeni, 1604; in the lunette, above the altar, "Angels by Sodoma. 

On leaving the church (the facade of which deserves notice) we 
come to the Via Benincasa (formerly dei Tintori; PI. D, 4), which 
is still inhabited, as in ancient days, by dyers and fullers. Not far 
distant is the celebrated fountain of *Fontebranda (PI. C, D, 4), 
very picturesquely situated at the base of the hill of S. Domenico, 
mentioned as early as 1081, renovated in 1198, and praised by 
Dante (Inf. 30, 78 : 'Per Fontebranda non darei la vista'). — The 
Via di Fontebranda ascends to the Campo (on the left), and to the 
cathedral (on the right). ■ — Passing the fountain, and ascending to 
the right, we reach — 

S. Domenico (PI. D, 3, 4), a lofty brick edifice in the Gothic 
style (1220-1465), the massive substructions of which rest on the 
slope of the hill, with a campanile dating from 1340. 

The Interior is destitute of aisles, and has a transept and open roof. 
At the entrance, to the right, is the Cappella delle Volte (closed), con- 
taining a Madonna and saints by Girolamo di Benvenuto , 1508, and an 
altar-piece, St. Catharine by Andrea Vanni. — Farther on, to the right: 
Monument of the mathematician Oius. Pianigiani (d. 1850), by Becheroni. 
— Third altar: St. Peter the Martyr, by Salimbeni, 1579. — The "Chapel 
of St. Catharine, in which the head of the saint is preserved in a 
silver reliquary enclosed in a shrine dating from 1466, is adorned with 
admirable frescoes by Sodoma. On the wall near the altar, St. Catharine 
in ecstasy, supported by two sisters (the so-called 'Svenimento', or faint), 
and an angel bringing her the host; on the wall to the left, The prayer 
of the saint saving the soul of a decapitated culprit; to the right, Healing 
of the possessed, by Francesco Vanni, 1593. The two saints on the right 
and left of the entrance are by the same master; the ceiling was executed 
by Sodoma. — The pavement of the chapel is richly decorated with 
graffito representations on marble. — Last altar to the right: Nativity of 
Christ of the school of Franc, di Giorgio, executed under the influence 
of Luca Signorelli, to whom the work was formerly attributed; the upper 
part is probably by Matteo da Siena, the foreground by Fungai. 

Choik. The beautiful "Marble Ciborium at the high-altar, hitherto 
ascribed by the Sienese to Michael Angelo , is more probably the work 

Fonteyiusta. SIENA. 5. Route. 33 

of Benedetto da Majano. — A beautiful -View of the lofty and imposing 
Cathedral may be obtained from the window at the back of the high- 
altar. — The 2nd Chapel to the left of the high-altar contains a Ma- 
donna by Guido da Siena, an interesting picture, although the date 1221 
appears to be spurious (1281). To the right: SS. Barbara, Mary Magdalene, 
and Catharine by Ma tteo da Siena, 1479; in the lunette above, a Pieta by 
Qirol. Benvenulo; the Madonna with saints to the left is by the same mas- 
ter, 1508; the lunette representing the Adoration of the Magi is by Malteo 
da Siena. — The 2nd Chapel to the right of the high -altar contains 
numerous old tombstones with coats-of-arms, many of which belong to 
Germans who studied at the university in the 15th and 16th centuries. 

We now return by the Via del Paradiso and the small Piazza 
Giuseppe Pianigiani, in which stands the little church of 8. Maria 
delle Nevi (PI. 6 ; E, 4), with a charming Renaissance facade (to- 
wards the Via Cavour), and a good picture by Matteo da Siena (Ma- 
donna with numerous saints, 1477), to the Via Cavour (p. 24), 
which farther on contains the Pal. Mocenni, Pal. Ciaia, and others. 

We next come to the small Piazza S. Petronilla (PL E, F, 3), 
on the right, whence the Via Garibaldi leads to the Porta S. Lorenzo 
and the railway-station. — The streets to the left of Via Cavour 
open into the Lizza (PI. E, 2, 3), a small promenade which was laid 
out in 1779 on the site of a former fortress erected by Charles V., 
commanding good views of S. Domenico and the Cathedral. These 
walks extend as far as the entrance to Fort St. Barbera, built by 
Cosimol. in 1560, open to the public and commanding a fine view. 

Farther on, the Via Cavour takes the name of Via di Camollia 
(PI. F, 1, 2). We diverge to the right to the old monastery di Cam- 
pansi, now the poor-house (PI. F, 2; ring); the cloisters are adorned 
with a fresco by Matteo Balducci. Handsome rococo church. 

We follow the Via Camollia for some minutes more ; opposite a 
small piazza we turn to the left under an archway, and descending 
the Via Fontegiusta, arrive at the little church of — 

Fontegiusta (PI. F, 2), belonging to a brotherhood (if closed, 
ring the bell to the right), and built by Francesco di Cristofano Fe- 
deli and Oiacomo di Giovanni in 1479. The vaulting, borne by 
four marble columns, dates from 1482; the N. Portal from 1489. 
Beautiful *High-altar by Lorenzo di Mariano (1517), one of the 
finest existing sculptures of Raphael's time. The simple but fine 
bronze holy-water basin is by Giov. delle Bombarde (1480). The 
3rd altar to the right is adorned with a Coronation of the Madonna 
by Fungai; the 2nd to the left with a restored fresco by B. Peruzzi, 
the Sibyl announcing to Augustus the Nativity of Christ. 

Farther on in the Via Camollia, to the right , No. 48, opposite 
the small church of S. Pietro della Maggione, is the house of Bal- 
dassare Peruzzi (p. 22), indicated by an inscription, a building of 
no architectural merit. 

A pleasant Walk may be taken by a road skirting the town- 
walls to the right, outside the Porta Camollia (PI. F, 1), with fine 
views of the Tuscan hills. On a height opposite, beyond the railway- 
station, lies the monastery of Osservanza (see below) ; in the valley 

Baedeker. Italy II. 8th Edition. 3 

34 Route 5. 3*m»a. Excursions 

below , outside the Porta Ovile (PI. F, 4), is the picturesque Fonte 
Ovile. In about Y2 hr. we reach the Porta Pispini (PI. F, 8 ; p. 29). 
— About V2 M. beyond the Porta Camollia, on the road to Colle, 
stands the *Palazzo dei Turchi, generally known as the Pal. dei 
Diavoli, a fine brick building of the close of the 15th century. 

The Campo Santo is adorned with sculptures by Dupre, Sar- 
rocchi, and others. Sarrocchi was also the sculptor of the figure of 
Italia, erected in the Piazza dell' Indipendenza in 1879 to the 
Sienese who fell while fighting for the independence of their country. 

Excursions (most of them best made by carriage). — About 2'/2 M. 
to the N.E. of Siena, beyond the railway-station, is situated the suppress- 
ed Franciscan monastery of L'Osservanza, erected in 1423. The N. aisle 
of the church contains a "Coronation of the Virgin, a relief of the school 
of Delia Robbia; at the back of the high-altar, two "Statues, Mary and 
the Archangel Gabriel, of the same school. Pandolfo Petrucci is interred 
in this church (d. 1512; p. 21). 

S. Colomba, Celsa, and Marmoraja are most conveniently visited on 
horseback; there and hack, with stay, in 5>/2 brs. ; horse 5 fr. ; one-horse 
carriage (carozzino) 6 fr. For larger carriages the road is only good as 
far as S. Colomba. — Leaving the Porta Camollia, we follow the high-road 
for 2'/2 M. and then diverge to the left by the road descending between 
two cypresses into the valley. This road leads us to the villa S. Colomba 
(4'/2 M.), designed by Bald. Peruzzi, now the property of the Collegio To- 
lomei (p. 28), with handsome staircase, and fine view from the balcony. — 
After descending from S. Colomba we continue to follow the road by 
which we arrived, which leads through beautiful woods to Celsa (3 3 /4 II. 
from Colomba), a castellated villa, also designed by Bald. Peruzzi, where 
Mino Celsi, a defender of the doctrines of Luther, lived at the begin- 
ning of the 16th century. View from the highest story (refreshments sold 
by the fattore of the villa). — About 2 1 /* M. beyond Celsa is Marmoraja, 
where on 7th Sept., 1187, peace was concluded between the Republic of 
Siena and Bishop Hugo of Volterra. The piazza in front of the church 
affords a fine view of Volterra, Colle d'Elsa, S. Gimignano, etc. 

The Certosa di Pontignano, 5 M. from the Porta Ovile, was founded 
in 1343, fortified in 1383, and suppressed in 1810. The church was mo- 
dernised in the 17th cent. "View from the Parocchia. 

S. Ansano in Dofana, 9 M. from Porta Pispini, is reached by a good 
road diverging from the high-road to the left about l 1 /* M. beyond the 
Taverna d'Arbia , near the bridge over the Arbia. The parish - church 
contains a Madonna by Bald. Peruzzi. Visitors should apply at the par- 
sonage for a guide with the keys of the (8 min.) Martirio di S. Ansano, 
a handsome brick edifice by Bald. Peruzzi, containing a Madonna and 
saints by Pietro Lorenzetti, 1329. 

The Abbazia di S. Eugenio, I1/4 M. to the S. of the Porta S. Marco, 
commonly known as II Monaslero , is an ancient Benedictine monastery 
said to have been founded by Warnfried, a Lombard, in 750, fortified in 
1553 by Pietro Strozzi, and secularised last century. The buildings are tho- 
roughly modernised. The church contains several early Sienese pictures, 
some of which have been ruined by restoration. "View from the garden. 

The high-road next leads to the Osteria della Volte, about 5 M. beyond 
the Porta S. Marco, whence a road diverges to the right to (4 M.) Cetinale, 
a villa erected by Flavio Chigi, a nephew of Pope Alexander VII., from 
designs by Carlo Fontana in 1680. With the villa is connected the 
'Thebais 1 park, profusely embellished with sculptures and chapels in the 
taste of the period. Fine view from the hill ('Romitorio') above the villa. 

About l'/2 M. beyond the Osteria della Volte lies the venerable 
church of S. Giovanni di Ponte alio Spino, dating from the beginning of 
the 11th century. About 3 M. further is Rosia, the church of which con- 
tains a holy-water basin of 1332. We may then proceed to (2 M.) Torri 
or 8. Mustiola a Torri in Val-di-Merse, an old monastery belonging to the 

from Siena. BELCARO. 5. Route. 35 

Vallombrosians , possessing a clnirch , consecrated in H89, and a line 
Romanesque monastery-court, now used as farm-buildings. 

About !) 31. to the S. of Rosia (along the road to Massa Marittima, 
and then to the left) lie the ruins of the Cistercian monastery of S. Gal- 
gano, founded in 1201 by Ildebrando Pannocchieschi, Bishop of Volterra. 
The abbey-church, a building of travertine and brick, erected in 1240-68, 
is imposing even in its ruins. The only relics of the original archi- 
tecture in the secular buildings , now used as a farm , consist of a few 
windows. The monks were distributed among other monasteries in 11)02, 
and in 1781 the church, which had been injured by lightning, was closed. 

The chateau of Belcaro , to the W. of Porta Fontebranda , reached 
by carriage in l ! /2 br., commands a splendid view of Siena and its envi- 
rons. On the ground-floor is a ceiling-painting by Said. Peruzzi : Judg- 
ment of Paris. The frescoes in the chapel, by the same master, have 
been sadly injured by recent restorations. 

From Siena to Monte Oliveto, 19 M. to the S., a drive of 3'/2 hrs. 
(carr. there and back 25 fr. and a fee of 5 fr.). It may also be reached from 
the stations nearer to it, such as Asciano (p. 16; one-horse carr. 12 fr.) 
and S. Giovanni d'Asso (p. 17; short-cut for pedestrians, l'/2 hr.). 

We quit Siena by the Porta Romana and follow the high-road, which 
before the construction of the railway was one of the great commercial 
routes to Rome, and affords a succession of charming views. On the left 
(3 M.) is the Borgo Malamerenda, said to derive its name from the story, 
that eighteen members and partisans of the Tolomei family were assas- 
sinated at a banquet (merenda) here in 1331 by their enemies the Salimbeni. 
We then pass Isola and Tressa on the left, cross the Arbia and the 0m- 
brone, and reach Buonconvento, a small town with 3400 inhab., where the 
Emperor Henry VII. died in 1313. It was fortified by the Sienese in 
1366; the churches contain early Sienese pictures. — Beyond Buoncon- 
vento we leave the high-road by a road diverging to the left, which 
leads across chalk hills in numerous windings (pedestrians may effect a 
saving of fully l'/s 31. by taking the short-cuts) to the famous, but now 
suppressed Benedictine monastery of — 

'-Monte Oliveto Maggiore (a tolerable dinner may be obtained from 
the monks who are left in the building as custodians ; for a lengthened 
stay 4 fr. per day) , founded in 1320 by Bernardo Tolomei , afterwards 
greatly enriched by donations, and still affording an excellent idea of a 
great establishment of the kind. The monks must have been wonderfully 
energetic to have been able to transform the sterile chalk-soil here into 
a smiling oasis. ^Eneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pius II.) gives an inter- 
esting description of the monastery in his annals. 

The walls of the 3Ionastery Court are adorned with celebrated 
'Frescoes by Luca Signorelli (1497) and Ant. Bazzi, called Sodoma (1505), 
representing scenes from the legend of St. Benedict. The order of the 
pictures does not correspond with the date of their execution. The series 
begins with the first picture on the wall opposite the entrance (adjoining 
the entrance to the church), representing St. Benedict's departure from 
home, by Sodoma. The earliest part of the series are the frescoes on the 
entrance-wall, executed by Signorelli, eight in number: Totila kneeling 
to the saint; Soldier in disguise, attempting to deceive the saint; Temp- 
tation of the fasting monk ; Punishment of two monks addicted to dainties ; 
Resuscitation of a dead man whom Satan has thrown from a wall; Con- 
juration of Satan; Fall of the idol; Fall of a house. — The 'Sending forth 
of Missionaries', on the left of the corner to the right , is by Riccio, 
but all the other pictures are by Sodoma, whose sense of beauty is every- 
where apparent, though he is doubtlessly far inferior to Signorelli in 
depth and excellence of conception and execution. In the first pictures 
by Sodoma we can trace a resemblance to the frescoes of Pinturicchio 
in the Cathedral library at Siena, and, in the others, features that recall 
Leonardo da Vinci. — The Church (entrance to the left of the monastery 
court), which was modernised last century, contains little to detain us, be- 
yond the handsome choir-stalls and reading - desk , in inlaid work, by 
Fra Oiov. da Verona (1502-5). — In the Libreria are a door and a cabinet, 

Q * 

3(3 Route 6. S.-EFIOYSKTNI. From Florence 

also beautifully inlaid by the same master. — The visitor should notice 
the extensive stables at the back of the monastery, the different sections 
of which bear the names and arms of the chief towns of Italy, in order 
that guests might know on arriving where to put up their horses. 

About l'/2 M. to the E. of Monte Oliveto lies Chiusure, commanding 
beautiful views. It was a populous and prosperous place down to 1348, 
when the plague swept away nearly all the inhabitants, but is now of no 
importance. — Hence to S. Giovanni d'Asso, 2'/2 31., see pp. 16, IT. 

6. From Florence by Arezzo and Terontola (Chiusi, 
Borne) to Perugia. 

103 M. Railway. Express in 41/4 hrs., fares 18 fr. 70, 13 fr. 15 c. ; 
ordinary trains in 6-S hrs., fares 17 fr. 75, 12 fr. 20, 8 fr. 45 c. — To 
Arezzo, 54>/2 M., in 2-4 hrs., fares 9 fr. 95 c, 7 fr., or 9 fr. 45, 6 fr. 50, 
4 fr. 50 c. ; thence to Govtona, 171/2 M -i in V 2 " 1 nr - ! fares 3 fr - 2 °i 2 fr - 
20 c, or 3 fr. 5, 2 fr. 5, 1 fr. 40 c. — Those who wish to see Arezzo and 
Cortona and arrive at Perugia in one day, had better leave Florence in 
the afternoon or evening and sleep at Arezzo. 

The Express to Rome quits the Perugia line at Terontola (see K. 7), 
where passengers for Perugia generally change carriages. 

Florence, see Baedeker's Northern Italy. The train describes a 
curve round the town and runs along the N. bank of the Arno. By 
degrees the valley contracts ; Fiesole on the height to the left long 
remains visible. 7 1 /.) M. Compiobbi. To the left rises the mountain- 
chain of the Pratomagno. IOI/2 M. Sieci. 13 M. Pontassieve, at the 
influx of the Sieve into the Arno ; to the left a beautiful glimpse of 
the valley of the Sieve. The train passes through a short tunnel, 
and then crosses to the left bank of the Arno. 18 M. Rignano ; the 
train passes through another tunnel and reaches (2272 M.) Incisa, 
with a conspicuous castle. The river forces its way here through the 
limestone rock, whence the name of the village. 25^2 M. Figline. 
The valley of the Arno near Figline, and farther on , near Monte- 
varchi and Arezzo, is very interesting to palaeontologists owing to 
the numerous fossil bones of the elephant, rhinoceros, mastodon, 
hippopotamus, hyaena, tiger, bear, etc. , which have been found here. 
This basin seems to have been rilled with a fresh-water lake at some 
remote period. 

30 M. S. Giovanni, a small town to the left, the birthplace of 
the famous painter Masarcio (in 1401) and of Oiov. da S. Oiovanni, 
surnamed Manozzi (1590-1636). The Cathedral contains pictures 
by the latter : Beheading of John the Baptist , Annunciation , etc. 
The sacristy of 8. Maria delle Grazie, on the old town-wall , con- 
tains a Madonna, formerly ascribed to Masaccio , and a few other 
old paintings. 

33'/2 M- Montevarchi (Loc. d' Italia, in the main street), with 
9600 inhabitants. The loggia of the principal church in the piazza 
is embellished with an elaborate relief by Delia liobbia ; opposite 
is the house of Benedetto Varchi (d. 1555), the Florentine historian 
and independent favourite of Cosimo. The Accademia di Val d'Ar- 
nese contains a valuable collection of fossil bones (see above). 

to Perugia. AUKZZO. 6. Route. 37 

Views as far as Arezzo on the left. The train ascends, passing 
through four tunnels, to (39 M.J Bucinc, a village close to the line 
on a hill to the right. Four more tunnels. 4'2 M. Laterina ; 45 M. 
Ponticino. The train now gradually ascends to the plain of Arezzo, 
which is visible to the left in the distance. 54!/2 M. Arezzo. 

Arezzo. — "Inghilterka, "Vittoria, opposite each other in the Via 
Cavour; Globo, Corso 17; Cannon d'Oro, unpretending, near the station. 
— Gaffe del Constanti, Via Cavour. 

Arezzo (780 ft.), the ancient Arretium, the seat of a bishop and 
a prefect, is a clean and pleasant town with 11,200 (or, including 
the neighbouring villages, 39,000) inhab., in a beautiful and fertile 
district, abounding in historical reminiscences. 

Arretium was one of the most powerful of the twelve confederate cities of 
Etruria, and (like Cortona and Perusia) concluded peace with the Romans 
in the great war of B.C. 310, after which it continued to be an ally of 
Rome. In 187 the Consul C. Flaminius constructed the Via Flaminia from 
Arretium to Bononia (Bologna), of which traces are still distinguishable. In 
the civil war Arretium was destroyed by Sulla, but was subsequently colo 
nised (Colonia Fidens Julia Arretium), and again prospered. Its manufactures 
were red earthenware vases, of superior quality, and weapons. — In the 
middle ages the town suffered greatly from the Goths and the Lombards, 
and at a later date from the party-struggles of the Guelphs and Ghibellines, 
in which it generally took the part of the latter against the Guelphs of 
Florence. In the 14th cent, it was for a time subject to the rule of the 
Tarlati, and in 1337 temporarily, and in the 16th cent, under Cosimo I. 
finally to that of Florence. 

Arezzo was the birthplace of many distinguished men, of whom may 
be mentioned: C. Cihiius Maecenas (d. 9 A.D.),~ the friend of Augustus 
and patron of Virgil and Horace ; the Benedictine monk Guido Aretino 
or Guido Monaco (1000-1050), the inventor of our present system of musical 
notation; Francesco Petrarca, the greatest lyric poet of Italy, born of 
Florentine parents in 1304 (d. 1374); Pietro Aretino, the satirist (1492-1557) ; 
several members of the noble family of the Accolti, jurists and historians, 
in the 15-17th cent.; A. Cesalpini, the botanist and physician (1519-1G03); 
Franc. Redi, the physician and humourist (d. 169H). — Arezzo has also pro- 
duced several artists : Margaritone (about 1236) , a painter and sculptor of 
no great importance; Spinello Aretino (1318-1410), an able pupil of Giotto, 
whose style he steadily followed and rendered popular (his best works 
are in S. Miniato near Florence, in the Campo Santo at Pisa, and in the 
Palazzo Comunale in Siena); at a later period Giorgio Vasari (1512-74), 
the painter, architect, and biographer of artists. The town, however, 
never possessed a school of its own. Its requirements in the province 
of art, which were at their height in the 13-14th cent., were fulfilled by 
Florentine and Sienese masters, and Giotto, Lippo Memmi, Lorenzetti, 
and others were employed here. 

Leaving the station, we follow the new Via Guido Monaco across 
the Piazza Guido Monaco , where a statue of Quido Monaco (see 
above), by Salvini, was erected in Sept., 1882. A little farther on 
the Via Guido Monaco ends in the Via Cavour. Here, in the small 
Piazza S. Francesco , is a Monument to Count Fossomlroni (b. at 
Arezzo 1754, d. 1844; PI. 1; p. 41). 

S. Francesco (PI. 2) contains line frescoes of the 15th century. 

In the Choik : "Frescoes by Piero delta Francesco, the master of Luca 
Signorelli (best light in the evening). They narrate the legend of the 
Holy Cross, according to which a seed of the tree of knowledge, planted 
upon Adam's grave, grew up to be a tree. Solomon caused the tree to be 

38 Route 6. 


From Florence 

felled and a bridge to be constructed of the wood, of which, the Queen of 
Sheba afterwards discovered the origin. At a later period it was used 
for making the Holy Cross. The Emp. Heraclius rescued the cross in a 
battle with the Persians , and it was afterwards re-discovered by St. He- 
lena. All these scenes, from the death of Adam down to the finding of the 
cross, are pourtrayed by Piero with great technical skill, in which respect, 
as well as in his appreciation of the nude, he surpassed all his contem- 
poraries. His pictures , however, are stiff and destitute of gracefulness. 

— The Evangelists on the ceiling have' been attributed to Sicci di Lo- 
renzo. — The Nave, recently freed from whitewash, contains frescoes by 
Mpinello Aretino, sadly injured. The following pictures are also placed 
here temporarily: Madonna surrounded by numerous saints, a characteristic 
work of the Sienese master Pietro Lorenzetti, brought from the church of 
the Pieve; and St. Ruchus being invoked during the plague, two pictures 

to Perugia. AKEZZO. 6. Route. 39 

by Bartolommeo della Gatta, a master who was influenced by Signorelli. 
— The chamber at the bottom of the Campanile, entered from the choir, 
also contains frescoes by Spinello Aretino, recently relieved of the white- 
wash (Christ enthroned; St. Michael and other angels fighting with the 
hosts of hell ; People praying to St. Michael during the plague at Rome, etc.). 

The Via Cavour forms a right angle with the Corso Vittorio 
Emanuele, the principal street of the town. Ascending this street, 
to the left, we observe on the right the interesting church of — 

S. Maria della Pieve (PI. 3), which is said to have been built 
at the beginning of the 9th cent, on the site of a temple of Bacchus; 
tower and facade of 1216. The latter is very peculiar, consisting 
of four series of columns, distributed with singular incongruity. An- 
cient sculptures over the doors. The Interior, now undergoing resto- 
ration, consists of a nave and aisles with a dome. 

At the back of the church is the Piazza Grande, with a foun- 
tain and a Monument of Ferdinand III. (PL 4), erected in 1822. 
On the N. side are the Loggie (PI. 5) built by Vasari in 1573. — 
Adjoining the choir of S. Maria della Pieve is the — 

*Museum (PL 6) in the building of the Fraternith della Miseri- 
cordia, with a handsome Gothic facade of the 14th century. 

Visitors ring on the first floor opposite the entrance-door. 

Rooms I. and II. contain a rich Palwontological Collection, chiefly from 
the vicinity of Arezzo (comp. p. 36). Among the fossils is a stag's head 
found in the Chiana Valley not far from Arezzo. — Room III. By the wall 
of the entrance, antique and modern bronzes. Right wall, Roman inscriptions 
and reliefs. On the wall of egress, antique utensils in bronze. In the cen- 
tre, mediaeval and antique seals. — Room IV. : fine majolicas dating from 
the 16th cent. ; in the centre an antique vase, "Combat of Hercules and 
the Amazons. In the cabinets, cinerary urns and other vessels in red clay 
(vasa Arretina, p. 37). — Room V. : Etruscan cinerary urns. In the centre 
several antique vases; on one of them the "Abduction of Hippodamia by 
Pelops. To the right a 'Reliquary of the 14th cent., by Forzore, containing 
the bones of the martyrs Laurentius and Pergentius. 

Passing under Vasari's Loggie we now return to the Corso, 
which we reach just opposite the Palazzo Pubblico (PL 7). This 
edifice, built in 1322, and adorned with numerous armorial bearings 
of the ancient Podesta, has unfortunately been modernised , and is 
now used as a prison. 

A little farther the Via dell' Orto diverges to the left, near the 
entrance to which, No. 22, a long inscription indicates the house 
(PL 8) in which Francesco Petrarca was born (p. 37). Adjacent 
rises the — 

♦Cathedral, a fine specimen of Italian Gothic, begun in 1177, 
with later additions; facade unfinished. 

The Interior, which has no transept and is of handsome and spacious 
proportions, contains stained-glass "Windows, dating from the beginning 
of the 16th cent., by Ouillaume de Marseille; the middle window in the 
choir is modern. In the Right Aisle is the Tomb of Gregory X., by Har- 
garilone (? Pisan school). This indefatigable prelate expired at Arezzo, 
10th Jan., 1276, on his return from France to Rome, after having 
proclaimed a new crusade. Adjacent, an ancient sarcophagus (lid modern), 
with the bones of several martyrs of Arezzo. — On the High Altar, marble 
"Sculptures by Giovanni Pisano of 1286 : Madonna with SS. Donatus and Gre- 
gory, and bas-reliefs from their lives. — In the Left Aisle is the tomb of 

40 Route 6. AREZZO. From Florence 

the poet and physician Redi (d. 1698). Near it is the chapel of the Madonna 
del Soccorso with two altars of the Robbia school. Farther on, at the E. 
end of the left aisle, the "Tomb of Guido Tarlati di Pietramala , the 
warlike bishop of Arezzo, the work of Agostino and Agnolo da Siena, 
about 1330 , from the design of Giotto, as Vasari conjectures , in 16 
sections, representing the life of this ambitious and energetic prelate, 
who, having been elected governor of the town in 1321, soon distinguished 
himself as a conqueror, and afterwards crowned the Emperor Louis the 
Bavarian in the church of S. Ambrogio at Milan (d. 1327). — Close to the 
door of the sacristy is a St. Magdalene, al fresco by Piero delta Francesca. 

The Marble Statue of Ferdinand de' Medici in front of the cathe- 
dral was erected by Giovanni da Bologna in 1595. In the piazza 
(No. 1) is the Palazzo Comunale (PL 9), with old armorial bearings. 

We now follow the Via Ricasoli, and turn to the right into the 
Via Sassaverde, No. 12. in which, the Palazzo Capel di Ferro, 
contains the small municipal Pinacoteca Bartolini (open on week- 
days 10-3 ; !/ 2 fr.), containing ancient frescoes, old and modern oil- 
paintings, and engravings, but little that is particularly striking ; 
the most noteworthy objects are a *Madonna enthroned, by Luca 
Signorelli (painted about 1520), and several works by Vasari. 

The church of S. Domenico (PL 10), situated in the Piazza Fos- 
sombrone, is adorned with frescoes by Spinello Aretino and others. 

In the Borgo di S. Vito, on the right, is the House of Giorgio 
Vasari (No. 27) , containing works by the master. The street 
leads back to the "W. end of the Via Cavour (p. 37). 

In a small piazza adjoining the Via Cavour stands the church of 
S. Annunziata (PI. 12), a handsome Renaissance structure chiefly 
by Antonio da Sangallo ; the *Interior, with its tunnel and dome 
vaulting, is very picturesque; stained glass of the 15th century. 

Farther on in the Via Cavour is the Badia di S. Fiore (PL 13), 
also situated in a small piazza, which is now the seat of the Acca- 
demia Aretina di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti. The Ltbrary, formerly 
the refectory, contains the Feast of Ahasuerus by Vasari, 1548. 

At the lower end of the Corso, near the Porta S. Spirito, the 
Via dell' Anflteatro (to the left) leads to the church of 8. Bernardo 
(PL 14); the frescoes in the anterior quadrangle are attributed to 
P. Uccello. From the corridor to the left are seen the insignificant 
remains of a Roman amphitheatre in the garden. 

About V2 M. from the Porta S. Spirito (outside which we take the 
avenue to the left, and then at the corner, after 3 min., the road to the 
right), is situated the church of S. Haria delle Grazie , an edifice of the 
early-Renaissance period, with an elegant porch borne by columns, by Bene- 
detto da Majano (Y), and a handsome marble altar by Andrea delta Robbia. 

From Arezzo to Citta di Oastello (p. 54), 22'/a M. (high-road). 

Fkom Akezzo to Monte Sansavino, 12>/'.> M., diligence at 3 p.m. daily 
in 2 hrs. The small town of — ' 

Monte Sansavino (Alb. del Sole, by the Porta Fiorentina, tolerable) 
was the birthplace of the famous sculptor Andrea (Contucci da) Sanso- 
vino (b. 1460, d. 1529). — The church of S. Chiaea, in the principal piazza 
contains (left) groups of St. Anthony and the "Madonna and Christ with 
four saints, designed by Sansovino and executed by the Robbia's. On the 
right SS. Sebastian, Lawrence, and llochus, by Sansovino; "Adoration of 
the Shepherds by the Robbia's; on the central pillars Sienese paintings of 

to Perugia. FOJANO. t>. Route. 41 

the 15th cent. ; on the right and left of the high-altar are prophets by 
Vasari. In the 'Ruga Maestro', or principal street, on the right, is the 
Pal. Municipale, erected about 1517; the Sala del Consiglio contains a 
carved !: Door of the 16th century. Opposite the town-hall is a "Loggia 
hy Ant. da Sangallo, the Younger, of 1551. On the right, farther on, is 
the church of the Misericordia, containing a monument of 1498. On the 
right we next observe S. Agoslino, with a facade of the 14th cent. ; it con- 
tains an Assumption by Vasari ; the monastery-court is by Ant. da San- 
gallo, the Younger. The Pal. Filippi, on the "left, No. 17, has balcony- 
railings and lantern-holders in wrought iron, of the 18th century. 

From Monte Sansavino to Sinalunga (p. 18), 9'/? M. ; or a pleasant 
round may be made by Fojano and Bctolle to Torrita, another railway- 
station Cp. 18; one-horse carr. 8-10 fr.). — Fojano (Alb. delta Vittoria, 
tolerable) is 8M. from Monte Sansavino. On the right, near the entrance 
to the town, is S. Francesco, with a line loggia, dating from the end of 
the 15th cent.; in the interior are several Delia Robbia's. S. Do/nenico 
and the Collegiata in the town also contain Robbia's ; the latter possesses 
a Coronation of Mary by Luca Signorelli (?). — At Betolle is the Villa of 
Count Passerini, containing a valuable collection of Etruscan antiquities 
(golden bracelet with rams' heads, huge dish with contests of the giants 
and Bacchic scenes, etc.). One-horse carr. to Torrita ( 3 /4 hr.) 2'/a-3 fr. 

On leaving Arezzo we obtain a beautiful retrospect of the town. 
To the left is the chain of hills which separate the valleys of the 
Arno and Chiana from the upper valley of the Tiber. Beyond a tun- 
nel the train crosses the plain in a straight direction to (62 M.) 
Frassinetto and (66 M.) Castiglion Fiorentino, the latter situated 
on a mountain spur. Farther on, to the left, the dilapidated fortress 
of Montecchio. The loftily-situated Cortona next becomes visible 
to the left in the distance. 

The luxuriant and richly cultivated Valley of the Chiana, which 
was anciently a lake, was a noisome swamp down to the middle of 
last century. The level was raised and carefully drained, the brooks 
being so directed as to deposit their alluvial soil in the bottom of 
the valley. This judicious system was originated by Torricelli and 
Viviani, celebrated mathematicians of the school of Galileo , and 
carried out by the worthy Count Fossombroni , who combined the 
pursuits of a scholar and a statesman (p. 37). The Chiana, Lat. 
Clanis, which once flowed into the Tiber, now discharges most of 
its waters into the Arno by means of a canal, and only one am, 
which joins the Paglia at Orvieto (p. 57), reaches the Tiber. 

7'2 M. Cortona. The station lies at the foot of the hill on 
which the town itself is situated, near the village of Camuscia. 

A carriage road ( 3 / 4 hr. ; omnibus 1 fr.) ascends to Cortona, 
passing S. Spirito on the right, and reaching the town on the S. 
side. Pedestrians cut off the windings by following the old road, 
which passes the Madonna del Culcinujo (a small early-Renaissance 
building by Ant. da Sangallo, with a handsome altar of 1519) and 
leads to the low-lying S.W. gate of the town (p. 43). 

Cortona. — Albergo della Stella, at the W. entrance of the town; 
Alb. Nazionale, farther up in the Via Nazionale, both clean and good. 
(Enquiry as to charges had better be made beforehand.) 

42 Route 6. 


From Florence 

Cortona, a small, loftily-situated town with 9000 inhab. (whole 
parish 26,000), lying above the valley of the Chiana, and not far 
from the Trasimene Lake, is one of the most ancient cities in Italy. 
Its situation and -views, its Etruscan antiquities, and several good 
pictures it possesses, render it well worthy of a visit. 

It appears that the Etruscans, immigrating from the plain of the Po, 
wrested the place from the Umbrians , and constituted it their principal 
stronghold when they proceeded to extend their conquests in Etruria. 
Cortona was one of the twelve confederate cities of Etruria , and with 
them shared the fate of being converted into a Roman colony. After various 
vicissitudes and struggles it came under the dominion of Florence in 1410. 

Luoa Signorelli , one of the most distinguished painters of the 15th 
cent., was born at Cortona in 1441. He has justly been called a precursor 
of Michael Angelo. Like his master Piero della Francesca (p. 37), he was 
a zealous student of anatomy ; in the embodiment of the nude , in the 

1 Chilomftn 

conception of movement and foreshortening he surpasses all his contem- 
poraries. On the other hand, his deficiency of refined pictorial sentiment 
forbids the full development of plastic vigour in his pictures. He there- 
fore prefers extensive fresco-paintings to easel-pictures as a suitable field 
for his abilities. Frescoes of this kind he has executed in the Sixtine 
Chapel at Rome (1508; p. 291), at Monte Oliveto (1497; p. 35), and at Orvieto 
(1499; his principal work, p. 59). His native town, where he held several 
municipal appointments and lived almost constantly the last twenty years 
of his life (d. 1523), still contains a number of his works, none of which, 
however, are of much importance. — Cortona was also the birthplace of 
Pietro Berettini, surnamed Pielro da Cortona (1596-1669), the painter and 
decorator, who was chiefly employed at Rome and Florence. 

From the S. entrance of the town, which we have reached by the 
road, the Via Nazionale leads in 3 min. to a semicircular terrace 
on the left, commanding an unimpeded view of part of the Trasimene 
Lake and the surrounding heights. On the right is the church of — 

S. Domknico, dating from the beginning of the 13th cent.; on 
the high-altar an *Assumption by Bart, della Oatta (?); on the 

to Perugia. COKTONA. 6. Route. 43 

left, *Madonna with St. Petrus Martyr and a Dominican monk, by 
L. Signorelli (1515), and Coronation of the Virgin, by Lor. di Niceolb 
(1440), presented by Cosimo and Lorenzo de' Medici; on the right, 
*Madonna with saints and angels, an early work of Fra Angelico. 

The Via S. Margherita, which ascends steeply to the right, see 
below. The Via Nazionale leads straight to the Piazza Vittorio 
Emanuelb, where the Municipio (PL 1) is situated. Here, to the 
left, diverges the Via Guelfl, in which are situated, to the right, a 
beautiful palazzo of the 16th cent., and lower down the church of 
S. Agostino, with a Madonna and saints by Pietro da Cortona (be- 
yond this the street leads to the S.W. gate, Porta S. Agostino, p. 41). 

Turning to the right from the Piazza Vitt. Em., we immediately 
reach the small Piazza Signorelli, where we observe, opposite to 
us, the Palazzo Pretorio, and on the left an ancient Marzocco (lion). 

The Palazzo Pretorio (PI. 2), with numerous armorial bearings of 
old magistrates, is now occupied by various public offices, and con- 
tains the Accademia Etrusca , founded in 1726, which possesses a 
*Museum of Etruscan Antiquities, well worth visiting. (Fee 
Yo-1 fr. to the custodian who lives close by.) 

The gem of the collection is a circular Etruscan "Candelabrum (lam- 
padario), made to hold 16 lights ; on the lower side in the centre a Gorgo- 
neum, surrounded with a combat of wild beasts; then waves with dol- 
phins; and finally eight ithyphallic satyrs alternately with eight sirens; 
between each lamp a head of Bacchus. — An encaustic painting on 
lavagna-stone, ^Polyhymnia', said to be ancient. — Remarkable Etruscan 
Bronzes, a Votive Hand with numerous symbols, Vases, Urns, Inscriptions, etc. 

ThePoNBUNi Library, in the same building, possesses a fine MS. of Dante. 

The Via Casali descends from the Palazzo Pretorio to the — 

*Cathbdral, a handsome basilica, ascribed to Antonio da San- 
gallo , altered in the 18th cent, by the Florentine Aless. Galilei. 

The Choir contains a Descent from the Cross, and ::: Institution of the 
Last Supper, with predella, by Luca Signorelli, a very quaint composition 
(1512). To the left of these a Pieta, by the same master. — In the Sa- 
cristy , a Madonna by the same. To the left of the choir, an ancient 
sarcophagus, representing the contest of Dionysus against the Amazons, 
erroneously supposed to be the tomb of the Consul Flaminius (p. 44). 

Opposite the cathedral is the*Baptistery, formerly a Jesuit church. 

It contains two pictures by Luca Signorelli, the Conception and Na- 
tivity, and three by Fra Angelico da Fiesole , the Annunciation and two 
*Predelle, representing scenes from the life of the Virgin and S. Domenico. 

Passing the colonnades of the theatre in the Piazza Signorelli, 
we follow the Via Dardano straight to the Porta Colonia, where we 
obtain the best survey of the *Ancient Etruscan Town Walls, 
constructed of huge blocks, and for the most part well preserved, 
which surround the town in a circumference of about 2860 yds., 
and along the outside of which we may descend. Even the gateways 
are still recognisable. 

Ascending the Via S. Margherita from S. Domenico, we reach 
(20 min.) the hill commanding the town, on which are situated the 
church of S. Margherita, and a dilapidated fortress (see below). — 
About halfway up, the Via delle Santucce diverges to the left, and 

44 Route 6. TTCJtONTOLA. 

leads in a few minutes to the church of S. Niccolb, with a small 
entrance-court planted with cypresses. 

The Intekioe (>/■.> fr.) contains a freely-restored fresco and an "'Altar- 
piece, painted on both sides (in front the Body of Christ borne by angels 
and surrounded by saints ; at the back, Madonna della Seggiola with SS. 
Peter and Paul), by Luca Signorelli. — The sacristan will point out a 
direct route, ascending hence by steps to S. Margherita. 

The church of S. Margherita, a Gothic building by Niccolb 
and Giovanni Pisano, possesses a handsome rose-window, which 
has of late been partly renewed and enlarged. In the high-altar 
is the tomb of the saint (13th cent.); the silver front with the 
golden crown was presented by Pietro da Cortona. The platform of 
the Campanile commands a splendid 'view. — The -visitor should 
not omit to ascend somewhat higher to the old *Fortezza, 2165 ft. 
in height (trifling fee ; custodian sometimes difficult to find), from 
the walls of which the noble prospect is entirely uninterrupted, ex- 
cept at the back, where it is bounded by the mountain-chain (Alto 
diS. Egidio, 3432 ft.). 

Besides the town-walls , there are several less interesting anti- 
quities: an ancient vault beneath the Palazzo Cecchetti; near S. 
Margherita, remains of Roman Baths, erroneously called a 'Temple 
of Bacchus '; outside the gate of S. Agostino, an Etruscan tomb, 
the 'Grotta di Pitagora'. 

The visitor may (by presenting a visiting-card) possibly ob- 
tain access to the private collection of Sign. Colonnese in the Pa- 
lazzo Madama, Via Nazionale 5 : beautiful half-length picture of 
St. Stephen and a Nativity by Luca Signorelli. 

76 M. Terontola, an unimportant place near the N.W. angle of 
the Trasimene Lake, is the junction of the lines to Chiusi, Orte, 
and Rome (see 1!. 8), and to Perugia and Foligno. Passengers in 
the latter direction change carriages here. 

The Lago Trasimeno, the ancient Lacus Trasimenus (846 ft.), 
is 30 M. in circumference, and 8-14 M. across, and is surrounded 
by wooded and olive-clad slopes , which as they recede rise to a 
considerable height. The lake contains three small islands , the 
Isola Maggiore with a monastery, the Isola Minore near Passignano, 
and the Isola Polvese towards the S. ; on the W. side an eminence 
abuts on the lake , bearing the small town Castiglione del Lago 
(p. 55). Its shores abound with wild-fowl, and its waters with 
eels , carp, and other fish. The brooks which discharge themselves 
into the lake gradually raise its bed. The greatest depth, formerly 
30-40 ft., is now 20 ft. only. In the 15th cent, a drain (emissa- 
rium) conducted the water into a tributary of the Tiber. In an- 
cient times the area of the lake appears to have been smaller. A 
project for draining it entirely, formed by Napoleon I., is still fre- 
quently canvassed. 

The reminiscence of the sanguinary victory which Hannibal gained 
here over the Roman consul C. Flaminius in May, B.C. 217, imparts a 
tinge of sadness to this lovely landscape. It is not difficult to reconcile 

PERUGIA. 7. Route. 45 

the descriptions of Livy (22 , 4 et seq.) and Polybius (3 , 83 et seq.) with 
the present appearance of the lake. In the spring of 217 Hannibal quitted 
his winter-quarters in Gallia Cisalpina , crossed the Apennines , marched 
across the plains of the Arno , notwithstanding an inundation , devastating 
the country far and wide in his progress , and directed his course towards 
the S. , passing the Roman army stationed at Arezzo. The brave and able 
consul followed incautiously. Hannibal then occupied the heights which 
surround the defile extending on the N. side of the lake from Borghetto to 
Passignano, upwards of 5 M. in length. The entrance at Borghetto, as well 
as the issue at Passignano, were easily secured. Upon a hill in the centre 
(site of the present Torre) his principal force was posted. A dense fog 
covered the lake and plain , when in the early morning the consul , igno- 
rant of the plan of his enemy, whom he believed to be marching against 
Rome, entered the fatal defile. When he discovered his error, it was too 
late : his entire left fiank was exposed, whilst his rear was attacked by 
the hostile cavalry from Borghetto. No course remained to him but to force 
a passage by Passignano, and the vanguard of 6000 men succeeded in 
effecting their egress (but on the following day were compelled to sur- 
render). The death of the consul rendered the defeat still more disastrous. 
The Romans lost 15,000 men , while the remaining half of the army was 
effectually dispersed ; and the Roman supremacy in Italy began to totter. 
The slaughter continued for three hours. From the Gualandro two small 
brooks fall into the lake. One of these , crossed by the road , has been 
named Sanguinetto in reminiscence of the streams of blood with which it 
was once discoloured. 

The line skirts the lake and passes through a tunnel. 80 M. 
Tuoro; 83 M. Passignano Two tunnels. 89 M. Magione, with an 
old watch-tower of the time of Fortebraccio and Sforza. 97 M. Ellera. 

103 M. Perugia, picturesquely situated on the hill to the left. 

7. Perugia. 

Arrival. Omnibus to the town (1 fr.) in great request, so that no 
time should be lost in taking a seat (no cabs); to the Alb. di Perugia a 
drive of 1/4 br., to the top of the hill 25-30 min. (Before the first bend of 
the road to the left, a good path to the right ascends to the town in 20 min.) 

Hotels. '-Albergo di Perugia, at the lower entrance of the town 
(15 min. drive from the station), with an uninterrupted view, English 
landlady; rooms not always obtainable unless previously ordered. — 
Grande Bretagne, same proprietor, 10 min. drive farther up, at the be- 
ginning of the Corso, R. from 2, D. 4, B. l'/ 2 , L. & A. 1, omn. 1 fr. — 
Second class: "Albergo di Belle Arti, Via dei Cappellari, a side-street 
of the Corso, R., L., & A. U/ t fr. 

Restaurants. Progresso, Via Nuova, near Piazza Sopramura; "Schuh- 
macher (beer), Ciuffini Corso 106; another beer-room at Via Riaria 39a. 

Cafes. "Baduel, Trasimeno, both in the Corso ; Melinelli, in the Piazza 
S. Lorenzo, opposite the cathedral-fountain; also a pleasant Cafe under 
the arcades of the Prefettura, with view. 

Post Office: Via Riaria 33. — Telegraph Office at the Prefettura, in 
the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele. — Diligence Office, Corso 38. 

Perugia is well adapted for a summer resort, and apartments are not 
expensive. — ■ At least a day or a day and a half should be devoted to 
the town. As a guide (not indispensable) Giovanni Scalc/ii is recommended, 
but dilettanti are cautioned against purchasing his 'antiquities' ; also Al. 
Rotoni. — The Churches are closed till 4 p.m. 

Perugia, the capital of the province of TJmbria, with 17,000 in- 
hat>. (including the villages 51,400), residence of the prefect, of a 
military commandant, and a bishop, and the seat of a university, 
lies on a group of hills about 1300 ft. above the valley of the Tiber 

46 Route 7. PERUGIA. History. 

[[107 ft. above the level of the sea). The town is built in an an- 
tiquated style, partly on the top of the hill, and partly on its slope. 
Numerous buildings of the 14th and 15th cent, (when the town 
was in the zenith of its prosperity), the paintings of the Umbrian 
school , and the fine and extensive views of the peculiar scenery, 
render Perugia one of the most interesting places in Italy. 

Perusia was one of the twelve Etruscan confederate cities, and not less 
ancient than Cortona, with which and Arretium it fell into the hands of the 
Romans, B. C. 310. It subsequently became a municipium. In the war 
between Octavianus and Antony, who in the summer of 41 occupied Pe- 
rusia, and after an obstinate struggle was compelled by the former to sur- 
render (bellum Perusinum), the town suffered severely , and was finally re- 
duced to ashes. It was afterwards rebuilt and became a Roman colony 
under the name of Augusta Perusia. In the 6th cent, it was destroyed by 
the Goth Totila after a siege of seven years. In the wars of the Lombards, 
Guelphs, and Ghibellines it also suffered greatly ; in the 14th cent, it acquired 
the supremacy over nearly the whole of Umbria, but in 1370 was compelled 
to surrender to the pope. Renewed struggles followed , owing to the con- 
flicts between the powerful families of Oddi and Baglioni. In 1416 the 
shrewd and courageous Braccio Fortebraccio of Montone usurped the su- 
preme power, whence new contests arose , until at length Giovanni Paolo 
Baglioni surrendered to Pope Julius II. Leo X. caused him to be executed 
at Rome in 1520. In 1540 Paul III. erected the citadel, 'ad coercendam 
Perusmorum audaciam\ as the inscription, destroyed during the last revo- 
lution, recorded. In 1708 the town was captured by the Duke of Savoy, on 
31st May 1849 by the Austrians, and in 1860 by the Piedmontese. 

Umbrian School of Painting. As early as the time of Dante an Um- 
brian artist , the miniature painter Odeeisi of Gubbio , was celebrated, 
and art was practised in Gubbio , Fabriano , Perugia, etc. The neigh- 
bouring Siena doubtless exercised an influence on the prevailing style 
of art, which was confirmed by the situation of the towns, the character 
of their inhabitants, and the religious atmosphere diffused by Assisi and 
Loreto. Neither dramatic power, nor wealth of imagination is to he 
found in the Umbrian style, its characteristic features being reverie, 
tranquillity, and gentleness of sentiment. The men pourtrayed often ap- 
pear destitute of individuality and vigour, the female figures, on the other 
hand , excite our admiration owing to their winning and devout expres- 
sions. Technical improvements seem to have been introduced but slowly, 
but the old style was thoroughly cultivated and rendered more attractive 
by frequent use of decorative adjuncts. 

Setting aside the painters of the 14th cent., who were dispersed among 
various small towns , we find that Ottaviano Nelli of Gubbio (15th cent.) 
was the first able representative of this school. Works by this master 
are preserved both at his native town and at Foligno. Kelli was, how- 
ever, eclipsed by Gentile da Fabriano (b. about 1360-70), who probably 
had studied the Sienese masters in his youth , and who afterwards un- 
dertook long journeys (e. g. to Venice and Rome), thus establishing his 
reputation throughout Italy. His style not unfrequently resembles the 
Flemish. Besides Gubbio and Fabriano, other Umbrian towns possessed 
local schools of painting , such as Camerino and Foligno. The latter 
about the middle of the 15th cent., gave birth to Niccolb Alunno a man 
of limited ability, which, however, he cultivated to the utmost. His 
prevailing theme is the Madonna, to whose features he imparts beauty in 
happy combination with reverie ; and in this department he may be re- 
garded as the precursor of Perugino and Raphael. 

Meanwhile Pkkugia , the largest city in this district, by no means 
remained idle. In this wider and more enterprising field the old con- 
ventional styles were soon abandoned as unsatisfactory, and the necessity 
of adopting the Florentine style was urgently felt. In the latter half of 
the 15th cent. Benedetto Buoiifigli was the first who strove to throw aside 

■41: - -AMfil^ - 

History of Art. PERUGIA. 7. Route. 47 

the local style of painting , and the same effort was made by Fiorenzo di 
Lorenzo, a younger master and perhaps a pupil of Benedetto. 

This improved style was brought to maturity by Pietko Vanucci of 
Citta della Pieve (1446-1524) , surnamed Perugino , after the chief scene 
of his labours, a master to whom the Umbrian school is chiefly indebted 
for its fame. Perugia was, however, by no means the only sphere of his 
activity. He repeatedly spent years together in Florence, and was em- 
ployed for a considerable time in Rome. His endeavours to overcome 
the defects of his native school were crowned with success. In Ver- 
rocchio's studio in Florence he was initiated into the secrets of perspec- 
tive and the new mode of colouring, and in both respects attained con- 
summate skill. Down to the beginning of the 16th cent, his excellence 
continued unimpaired , as his frescoes in the Cambio, and several works 
in the Gallery at Perugia sufficiently prove. During the last twenty years 
of his life, however, his works show a falling off, occasioned, doubtlessly, 
by his accepting more orders than he could conscientiously execute, 
whereby his art was degraded to a mere handicraft. He seems , indeed, 
to have had more studios than one at the same time, as for example in 
1502-5 both at Florence and Perugia, in the latter of which the young 
Raphael was employed. 

Another great master of the Umbrian school , vying with Perugino, 
is Bernardino Betti, surnamed Pinturicchio (1454-1513). Although he 
exercised no considerable influence on the progress of Italian art, and in- 
troduced no striking improvements like Leonardo , and others , yet he 
thoroughly understood how to utilise the traditional style and the cur- 
rent forms , and was marvellously prolific as a fresco painter. The Va- 
tican and Roman churches, the Cathedral library at Siena , and the Col- 
legiate church at Spello, are the chief scenes of his activity. — Amongst 
the younger contemporaries of Perugino we must next mention Giovanni 
di Pietro, surnamed Lo Spagna after his native country, whose paintings 
are hardly inferior to the early works of Raphael, and who, in common 
with all the Umbrian masters, exhibits great ease of execution. 

Other assistants of Perugino, but of inferior merit, were Giannicola 
di Paolo ifanni (d. 1544) and Eusebio di S. Giorgio. The latter was so 
successful in imitating Raphael in superficial respects , that several of 
his pictures, amongst others the Adoration of the Magi in the picture-gal- 
lery at Perugia (Sala del Pinturicchio, No. 23, p. 49), have been attri- 
buted to Raphael himself. Of Sinibaldo Ibi and Tiberio d'Assisi , who 
nourished during the first twenty years of the 16th cent., little is known, 
and their works are rare. Gerino of Pistoja seems to have been a good 
painter of the average class , and the works of Domenico di Paris Alfani, 
a friend of Raphael, possess considerable attraction. These last masters, 
however, show little individuality, and before the middle of the 16th cen- 
tury the Umbrian school was completely merged in those of Rome and 

At the entrance to the upper part of the town, on the site of the 
citadel, which was removed in 1860, extends the Piazza Vittoeio 
Emanuele (PI. B, 5) , in which rises the Prefettura, a simple and 
handsome modern building , adorned with arcades on the ground- 
floor. The garden terrace affords a superb *View of the Umbrian 
valley with Assist, Spello, Foligno, Trevi, and numerous other vil- 
lages , enclosed by the principal chain of the Apennines extending 
from Gubbio onwards ; the Tiber and part of the lower quarters of 
Perugia are also visible. (A band plays here twice a week.) 

Northwards from the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele runs the Corso 
to the left, leading to the Cathedral square ; and the Via Riaria to 
the right , leading to the Piazza del Sopramuro (p. 52). 

"We follow the Cortso, the busiest and handsomest street in the 

48 Route 7. PERUGIA. Collegio del Cambio. 

town. On the right (No. 28) is the Palazzo Baldesehi (PI. 21 ; B, 4) ; 
on the 2nd floor is preserved a *Drawing by Raphael (Pinturicchio ?) 
for the 5th fresco in the library of Siena Cathedral (p. 26 ; fee i j^ii.~). 

On the left, farther on, No. 105, is the *Collegio del Cambio 
(PI. 31; B, 4), the old chamber of commerce, with the *Udienza 
del Cambio, containing celebrated frescoes by Perugino, dating from 
his best period, 1500. (Custodian 1/2 fr-i Des t light i' 1 the morning.) 

On the wall to the left of the door. 1st. Arch: to the left, Fabius Maxi- 
mus. Socrates, and Xuina Pompilius, with Prudence above; to the right, 
Furius Camillus , Pittacus, and Trajan, with Justice above. 2nd Arch: 
to the left, Lucius .sicinius, Leonidas, and Horatius Codes, with Valour; 
to the right, Scipio, Pericles, and Cincinnatus, with Temperance. On the 
pillar between the arches is a portrait of Perugino. — Opposite the en- 
trance: to the left, the Tr;msfigurati"n as the fulfilment of faith; to the 
right, 'Adoration of the Magi, as a revelation of love. — Right wall. 
1st Arch: to the left, Prophets, to the right Sibyls, as the heralds of 
hope; above, Jehovah. The 2nd Arch is occupied by the finely-carved 
judicial throne and the money-changers 1 bench. — On the ceiling are me- 
dallions of the seven planets , surrounded by admirable arabesques. Ra- 
phael is said to have been one of Perugino's assistants in the execution 
of these frescoes ; his style is traceable in the Madonna of the Nativity. 
Perugino received 350 ducats for his work from the guild of merchants. 
The carved and "'Inlaid-work ('tarsia') of the judicial benches, doors, etc., 
by Antonio Mercatello, which are amongst the finest Fienaissance works of 
the kind, also deserve notice. — The adjacent Chapel contains an altar- 
piece and frescoes by Giannicola Manni. 

Immediately adjoining the Collegio is the Talazzo Pubblico 
(or Comunale, PL 22 ; B, 4), a huge edifice of 1281 and 1333, re- 
cently skilfully restored , with its principal facade towards the 
Corso and a second towards the Piazza del Duomo. It is adorned 
with fine windows , a handsome portal , and Gothic sculptures (the 
armorial bearings of the allied towns, saints, etc.). In the group of 
animals over the chief entrance, the griffin represents Perugia, while 
the wolf, overcome by it, is Siena. The victory gained by the Peru- 
gians in 1358 over the Sienese is also commemorated by trophies 
(chains, bars of gates) on the portal in the Piazza del Duomo. On 
the 2nd floor, entered from the Corso, is the Sala dblla Statistica 
(No. 2), with a fine Renaissance door, in a lunette above which is 
a Madonna by Fior. di Lorenzo. On the same floor is the Sala dbl 
Capitaxo bel Popolo, an apartment of noble dimensions. On the 
3rd floor is the *Picture Gallery ( Pinacoteca Vannucci) , formed 
since 1863 of works collected from suppressed churches and mon- 
asteries, and of great value to the student of Umbrian art. (Tickets 
1 fr., in the Sala della Statistica.) Catalogues provided. 

The Vestibule contains a few unimportant pictures and also works 
of art for sale. Adjoining it. is the Sala dei Cimelii (A): 1. Meo da Siena, 
Madonna and saints, a drawing. No. 2. Two saints, and No. 3. The Apost- 
les (the latter as predelle) evidently belong to the same work. 11. Am- 
brogio Lorenzetti, Madonna and four saints ; ,:: 26. Margaritone cTArezzo (1272), 
Large crucifixion ; 22-24, perhaps by the same master. — Sala B (formerly 
the Cappella dei Decemviri) , with frescoes by Benedetto Bonfigli. To the 
right of the windows and on the entrance-wall are scenes from the life of 
St. Louis of Toulouse. Opposite the windows are the Burial of that saint 
and the Martyrdom of St. Herculanus on the occasion of the capture of 

Palaxzo Pubblico. PERUGIA. 7 . Route. 49 

Perugia by Totila. On the adjacent wall is the Burial of St. Herculamis. 
In the centre of the room is a good model of the Fonte Maggiore. — Sala 
dei Stucchi (D) : Frescoes of the Umbrian School (14th and 15th cent.), 
transferred to canvas. The glass-cases contain Codices and Choir-books 
with miniatures. — Sala di Taddeo Bartoli (E): Sicnese pictures of the 
15th cent., most of them valuable. Taddeo Bartoli (1403): 9. Madonna 
with angels and saints ; 10. Descent of the Holy Ghost. Tom. d'Arcangelo of 
Cortona : Exploits of the condottiere Braccio Forlebraccio (frieze). — Sala 
del Angelico (F): '1-20. Fra Angelico da Fiesole, Fragments of a large 
altar-piece (Madonna with angels, Annunciation, Saints, Miracles of St. Ni- 
cholas of Bari); *21. Piero delta Francesco, Madonna and saints, with the 
Annunciation above. — Sala del Bonfigli (G). Bonfigli: 7. Annunciation 
with St. Mark; 10. Adoration of the Magi; 13. Madonna with angels 
playing on instruments. Giovanni Boccati da Camerino: 16, 19. Madonna 
and angels. — Sala di Bernardino di Makiotto (H). Bernardino: 
1. Marriage of St. Catharine; 2. Madonna and saints. 10. Bonfigli, 'Gon- 
falone 1 (sacred banner) of the Fraternity of S. Bernardino di Siena (Christ 
blessing the saints, below which are believers burning objects of luxury). 
12. Caporali , Christ and the Madonna in glory (fresco). "14. Mccolb 
Alunno , Gonfalone of the Brotherhood of the Annunziata (1466). — ■ 
Sala di Fiorenzo di Lorenzo (J) : ! '4. Fiorenzo, Adoration of the Magi 
(among whose followers is the young Perugino to the left); 24. Perugino, 
Coronation of the Madonna. — Gabinetto di Fiorenzo di Lorenzo (L): 
"2-9. Fiorenzo (?), Miracles of S. Bernardino (2-6, master-pieces ; 7-9, in the 
same style, but inferior); 16. Fiorenzo(l), Bust of the Madonna in a garland, 
with angels' heads below. — Sala del Perugino (M). Perugino: 11. Baptism 
of Christ; 20. Nativity; 21, 16, 12, 7. Predelle ; 8, 9, 13, 14, 17, 18, 22, 23. 
Saints; all being fragments of a large altar-piece. Below No. 4. (St. 
Jacob, by Perugino) is an autograph letter of the master to the Prior of 
S. Agostino. — Sala del Pinturicchio (N). Pervgino: 2. Transfiguration; 
•3-5. Predelle; 6. Madonna and saints. ,! 7. Spagna, Madonna and saints. 
Pinturicchio: "Large altar-piece in its original frame, the Madonna with 
the infant Child and St. John; on the left, SS. Augustine and Jerome; 
above, the Annunciation; in the pediment, a Pieta; on the predelle, scenes 
from the lives of SS. Augustine and Jerome ; 12. Gonfalone with St. 
Augustine (on silk). Perugino: 14. Madonna , worshippers , SS. Francis 
and Bernardino; 15. Madonna and saints; 16. John the Baptist with saints. 
Raphael: "17. Strip of decorative painting; 24. God the Father with angels 
(both belonging to the Entombment in the Galeria Borghese at Rome). 
Eusebio di San Giorgio: 18. Madonna with saints; *23. Adoration of the 
Magi. 20. Pupil of Raphael (?), Madonna, resembling the Conestabile Ma- 
donna. — Sala di Giannicolo Manni e di Berto (O). — Sala della 
Souola di Perdgino (P): 36. Alfani, Holy Family, designed by Raphael. 

In the Piazza del Duomo (PI. B, 4) rises the *Fonte Maggiore, 
dating from 1277 , and one the finest fountains of that period in 
Italy. It consists of three admirably-constructed basins, adorned 
with numerous biblical and allegorical figures in relief, executed by 
Niecolb and Giovanni Pisano and Arnolfo del Cambio (1280 ; two 
of the statuettes are modern substitutes). — The W. side of the 
piazza is occupied by the Episcopal Palace (PI. 30), behind which 
is the so-called Maesth delle Volte (PI. 32), a relic of the Palazzo 
del Podesta., which was burned down in 1329 and again in 1534. 

The Cathedral of 8. Lorenzo (PI. 11 ; B, 4), dating from the 15th 
cent., is externally unfinished. Adjoining the entrance from the 
Piazza del Duomo is a pulpit. 

The "Interior, consisting of nave and aisles with a short transept, is of 
spacious but heavy dimensions. — At the beginning of each aisle is a chapel. 
On the right is the Cappella S. Bernardino, with a Descent from the 
Cross, the master-piece of Baroccio (1569) ; the painted window represent- 

Baedekib. Italy II. 8th Edition. 4 

50 Route 7. PERUGIA. University. 

ing the Preaching of St. Bernardino of Siena is by Constantino di Kosato 
and Arrigo Fiammingo of Malines (1565; restored in 1863). — On the left 
is the Cappklla dell 1 Anello , which down to 1797 contained the cele- 
brated Sposalizio by Perugino , now at Caen in Normandy. In both the 
chapels are beautifully carved stalls, as also in the choir. — In the Right 
Transept, a marble sarcophagus containing the remains of Popes Inno- 
cent III. (d. 1216), Urban IV. (d. 1264) , and Martin IV. (d. 1285). — The 
adjoining Winter-Choir contains an "Altar- piece by Luca Signorelli: Ma- 
donna with SS. John the Baptist, Onuphrius the Hermit, Stephen, and 
a bishop as donor. Below the 2nd window to the left: Christ imparting 
His blessing, and saints, by Lodovico Angeli. 

In the Library are preserved precious MSS., such as the Codex of St. 
Luke of the 6th cent., in gold letters on parchment. 

On the "W. and N. side of the Cathedral is situated the Piazza 
del Papa (PL B, C, 3, 4) , so named from the bronze statue of Ju- 
lius III. by Vino. Danti (1556). — Opposite the W. portal of the 
Cathedral, Nos. 8-10, is the Palazzo Conestabile, formerly celebrated 
for a small Madonna by Raphael which it contained (sold in 1871). 
From the N. angle of the Piazza del Papa the Via Vecchia de- 
scends to the *Arco di Augusto (PI. 2; C, 3), an ancient town-gate 
with the inscription Augusta Perusia. The foundations date from 
the Etruscan period, and the upper part perhaps from the Augustan 
epoch after the conflagration. From this point the partly preserved 
walls of the ancient city, which occupied the height where the old 
part of the present town stands, may be distinctly traced. 

The small space in front of the Arco di Augusto is called the 
Piazza Gkimani (PL C, 3); to the left is the Palazzo Oallenga, 
formerly Antinori, dating from 1758. — A little to the N. lies the 
church of >S. Agostino (PL 5 ; C, 2) , containing several pictures by 
Perugino and other Umbrian Masters, and handsome choir-stalls. 

From the Palazzo Gallenga the Via de' Pasteni leads in a few 
minutes to the University (PL B, 2), established in 1320 in a mon- 
astery of Olivetans, which was suppressed by Napoleon. It possesses 
a small Botanic Garden, Natural History and Art History Collections, 
and a Museum of Etruscan and Roman Antiquities. 

The Museum of Antiquities is on the first floor. On the Staircase are 
Etruscan and Latin inscriptions and unimportant Roman sculptures. The 
Corridor chiefly contains Etruscan urns and a few casts from antique 
and Renaissance sculptures. '-No. 279. Terracotta urn in the form of a 
recumbent man, who is being seized by a goddess of death with the 
features of a fiend; the hollow interior once contained the ashes of the 
deceased. The Qabinetto di Antiquaria contains flint weapons, urns, and 
Etruscan and Roman anticaglias. In the 3rd Room, Mountings of a chariot 
with figures and ornamentation in the most ancient Asiatic style (in a 
cabinet opposite the windows); large gold Earring with a female head (in 
the cabinet in the middle of the room); two Mirrors with scenes from the 
myths of Meleager and Helen. In the 4th Room, Vase of admirable Attic 
workmanship, with red figures of Dionysus and Ariadne (cabinet opposite 
the windows). — Qabinetto Cristiano: 1st Boom, Reliquary containing the 
remains of the condottiere Braccio Fortebraccio, who fell at the siege of 
Aquileja on 5th June, 1424 (formerly in S. Francesco dei Conventuali) ; 
Coffin of Braccio II. Baglione, with a sumptuous velvet covering (beginning 
of 15th cent.); richly carved slabs from the choir-stalls of S. Agostino, 
perhaps by Barili; Seal of Card. Bembo by Lautizio di Perugia. In the 
2nd Room three master-pieces of enamel-work ('champs leveV) : a goblet 

S. Severo. PERUGIA. 7. Route. 51 

which once belonged to Pope Benedict XI. (d. 1304). and a cup and plate 
or saucer executed by Cataluzio di Pietro of Todi (14th cent.). 

The Scientific Collections are unimportant. 

Neai the Gate of S. Angelo (PI. A, 1), to which the Via Longara 
leads from the Piazza Grimani, is situated the architecturally inter- 
esting church of S. Angelo, a circular structure with 16 antique co- 
lumns in the interior, in the style of S. Stefano Rotondo in Rome, 
probably dating from the 6th cent., with additions of a later period. 
■ — On the other (S.) side of the Longara is S. Agnese, adorned with 
frescoes from the later period of Perugino and his pupils. 

Ascending from the Piazza Grimani (p. 50) by the Monte di 
Porta Sole to the S.E. (or from the Piazza del Papa , p. 50, by the 
Via Bontempi to the E.), crossing the Piazza de' Gigli, and then 
taking the first side-street (Via S. Severo) to the left, we reach *S, 
Severo (PI. 14; C, 3), formerly a convent of the order of Camaldoli, 
now a college, in the chapel of which Raphael painted his first fresco, 
probably in 1505, having left Perugino's school the year before, and 
gone to Florence. Entrance adjoining the chapel (custodian 1/2 f r 0- 

The fresco, which was seriously damaged, and of late has been restored 
by Consoni , resembles the upper part of Raphael's Disputa in the Va- 
tican; above, God the Father (obliterated) with three angels and the 
Holy Ghost; below, the Redeemer and the saints Maurus, Placidus, Bene- 
dict, Romuald, Benedict the Martyr, and John the Martyr. The inscription 
(added at a later period) runs thus : Raphael de Urbino dom. Octaviano Ste- 
phano Volaterrano Priore Sanctam Trinitatem angelos astanies sanctosque 
pinxit, A. D. MD V. At the sides, lower down, St. Scholastica, St. Jerome, 
St. John Ev., St. Gregory the Great, Boniface, and St. Martha, by Pietro 
Perugino. Inscription : Petrus de Castro Plebis Perusinus, tempore domini 
Silvestri Stephani Volaterrani a destris el sinistris div. Christipherae sanclos 
sanctasque pinxit A. D. MDXXI. 

A vaulted passage under the clock of the Palazzo Pubblico 
(p. 48) leads from the Corso to the Via de' PRiora, the best route 
to the sights of the "W. quarter. The Via Deliziosa, diverging to the 
left near the small piazza in front of the Chiesa Nuova (PI. 10 ; B, 4), 
contains (PL 18) the House of Perugino (?; denoted by a tablet). 

We continue to descend the Via de' Priori, passing the mediae- 
val Torre degli Sciri, or degli Scalzi (PL 34 ; A, 4), and the Madonna 
della Luce (PL 4), a pleasing little Renaissance church of 1518, and 
reach an open space on the right. Opposite us here rises the — 

*Oratorio di S. Bernardino [Confraternity della Oiustiua, PL 
A, 3). The facade , executed by Agostino a" Antonio , a Florentine 
sculptor , in 1459-61 , is a magnificent polychrome work , in which 
both coloured marble and terracotta are employed, while the ground 
of the numerous and very elaborate sculptures is also coloured. A 
picture in the interior, representing the festival of the church, con- 
tains an admirable view of the facade. 

Immediately adjacent is the church of S. Francesco dei Con- 
ventuali, or del Prato (PL 9 ; A, 3), a Gothic edifice of about 1230, 
modernised in the last century. 


52 Route 7. PERUGIA. Palazzo delta Penna, 

The Interior contains several pictures by the Alfani and other masters 
of the Vnibrktn school, and also a copy by Cav. d*Arpino of Raphael's 
Entombment (now in the Borghese Gallery at Rome, p. 188) , which was 
originally painted for this church. 

The late Cavaliere Guardabassis Collection of Etruscan Anti- 
quities, in a house near the Teatro Morlacchi (PI. B, 3), is worthy 
of a visit. The proprietor bequeathed it to the town, and it will 
soon be removed to the University Museum. A large mirror-case, 
representing Bacchus on the panther, is specially interesting. 

To the E. of the Corso, and parallel with it, stretches the 
Piazza del Sopramuro (PI. C, 4), resting on extensive substructions, 
part of which belong to the ancient Etruscan town walls. — On the 
E. side of the Piazza rises the Palazzo delCapitano delPopolo, after- 
wards the Palazzo del Podesta (PI. 29), dating from 1472; adjoining 
it is the old University, built in 1483 ; both edifices are now occu- 
pied by courts of justice (PI. 35). Opposite is the Biblioteca Pub- 
blica (PI. 3; C, 4), containing 30,000 vols., and including MSS. of 
Stephanus Byzantinus , St. Augustine with paintings , and others. 

The Via Riaria leads hence towards the S. to the Piazza Vittorio 
Emanuele (p. 47). We descend here immediately to the left, passing 
trie substructions of the old citadel , where an ancient gate , called 
Porta Marzia (PI. 33 ; C, 5), with interesting sculptures , and the 
inscriptions Augusta Perusia and Colonia Vibia, which was removed 
from its old site to make way for the fortress, has been re-erected. — 
We turn to the left here, and follow the broad main street with an 
avenue of acacias, at the end of which, to the left, rises the small 
Gothic church of 8. Ercolano (PL 6 ; C, 5), with an altar consisting 
of an ancient sarcophagus. 

The first side-street diverging to the right of the avenue, before 
S. Ercolano, leads to the Palazzo della Penna (PI. 27; C, 5), No. 7, 
to the right, lying a little back from the street. It contains a con- 
siderable picture-gallery, containing paintings of theUmbrian school, 
a round picture (Madonna and saints) by Signorelli, and works of 
the latter half of the 16th and 17th cent. (Carracci, Ouercino, Par- 
meggianino, Caravaggio, Salvator Rosa). Admission daily, 12-4; 
custodian 1 /2~i fr. 

This side-street leads to the Via S. Ercolano , which begins 
opposite S. Ercolano (see above) and is continued by the Via di 
Porta Romana. In the latter, to the left, stands the church of — 

S.Domenico (PL 7; C, 6), originally a Gothic edifice of the 13th 
and 14th cent., built by Giov. Pisano in 1304, and almost entirely 
re-erected by Carlo Maderna in 1614, with a lofty campanile, part 
of which has been taken down. 

In the Left Transept is the !! Monument to Pope Benedict XI., who 
fell a victim to the intrigues of Philip IV. of France, and died in 1304 
from eating poisoned figs. It was executed by Giovanni Pisano, and is one 
of the most famous monuments of its kind; above the recumbent figure 
of the pope rises a lofty canopy, borne by spiral columns and adorned 

S. Pietro de' Caiinensi. PERUGIA. 7. Route. 53 

with mosaics (above is a Madonna between St. Dominicus and the kneeling 
pope on one side and St. Herculanus on the other). On the adjacent 
wall is the monument of Bishop Benedetto Guidolotti (1429). — The 
Choir, with a rectangular termination, contains a huge Gothic window 
filled with rich stained glass, the largest of its kind in Italy (218 sq. yds.), 
executed in 1411 by Fra Bartolommeo of Perugia, and recently restored. 
This window belonged to the original church of Giov. Pisano. — The in- 
laid Choir Stalls (tarsia) date from 1476. 

After a few minutes more we pass through the richly decorated 
Porta S. Pietro, by Agostino d' Antonio (1475), and reach the old 
monastery and church of — 

*S. Pietro de' Casinensi (PI. 13 ; D, 7, 8; entrance in the first 
court in the corner diagonally opposite, to the left). The church, 
founded about the year 1000 by S. Pietro Vincioli of Perugia, is a 
basilica, consisting of nave, aisles, and a transept, with a richly- 
gilded flat ceiling, borne by 18 antique columns of granite and 
marble and two pillars, and contains numerous pictures. 

In the Nave, above, are eleven large pictures by Ant. Vasillacchi, sur- 
named VAliense, of Perugia, a pupil of Tintoretto and Paolo Veronese, exe- 
cuted in 1592-94. — The Right Aisle contains several Umbrian pictures. 
The chapel of St. Joseph, adorned with modern frescoes, contains, on 
the left, the "Monumental relief of a Countess Baldeschi , in terracotta, 
from a drawing by F r. Overbeck ; on the right, Holy Family, a copy from 
Andrea del Sarto, by Pontormo. — Then , above the door leading to the 
monastery, Two saints and a Holy Family by Sassoferrato, after Perugino 
and Bonifazio of Venice. Above the door leading to the Sacristy, Three 
saints, also after Perugino by Sassoferrato. — In the Sacristy (shown by 
the custodian, 5 soldi) are five small half-figures of ^Saints, by Perugino 
(which formerly surrounded the Ascension by the same master, removed 
by the French, now in Lyons) ; Holy Family, by Parmeggianino ; "Infant 
Jesus and St. John, after Perugino, by Raphael (?). — The Choir-books 
are embellished with good miniatures of the 16th century. 

The "Choir Staxls, in walnut, are admirably carved and inlaid (tarsia) 
by Stefano da Bergamo, 1535; the doors at the back are by his brother 
Damiano. — Under the arch of the Choir, on each side, are ambos (pulpits) 
in stone, with reliefs on a golden ground, by Franc, di Guido, 1517-21. 

The Left Aisle, beginning at the upper end by the choir, contains a picture 
by Buon fig M (?), Mary with the body of Christ and two saints, 1469. In the 
adjoining chapel is a marble altar with reliefs, partly gilded, by J \fino da 
Fiesole , 1473. In the next two chapels : pictures by O. Rent, Giorgio Va- 
sari, and others. Between these, on the wall of the aisle: Judith, by Sasso- 
ferrato. Then, Adoration of the Magi, by Eusebio di S. Oiorgio ; Annun- 
ciation, after Raphael, by Sassoferrato; Pieta, a late work of Perugino, 
part of a large dismembered altar-piece from the church of S. Agostino. 

Close to S. Pietro , on the opposite side of the street, are the 
gardens of the Passeggiata Pubblica (PL D, 8), extending to the 
Porta S. Costanzo, and commanding a magnificent *Prospect of the 
valley of Foligno and the Apennines. 

The visitor may also inspect the following private collections : 
the collection of Aw. Romualdi, Via del Bufalo, No. 5 (near the Alb- 
ergo Gran Bretagna), comprising bronzes, coins, cameos , drawings 
and paintings by An. Carracci, Perugino(i), etc. (for sale). — The 
Galleria Monaldi (PI. 26 ; B, 5) , in the paluzzo of that name, at the 
corner of the Via Kiaria and the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, and the 
Oalleria Meniconi (PI. 25; C, 5), Via di Porta Romana, both chiefly 
contain works of later masters (end of 16th and 17th cent.). 


Outside the Porta del Carmine lies the Cemetery (PI. E, 3), con- 
taining a monument to the champions of liberty in 1859. 

About 3 M. to the E. of Perugia, on this side of Ponte S. Giovanni, the 
first station on the route to Foligno and Rome , the Ancient Etruscan 
Necropolis of Perugia was discovered in 1480. Pedestrians, in going, 
may select the old road , quitting the town by the Porta S. Girolamo 
(PI. D, 6, 7) and return by the new road to the Porta S. Costanzo (PI. D, 8; 
see small Map, p. 46). Carriage there and back, a drive of 172-2 hrs., 
12 fr. — The most interesting of the tombs, and one of the handsomest, 
though not oldest in N. Etruria, is the Sepolcro de' Volunni (the tomb of 
the Volumnii, 3rd cent. B.C.), close to the road, where it is intersected 
by the railway. It consists of ten chambers, hewn in the coarse-grained 
tufa. A number of cinerary urns, with portraits of men and women, and 
various kinds of decoration, were found here. Some of the objects found 
in the tomb have been left in their original positions, but most of them 
are now preserved in a chamber built above it. The custodian is to be 
found at the neighbouring Villa Baglioni (1 fr.). 

From Percgia to the Upper Valley of the Tiber (diligence daily in 
4'/2 hrs. to Citta di Castello). The road soon crosses the Tiber and ascends 
on its left bank to Fratta, or TJmbertide, a small town 18'/2 M. from Perugia. 
In the church of S. Croce , a Descent from the Cross by Luca Signorelli. 
Valuable collection of majolicas at the house of Sign. Born. Mavarelli. — 
Farther on, the road crosses the Tiber twice, and then traverses a luxur- 
iantly cultivated district, on its left bank, to — 

14 M. Citta di Castello (Locanda la Cannoniera), with 6000 inhab. (com- 
mune 24,000), occupying the site of Tifernum Tiberinum, which was destroyed 
by Totila. In the 15th cent, it belonged to the Vitelli family, and afterwards 
to the Church. The town, built in the form of a rectangle, and still 
surrounded by the walls erected in 1518, contains many interesting small 
buildings of the early-Renaissance period, but few mediaeval monuments. 

All that remains of the old Cathedral of 8. Florido, founded in 1012, 
is the campanile and the N. portal ; the present building , an admirable 
specimen of the Renaissance style , was begun in 1482, and completed in 
1522. Bramante has been frequently named as the builder, but Elia di 
Bartolommeo Lombardo is mentioned in the records as the architect. 
S. Domenico (containing a St. Sebastian by Luca Signorelli) is the only 
church that has preserved a Gothic character, and the Palazzo Comu- 
nale the only secular edifice; the latter was built in the 14th cent, by a 
certain Angelus of Orvieto, in the style of the Florentine palaces. 

The Vitelli , the lords and masters of the town , were like most of 
the magnates of the Renaissance period passionately addicted to building. 
The oldest of the four palaces of the 15th and 16th cent., which bear their 
name, is the Palazzo di Alessandro Vitelli; the handsomest is the Palazzo 
Vitelli a S. Oiacomo, and the largest the Palazzo Vitelli a Porta S. Egidio. 
The small summer-house ( Palazzino) of the latter deserves special notice. 

Raphael , it is well known , painted his first independent works for 
churches in Citta di Castello , but they have since disappeared, or (like 
the Sposalizio in the Brera at Milan) have been carried elsewhere. The 
only work of his now here is a church banner, with the Trinity and 
Creation painted on linen, but in a deplorable condition. It was exe- 
cuted for S. Trinita, and is now in the Palazzo Berioli della Porta(?). 

The church of S. Cecilia contains a Madonna by Luca Signorelli, and 
the Palazzo Mancini a "Nativity by the same master, as well as several 
other valuable pictures. 

From Citta di Castello to Arezzo, 22'/a M., see p. 40. 

About 10 M. to the N. of Citta di Castello lies the pleasant little town 
of Borgo S. Sepolcro. The churches contain several pictures by Piero della 
Francesco (b. 1423; teacher of Luca Signorelli; comp. p. 37) and Raffaello 
dal Colle (16th cent. ; a pupil of Raphael), both of whom were born here. 
In S. Antonio Abbate, a fine Crucifixion by Signorelli. 

From Borgo S. Sepolcro a road crosses the Central Apennines to 

CH1TJSI. 8. Route. 55 

Urbania (31 M.) and Urbino (p. 88). — The Source of the Tiber, near the 
village of Le Baize, may be visited from Borgo S. Sepolcro. 

<From Perugia to Narni by Todi, about 56 M. (diligence). This road, 
once greatly frequented, but now of merely local importance, descends 
rapidly into the valley of the Tiber, which its crosses, and then remains 
on its left bank. The scenery presents no great attraction. About half- 
way between Perugia and Narni, and 19 31. to the E. of Orvieto lies — 
Todi {Posta, at the gate), the ancient Umbrian Tuder, a high-lying town 
(1496 ft.) with 4-5000 inhab. (commune 15,500) ; the hill is so abrupt that the 
upper part of the town is not accessible to carriages. Its ancient importance 
is indicated by the fragments of walls and the extensive ruin of a Temple, 
or Basilica, usually styled a temple of JIars. Although poor in treasures of 
art, the town boasts of several interesting edifices, among which are the Ca- 
thedral and the Town Hall in the Piazza. The church of S. Fortunato pos- 
sesses a handsome portal. The finest building of all, however, is the 
pilgrimage church of ,! jS. Maria delta Consolazione, in the form of a Greek 
cross and covered with a dome. The arms of the cross are also sur- 
mounted with domes , and are polygonal in shape with the exception 
of the choir, which is semicircular. The exterior is remarkable for its 
simple and massive style, and the interior for its symmetrical proportions 
and the delicately graduated ornamentation of its pillars. Being one of 
the noblest creations of the Renaissance period, this edifice was naturally 
attributed to Braniante. Documents , however , name Cola di Matteuccio 
da Caprarola (1508) as the architect, and Baldassare Peruzzi as his ad- 
viser. The progress of the building was remarkably slow, and it was 
not completed till 1604. — Todi was the birthplace of Jacopone da Todi 
(d. 1306), author of the 'Stabat mater dolorosa'. 

From Todi to Narni 28 31., by the villages of Rosaro, Casiel Todi'no, and 
San Gemine. About li/ 2 M. from the last, on the ancient, now abandoned 
Via Flaminia , are the interesting ruins of the once prosperous C'arsulae. 
From San Gemine (7 1 ■_> 31. from Narni) two roads descend gradually to 
the beautiful valley of the Neva, one leading S.E. to Terni (see p. 78), and 
the other S. to Narni (p. 80). 

8. From Florence by (Arezzo) Terontola and Chiusi 
to Rome. 

196 31. Railway. This is the shortest route from Florence to Rome. 
Express in 7'/2-7 3 /4 hrs. (fares 37 fr. 85, 26 fr. 25c); ordinary train in 
12 3 / 4 hrs. (fares 34 fr. 30, 23 fr. 55, 16 fr. 45 c); no change of carriages. 

From Florence to Terontola, 76 M., see pp. 36-44. The main 
line to Rome diverges to the right (S.) from the branch-line to Pe- 
rugia, Assisi , and Foligno, and at first skirts the Trasimene Lake 
(comp. p. 44). 

82!/2 M. Castiglione del Lag o , with 11,000 inhab. (incl. sub- 
urbs) , lying to the left on a promontory extending into the lake, 
possesses an old palazzo of the Duchi della Cornia. 

86Y2M. Panicale, a small place with unimportant frescoes in its 
churches by Perugino and his school. The line takes a W. tlir.-ction 
and joins the line from Siena in the valley of the Chiunu (R. 4). 

93'/2 M. ChiUBi. — Carriage with one horse to the town, lying to the 
right on a hill ('/» hr.), 1 fr. 

Leone d'Oro, bargaining necessary; Corona, Via Porsenna 1, clean 
and moderate. — Railway Restaurant. 

Travellers who wish to inspect the Etruscan Antiquities should en- 
quire for the custodian, who sells tickets for the museum O/2 fr.) and ac- 
companies visitors to the tombs (2 fr. ; or, for the whole day, 3-4 fr.). 

56 Route 8. OITTA DELLA PIEVE. From Florence 

The road to the tombs is very muddy in wet weather. — Travellers are 
cautioned against making purchases of Etruscan antiquities at Chiusi, as 
'antiquities' from Etruscan tombs are largely manufactured here. 

Chiusi (5000 inhab.), the ancient Clusium, one of the twelve 
Etruscan capitals, frequently mentioned in the wars against Rome, 
and as the headquarters of Porsenna, was fearfully devastated by 
malaria in the middle ages ; but under the grand-dukes of the House 
of Lorraine the Val di Chiana was gradually drained, and the town 
recovered from these disasters. The walls are mediaeval ; a few re- 
lics of those of the Etruscan period are traceable near the cathedral, 
outside the Porta delle Torri. A walk thence round the town to 
the Porta Romana, also called Porta di S. Pietro, affords pleasing 
views of the S. portion of the Chiana Valley, Citta della Pieve, the 
mountains of Cetona, to the N. the lakes of Chiusi and Montepul- 
ciano, and the latter town itself. 

Under the town extends a labyrinth of subterranean passages, 
the precise object of which is unknown (inaccessible) ; but they 
probably belonged to an elaborate system of drainage, as the an- 
cient Etruscans excelled in works of this kind, and were even in 
advance of many modern nations. 

The interesting *Museo Eirusco, recently founded, contains a 
valuable collection of objects found in the Etruscan tombs around 
Chiusi, such as vases (including several curious polychrome urns), 
dishes, bronzes, mirrors, sarcophagi, and especially cinerary urns, 
chiefly of terracotta, with a few of alabaster and travertine. 

The Cathedral of S. Mustiola consists almost entirely of frag- 
ments of ancient buildings ; the eighteen columns of unequal 
thickness in the interior, and the tomb of S. Mustiola are derived 
from a similar source. The sacristy contains a mass-book illumin- 
ated with admirable miniatures of the 15th cent., chiefly by ar- 
tists of the Sienese school. The walls of the arcades in the cathedral 
square bear numerous Etruscan and Roman inscriptions. 

The great attraction of Chiusi are the Etruscan Tombs (tickets 
of admission and guide, see above), situated in isolated hills at 
some distance from the town. The most important are the following: 
to the N.E. the Deposito del Granduca, 2 M. ; near it, the *Deposito 
della Scimia, with mural paintings representing gladiatorial com- 
bats. The Deposito del Poggio Gajelli, which is supposed, but without 
authority, to be the Mausoleum of Porsenna mentioned by Pliny and 
Varro, is 3 M. distant and much dilapidated. To the N.W., the 
Deposito delle Monache, 2 M. ; then, to the S.E., the Deposito del 
Colle, with mural paintings, 1 M. from the town. 

Near 5. Caterina, on the way to the station, are small cata- 
combs of the early-Christian period, and near them a Roman tomb. 

A diligence runs from the Chiusi station in 1 hr. to the (5 M.) loftily 
situated town of Citta della Pieve (1011 ft.), with 6000 inhab., the birth- 
place of Pietro Vannucci (1446-1524), surnamed Perugino after Perugia, which 
was the chief scene of his labours (comp. p. 47). The town possesses sev- 
eral of his pictures, but they are works of his later period, hastily 

to Rome. ORVIETO. 8. Route. 57 

painted and chiefly done by his pupils, as the master apparently deemed 
his native place not capable of appreciating works of a more elaborate 
kind. — The oratory dei Disciplinali , or S. Maria dei Bianchi, contains 
an Adoration of the Magi, one of the largest pictures by Perugino; two 
letters of the artist from Perugia (1504) are shown with regard to the 
price of this fresco, reducing it from 200 to 75 ducats. — In the Cathedral 
(interior modernised) is the Baptism of Christ (first chapel to the left), 
and in the choir a Madonna with SS. Peter, Paul, Gervasius, and Prota- 
sius , 1513. The picture of St. Antony with St. Panlus Eremita and St. 
Marcellus, now (since 1860) in S. Agostino, belonged originally to the church 
of S. Antonio. All these pictures are by Perugino. — Outside the gate, 
which leads to Orvieto, is the Church of S. Maria dei Servi, containing 
remains of a Crucifixion by Perugino, dating from 1517. 

The road leading from Citta della Pieve in an E. direction to Perugia 
(31 M.) was formerly much frequented. 

About 7'/2 M. to the S.W. of Chiusi (carriage in l'/4 hr.), and at the 
same distance to the W. from Citta della Pieve , lies the small town of 
Cetona , commanded by a mediseval castle. The Palazzo Terrosi contains 
a small collection of antiquities found in the neighbourhood (visitors ge- 
nerally admitted on presenting their cards), such as handsome poly- 
chrome and richly gilded urns ; an *ElephanVs tusk with archaic reliefs 
from the Odyssey, etc. — Picturesque grounds at the back of the palace. 

The Rail-way descends the Chiana valley. 104^2 M. Stat. Fi- 
culle ; the village, 2'/ 2 M. distant, lies on a hill to the right. Near 
Orvieto the Chiana falls into the Paglia, a turbulent tributary of 
the Tiber, which causes great damage in rainy seasons. The rock 
here is tertiary sandstone, while at Orvieto the volcanic district 
begins, of which the central point is the lake of Bolsena (p. 64). 

118'/2 M. Stat. Orvieto, at the base of the hill occupied by the 
town, to which a winding road ascends; omn. in 40min. (returning 
in 20 min.; 1 fr., luggage 20-50 c. J. A footpath leads in i/ 4 hr. to 
the Fortezza (p. 60). 

Orvieto. — Grand Hotel delle Belle Akti (Palazzo Bisenzi), Corso 
Cavour, the halting-place of the omnibus, well spoken of, but enquiry as to 
charges advisable; R. from 3, D. 5, lunch 3, B. l'/a, L. * A. l'/2, omn. 
l'/i fr- — Aquila Bianca, Via Garibaldi, behind the Palazzo Comunale, 
unpretending. — Caffe Benedetti, Piazza Vittorio Emanuele. 

The Wine of Orvieto is esteemed both here and at Rome. 

Photographs of Signorelli's frescoes sold by Armoni near the Cathedral. 

Orvieto (8000 inhab. ; whole parish 16,000), a small town and 
episcopal residence , on an isolated tufa rock, 735 ft. above the Pa- 
glia (1165 ft. above the sea), the Urbibentum of Procopius , was 
called Vrbs Vetus in the 8th cent., and thence derives its modern 
name. In the middle ages it was a great stronghold of theGuelphs, 
and often afforded refuge to the popes. 

From the E. entrance to the town, which we reach in coming 
from the station , and where the old castle mentioned below is 
situated, runs the Corso, the principal street of Orvieto. Two me- 
diaeval towers rise in this street ; opposite the first of these is the 
Via del Duomo, which leads us straight to the far-famed — 

**Cath.edral (PI. 1), a magnificent example of the Italian Gothic 
style, and one of the most interesting buildings in Italy, founded in 
consequence of the 'Miracle of Bolsena' (comp. p. 64). The first stone 

58 Route 8. 


From Florence 

was solemnly laid by Pope Nicholas IV. on 13th Nov. 1290, and the 
edifice begun under the supervision and according to the plans of 
Lorenzo Maitani of Siena. The work progressed so rapidly that 
in 1309 Bishop Guido di Farnese was able to read the first mass in 
the church. It consists of a nave and aisles , with transept and 
rectangular choir. It is 1141/2 yds. long and 36 yds. wide, and like 
the cathedrals of Florence and Siena is constructed of alternate 
courses of black and white marble. This cathedral, like those in 
other towns, once constituted a great arena for the display of artistic 
skill. The guardians of the building were unwearied in providing 
for its ornamentation , and like the curators of modern museums 
who are zealous in their endeavours to secure works by the best 

artists, they did all in their power to obtain the services of the first 
masters of the day for the embellishment of their church. — The 
**Facade, with its three pediments, 44yds. wide and 160 ft. high, 
is gorgeously enriched with sculptures and mosaics, and is said to 
be the largest and most gorgeous 'polychrome' monument in existence. 

The excellent ,: 'Bas-Rf.liefs on the lower parts of the pillars, which in 
many respects are characteristic of the' transitional style preceding the 
Renaissance, are by Giovanni Pisano (?) , Andrea, and other pupils of 
Niecolo Pisano , and represent scenes from the Old and New Testament: 
1st pillar to the left, from the Creation down to Tubal-cain ; 2nd, Abra- 
ham, genealogy of the Virgin; 3rd, History of Christ and Mary; 4th, Last 
Judgment with Paradise and Hell; above are the bronze emblems of the 
four Evangelists, by Lor. Maitani. Above the principal portal, a Ma- 
donna under a canopy, in bronze, by Andrea Pisano. On the margin of 

to Rome. ORVIETO. 8. Route. 59 

the large square panel , in the centre of which is a rose-window , are 
small marble statues of prophets, and above, of the twelve apostles, exe- 
cuted by Sienese sculptors. 

Above the doors and in the three pointed pediments are "Mosaics on 
a golden ground, of various periods (14th-19th cent.) : Annunciation, Nup- 
tials of the Virgin , Baptism of Christ , Coronation of the Madonna ; the 
latter, the principal picture, is the highest. 

The "Interior is constructed , like that of the Siena cathedral, of al- 
ternate layers of dark and light stone (black basalt and greyish -yellow 
limestone from the vicinity). Un each side four columns and two pillars 
separate the nave, which is 131 ft. in height, from the lower aisles. 
Above the round- arched arcades is a gallery adorned with rich carving. 
The windows are pointed, and the upper parts filled with stained glass. 
The visible frame-work of the roof was formerly richly ornamented. 

At the sides of the principal entrance, to the right, St. Sebastian by 
Scalza, to the left, St. Rocco. In the Left Aisle, 'Madonna and St. Ca- 
tharine, a fresco by Oenlile da Fabriano. Before this stai.ds a marble "font, 
the lower part by Luca di Giovanni (1390), the upper by Sano di Matteo 
(1407). — In the Nave, to the right, a fine marble holy water basin in 
the Renaissance style; in front of the columns, the statues of the Twelve 
Apostles, by Mosca, Scalza, Toti, Giovanni da Bologna, and other masters. By 
the high-altar the Annunziata and Archangel, by Mocchi, one on each side. 
— In the Choir, frescoes from the life of the Virgin by Ugolino d'llario 
and Pietro di Puccio. The beautifully inlaid stalls in the choir are by 
artists of Siena, of the 14th and 15th cent. ; on each side is an altar with 
reliefs in marble: on the left, Visitation of Mary, executed by Moschino when 
15 years of age, from designs by Sammicheli of Verona ; to the right, Ador- 
ation of the Magi, by Mosca. 

Bight Transept : the ""Chapel of the Madonna di S. Bkizio (Cap- 
pella Nuova), with a miraculous image of the Virgin and a Pieta, by Ip- 
polito Scalza. This chapel occupies an important page in the annals 
of Italian art. The superintendent of the cathedral-mosaics having heard 
that the 'famous painter and monk' Fra Angelico da Fiesole was not en- 
gaged during the summer in Rome (p. 303), invited him to Orvieto, and 
secured his services for the decoration of the chapel. In 1447 Fra Ange- 
lico accordingly worked here, but for three months only, during which 
time he executed the panels of the diagonally divided ceiling above the 
altar, representing Christ in the glory as Judge, with saints and pro- 
phets to the right, the Virgin and the Apostles on the left. Nothing more 
was done till 1499 , when the work was continued and completed by 
Luca Signorelli. These ""Mural Paintings are the chief attraction here. 
The first fresco to the left of the entrance shows the overthrow of Anti- 
christ, who is represented in the foreground, preaching ; the two devout 
figures, in the corner to the left, are said to be portraits of Signorelli and 
Fra Angelico. The wall on the side by which we enter has been skil- 
fully covered with representations of (left) the Last Judgment, and (right) 
the Fall of the Condemned. — Next in order are the Resurrection of the 
Dead and the Punishment of the Condemned; then, on the wall of the al- 
tar, (right) Descent into Hell, and (left) Ascent into Heaven, and lastly, 
adjoining the first picture, Paradise. — Below these pictures runs a series 
of scenes from Dante's Divine Comedy, and mythological subjects. On the 
ceiling: Apostles, 'signa judicium indicantia', patriarchs and doctors, vir- 
gins and martyrs. — These paintings are the most important work produced 
during the 15th century. In the mastery of form, in the boldness of motion 
and of foreshortening, and in the acquaintance with the nude , Signorelli 
is by no means unworthy of comparison with Michael Angelo, who, ac- 
cording to Vasari, borrowed several motives from these works for his Last 
Judgment in the Sixtine Chapel. — On the right wall, in a niche behind 
the Pieta of Scalza, is an "Entombment of Christ by Signorelli. 

Opposite, in the Left Transept, is the Cappella del Coepokale, where, 
behind the principal altar , is a canopy of marble mosaic, containing a 
silver reliquary, in which is preserved the blood-stained chalice-cloth 
(corporale) connected with the Miracle of Bolsena (p. 64). The reliquary, 

60 Route 8. ORVIETO. From Florence 

executed by Ugolino di Vieri of Siena in 1338, and resembling in form the 
facade of the cathedral, is about 4>/2 ft. broad, 2 ft. high, and 440 lbs. in 
weight. The Passion and the 'Miracle 1 are represented on it in brilliant 
enamel; it is exhibited to the public on Corpus Christi and on Easter 
Sunday, but at other times it is shown only by permission of the Sindaco. 
Modernised frescoes of the 'Miracle of Bolsena' by Ugolino. Over the altar 
on the left, a Madonna by Lippo Memmi. 

Opposite the cathedral, No. 3, is the*OpBRA del Duomo(P1. 2 ; if 
closed, apply to the sacristan), containing the new Museo Municipale. 
Ground Floor. Room I. Weapons, bronzes, pottery, etc., from the 
Etruscan Necropolis (see below). Plan of the excavations. — Room II. 
Architectural ornaments in terracotta, from a Roman temple, the remains 
of which were discovered in the construction of a new street near the 
Giardino Pubblico. Reconstruction of an ancient Etruscan tomb. 

The First Floor contains mediaeval works of art belonging to the 
Opera del Duomo. Designs on parchment for the facade of the cathedral, 
and for a pulpit, which was never completed; a beautifully carved and 
inlaid reading-desk; a precious "'Reliquary by Ugolino da Siena; a Ma- 
donna by Simone Martini; a "St. Magdalene by L. Signorelli, 1504; two 
specimen frescoes by Signorelli, representing himself and a certain Niccolo ; 
a "Madonna, a statue by Oiov. Pisano, partly coloured, etc. 

The Corso leads to the Piazza Maggiore, now VittorioEmanuele, 
with the church of S. Andrea (PL 3), of early origin, probably built 
on the site of an ancient temple, and the Palazzo Comunale (PI. 4), 
dating from the end of the 13th cent, and remodelled in the middle 
of the 16th cent, (pictures in the interior of the 14th and 15th cent.). 
S. Oiovinale (PL 5), at the N.W. angle of the town, a basilica 
with open roof, contains fragments of old frescoes (1312 and 1399). 
In the S. transept of S. Domenico (PL 6) is the monument of Car- 
dinal di Brago, by Arnolfo, 1282. 

The Fortress, constructed by Cardinal Albornoz in 1364, and sit- 
uated at the N.E. entrance of the town (p. 57), has been converted 
into a garden with an amphitheatre for public performances. Fine 
view of the valley of the Tiber and the Umbrian mountains. — The 
custodian of the garden keeps the key of the famous adjacent foun- 
tain, II Pozzo di S. Patrizio, which was begun by Sangallo in 1527, 
and completed by Mosca in 1540. It is partly hewn in the tufa rock, 
partly built of masonry, and is 203 ft. deep, and 43 It. wide. Two 
separate spiral staircases wind round the shaft; the traveller may 
descend by one, and ascend by the other (fee l l%-\ fr.). 

On the N.W. slope of the hill on which the town stands, below the 
ancient town-wall, an extensive "Necropoli Etrusca h;is recently been 
discovered (most conveniently visited on the way back to the station, 
about halfway, a digression of less than 200 paces ; comp. Plan, p. 58). 
The tombs, which are arranged in groups and rows, date chiefly from the 
5th cent. B.C., and some of them were found intact. Their facades, as 
elsewhere, are constructed of three large stones, two of which, placed 
nearly upright, are roofed by the third. Adjoining the entrance is in- 
scribed the name of the deceased in the ancient Etruscan character. The 
inner chamber is square in form, and covered with the primitive kind 
of vaulting in which the stones are laid horizontally, each overlapping the 
one below it. The tombs contained many painted vases, of Greek, and 
particularly of Corinthian and Attic workmanship, and articles of native 
manufacture, the most important being black terracotta vases with pat- 
terns impressed on them. — Since 1863 a number of similar tombs have 
been discovered 2 1 /* M. to the S.W. of Orvieto, near the suppressed Ca- 

to Rome. ORTE. 8. Route. 61 

puchin monastery (comp. Plan). Two of these contain paintings. The 
route to them is rough. The custodian must be enquired for in the town. 

The line to Orte and Rome now traverses the wooded valley of 
the Tiber, whose broad, stony bed bears traces of numerous inun- 
dations. Two tunnels. On the height, to the left, lies Baschi. 
126y 2 M. Castiglione Teverino ; the river is crossed ; 130 M. Alviano, 
136 M. Attigliano, 139Y2 M. Bassano Teverino, on a hill to the right. 

The small Lake of Bassano, formerly Lacus Vadimonis, now much di- 
minished in extent, is famous in ancient history as the scene of the great 
victories of the Romans over the Etruscans, B.C. 309 and 283. Pliny the 
Younger (Ep. viii. 20) has described the lake with its 'floating islands'. 
— About 3 M. farther to the W. is Bomarzo , picturesquely situated on a 
precipitous rock, near the ancient Polimartium, where extensive exca- 
vations have been made. 

The train passes through several tunnels , and afterwards skirts 
the right bank of the Tiber , till it approaches Orte which becomes 
visible on the height to the left. It then traverses a longer tunnel 
and reaches the station of Orte , where the railway from Foligno 
(Perugia and Ancona) unites with the main line (R. 10). 

144!/ 2 M. Orte, loftily situated about 2 M. to the N., the ancient 
Horta, presents no object of interest beyond its situation. — Dili- 
gence from Orte to Viterbo, see p. 63. 

The train descends the valley of the Tiber on the right bank, 
affording pleasant glimpses of both banks. To the right, the lofty and 
indented ridge of Mount Soracte (p. 62) becomes visible. On the 
left, on the other side of the river, lie S. Vito and Otricoli, the latter 
a small place 6 M. distant from Orte , near the site of the ancient 
Otriculum , where numerous antiquities , including the celebrated 
Bust of Jupiter in the Vatican, have been excavated. 150 M. Gallese. 
Farther on, high above the left bank, is the small town of Magliano. 

152i/ 2 M. Borghetto, with a ruined castle on the height to the 
right. The Tiber is crossed by the handsome Ponte Felice, construct- 
ed by Augustus, and restored in 1589 by SixtusV., over which most 
of the traffic between Rome and the N.E. provinces formerly passed. 

About 5 M. to the S.E. of Borghetto (carriages at the station) lies 
Civita Castellana , picturesquely situated 502 ft. above the sea (Jfosta, 
Speranza, in the market-place). This was the site of Falerii, the town of 
the Falisci, which was captured by Camillus in B.C. 396. A lofty bridge, 
erected in 1712, and recently restored after having been damaged by 
an earthquake, carries the road into the town across a ravine, 120 ft. in 
depth. The Cathedral of S. Maria dates from 1210. The Citadel, erected 
by Alexander VI. in 1500 from a design by Sangallo , and enlarged by 
Julius II. and Leo X., was last employed as a state-prison. Civita Castel- 
lana possesses nothing to interest the traveller except its picturesque situa- 
tion. The deep ravines by which it is enclosed testify to vast volcanic 
convulsions. They contain a few fragments of ancient walls and numerous 
Etruscan tombs hewn in the rock, especially near the citadel. 

Interesting excursion to the ruins of Falerii (pronounced Filler!), 3 M. 
distant. Near the citadel the Ponte del Terreno is crossed to the left, where tombs 
honeycomb the rocks on all sides , this being the more direct route to Fa- 
lerium Novum or Colonia Junonia, founded by the Romans about 240, situated 
in the plain, 3 M. to the N. of Civita Castellana. Etruscan and Roman tombs 
are here seen side by side. The town was nearly in the form of a triangle, 

62 Route 8. NEPI. 

l l /i M. in circumference ; the well-preserved walls are protected by strong 
square towers and penetrated by gates , one of which on the W. (Porta di 
Giove) is still in good condition. Another gate towards the S.E., the Porta 
del Bove, is also worthy of a visit ; near it is the theatre of Roman construction, 
the piscina, and what is regarded as the forum, at the back of the theatre. 

At the Porta di Giove, within the walls, is the 'Abbadia di S. Maria 
of the 12th century. In the nave, antique columns ; in 1829 the roof fell 
in, but the damage has been repaired. The adjoining building contains 
inscriptions, statues , etc. , the result of excavations made here. An am- 
phitheatre has also been recently discovered. 

Civita Castellana is the best starting-point for the Soracte; there and 
back about 7 hrs. — A good road (one-horse carriage 6-7 fr.) leads to O 1 /^ ".) 
Rignano (Posta), the birthplace of Cesare and Lucrezia Borgia, the chil- 
dren of Cardinal Roderigo Borgia (afterwards Pope Alexander VI.), and 
boasting of a few Roman antiquities. Here we may obtain horses and 
donkeys (or a light conveyance to carry us half-way up the mountain), 
to S. Orcste ; guides are superfluous. — Pedestrians may leave the carriage 
about 2 M. to the N. of Rignano and make the ascent in IV2 hr. 

"Soracte , mentioned by Horace (Carm. i. 9 : Vides ut alta stei nive 
candidum Soracte) and Virgil (jEn. vii, 785: Summi deum sancti custos So- 
ractis Apollo), is now called Monte di S. Oreste, the word Soracte having 
been erroneously written S. Oracte, and thence corrupted to S. Oreste. 
It is a limestone-ridge , descending precipitously on both sides, extending 
3-4 M. from N.W. to S. E., and culminating in several peaks of different 
heights. On the central and highest summit (2260 ft.) stands the church 
of -S. Silvestro. On the slope which gradually descends towards the S. E. 
is situated the village of S. Oreste. Leaving the miserable village to the 
right, the path ascends gradually to the left, and in 1/2 hr. reaches the 
monastery of S. /Silvestro (2119 ft.), founded in 746 by Charleman, son of 
Charles Martel and brother of Pepin. The summit, with the church and 
a small disused monastery, may now be reached in a few minutes. In 
ancient times a celebrated Temple of Apollo occupied this site. The view, 
uninterrupted in every direction, embraces: E. the valley of the Tiber, the 
Sabina, in the background several snow-clad peaks of the Central Apennines, 
among them the Leonessa; S. theVolscian and Alban Mts., then the broad 
Campagna, Rome, the sea ; N. the mountains of Tolfa, the Lake of Brac- 
ciano, the Ciminian forest, the crater of Baccano, and numerous villages. 

Pedestrians may descend to Rignano by a direct path, which, although 
somewhat steep, is considerably shorter than that by S. Oreste. 

The Borghetto and Civita Castellana road next leads to (7'/ 2 M.) Nepi. 
A shorter route (for walkers) passes Castel S. Elia, a resort of pilgrims. 

Nepi, the ancient Etruscan Nepete or Nepet, afterwards Colonia Ne- 
pensis, is a picturesquely situated little town, and an episcopal residence, 
surrounded by mediaeval walls and towers. Venerable Cathedral; the 
Town Hall is adorned with Roman sculptures and inscriptions. It was 
anciently a place of importance, but is now in a dilapidated condition , 
chiefly owing to its destruction by the French in 1799. — From Nepi to 
Monterosi (p. 68), 5 M. 

Beyond Borghetto, to the right, Civita Castellana (see above) be- 
comes visible for a short time. The train crosses to the left bank of 
the Tiber. I6OY2M. Stimigliano, and 165 M. Montorso, both situated 
in the mountainous district of the Sabina, where olive-trees abound. 
173 M. Passo di Correse. The name is a corruption of Cures, the 
ancient Sabine town, where Numa Pompilius was born, the ruins of 
which are in the vicinity. A diligence runs daily from Passo di 
Correse to Rieti by Poggio Mirteto, see Baedeker's Southern Italy. 

The line follows the left bank of the Tiber to (180 M.) stat. 
Monte Botondo ; the town, situated to the left. 2 M. higher, posses- 
ses an old castle of the Orsini, now the property of the Piombino 

BOLSENA. 9. Route. 63 

family. The village was stormed by Garibaldi on 26th Oct. 1867; 
about 1 M. to the S.E. is Mentana (p. 355), where he was defeated 
on 3rd Nov. by the Papal and French troops, and forced to retreat. 

From Monte Rotondo to Rome, a journey of 3 / 4 hr. — The line 
follows the direction of the ancient Via Salara (to the right , on the 
hill , once lay the ancient Antemnae , p. 356) and crosses the Anio 
(p. 356) ; to the left the Sabine and Alban mountains , then Rome 
with the dome of St. Peter, become visible. A wide circuit round 
the city is described, near the Porta Maggiore (p. 182) the so-called 
temple of Minerva Medica (p. 181) is passed. 

196 M. Rome, see p. 104. 

9. From Orvieto to Rome by Bolsena, Montefiascone, 
and Viterbo. 

78 M. High Road. To Viterbo 31'/2 M. ; from Orvieto to Bolsena, 12 jr., 
Bolsena to Montefiascone , 9 M. , thence to Viterbo IO1/2 M. ; no regular 
communication; carriage in frfe bra., 25-30 fr. 

Viterbo alone may best be visited from the Okte station (p. 61), 
with which it is in regular communication (distance I8V2 M.). The 
diligence, which corresponds with the ordinary morning and evening trains 
(not the express) to Home, takes 4 hrs. (fare 3 fr.). Travellers from 
Rome may obtain tickets thence to Viterbo at Via delta Propaganda 8. 
A party should order a carriage to meet them at the station by post-card, 
addressed to the Impresa F. Oarinei in Viterbo (two-horse carr. 10-15 fr.). 

Most travellers will prefer to return from Viterbo to Orte. The drive 
from Viterbo to Rome (46>/ 2 M.) takes 10 hrs. (about 40 fr.). 

The high-road from Orvieto to Montefiascone traverses a bleak 
district, passing at some distance from the Lake of Bolsena, which 
is almost concealed from view by the surrounding crater-wall. A 
more beautiful but longer route diverges to the W. from this road, 
8V2 M. from Orvieto, and unites at Bolsena with the old road from 
Siena via Torrenieri, Radicofani, and Acquapendente to Rome (p. 17). 

About 4 M. beyond the above-mentioned bifurcation , a road diverges 
to the left from the direct Orvieto and Jrontefiascone road to (3 M.) Bag- 
norea (the ancient Balneum Regis), picturesquely situated on a hill sur- 
rounded by ravines, and interesting to geologists. 

BoUena {Hotel in the Piazza), with 3000inhab., is situated 
below the Roman Volsinii, the birthplace of Sejanus, the favourite 
of Tiberius. It was one of the twelve capitals of the Etruscan League, 
and after various vicissitudes was at length conquered and destroyed 
by the Romans. The spoil is said to have included 2000 statues. 
Its wealth has been proved by the discovery, in the vicinity, of nu- 
merous vases, trinkets, and statues. The present town contains 
inscriptions, columns, and sculptures of the Roman municipium 
which replaced the Etruscan city. The ancient site is reached in 
a few minutes by an antique causeway of basalt. Among the ruins 
is an amphitheatre, worthy of special attention, now converted into 
a vegetable-garden. Beautiful views of the lake. 

The facade of the church of S. Cristina is embellished with 
ancient relics and a sarcophagus with the triumph of Bacchus, 

64 Route 9. MONTEFIASCONE. From Orvieto 

The 'Miracle of Bolsena', the suhject of a celebrated picture by Raphael 
in the Vatican, occurred in 1263. A Bohemian priest 1 , who was somewhat 
sceptical as to the doctrine of transubstantiation , was convinced of its 
truth by the miraculous appearance of drops of blood on the host which he 
had just consecrated. In commemoration of this, Pope Urban IV. in- 
stituted the festival of Corpus Christi in 1264 and projected the erection 
of the superb cathedral of Orvieto (p. 57). 

The Lake of Bolsena, the ancient Lacus Vulsiniensis, 994 ft. 
above the sea-level , a circular sheet of water, 28 M. in circum- 
ference , is the vast crater of an extinct volcano, which formed the 
central point of a wide sphere of volcanic agency , extending as far 
as Orvieto. The lake abounds in fish (its eels are mentioned by 
Dante, Purg. 24, 24); but the banks, especially on the W. side, 
are bleak and deserted, owing to the malaria confined in the basin 
of the lake , which is not easily dispelled by the wind. The 
monotony of the surface is relieved by the two picturesque islands 
of Bisentina and the rocky Mariana. On the latter Amalasuntha, 
Queen of the Goths , the only daughter of Theodoric the Great , was 
imprisoned in 534, and afterwards strangled whilst bathing, by 
order of her cousin Theodatus, whom she had elevated to the rank 
of co-regent. The church in the island of Bisentina was erected 
by the Farnese family and embellished by the Carracci. It contains 
the relics of St. Christina, a native of Bolsena. 

From Bolsena the road ascends towards the S. on the bank of 
the lake, through woods, to (7 M.) the 'Mountain of Bottles' — 

Monteflascone (Aquila Nera, outside the gate), a town with 
7500 inhab. , situated 2015 ft. above the sea -level. The un- 
completed cathedral of S. Margareta , with an octagonal dome , was 
one of the earliest works of Sammichele. Near the gate , on the 
road to Viterbo, is *S. Flaviano, a church of 1030, restored by 
Urban IV. in 1262, in the Gothic and circular styles combined. 
The subterranean chapel contains the tomb of the Canon Johannes 
Fugger of Augsburg, with the inscription — 
Est, Est, Est. Propter nimium est, 
Johannes de Fuc, D. mens, mortuus est. 

It is recorded of this ecclesiastic, that, when travelling, he directed his 
valet to precede him and to inscribe the word 'Est' on the doors of the 
hostelries where the best wine was to be had. On the door of the inn at 
Monteflascone the 'Est' was written three times , and the good canon 
relished the wine here so highly that he never got any farther. The best 
muscatel of the district is still known as Est Est (1 fr. per 'fiaschetto'). 

The traveller should not omit to ascend into the town for the 
sake of the magnificent view : N. the lake of Bolsena as far as 
the chain of M. Amiata , E. the TJmbrian Apennines, S. as far 
as the Ciminian Forest, "W. as far as the sea. The extensive 
plain of ancient Etruria with its numerous villages may be sur- 
veyed from this point ; and it has therefore been reasonably con- 
jectured that the celebrated Fanum Voltumnae, the most sacred 
shrine of the Etruscans, once stood here. 

From Monteflascone to Viterbo the road traverses a bleak and 
unattractive plain. Midway, near the Osteria della Fontanella, 

to Rome. VITERBO. 9. Route. 65 

part of the ancient Via Cassia lies to the right. About 2'/ 2 M. 
farther , to the left of the road , are situated the ruins of Ferento, 
the Etruscan Ferentinum, birthplace of the Emperor Otho. In the 
11th cent, it was destroyed by the inhabitants of Viterbo on account 
of its heretical tendencies , for the Ferentines represented the 
Saviour on the cross with open eyes, instead of closed, as was 
thought more orthodox. Such at least is the account of the chro- 
niclers. Among the extensive mediaeval, Roman, and Etruscan 
remains, a Theatre of peculiar and primitive construction, with later 
additions, deserves notice. 

Close to Viterbo is situated Bulicame , a warm sulphureous 
spring, mentioned by Dante (Inf. 14, 79), still used for baths. 

Viterbo (121 Oft. ; *Angelo, R. lt/ 2 fr.; TreRe, both in the Piazza; 
*Alb. fy Trattoria Schenardi, near the piazza ; Cafe Schenardi; pho- 
tographs sold by Leonardo Primi, Vicolo della Ficunaccia), an epis- 
copal residence with 20,000 inhab., surrounded by ancient Lombard 
walls and towers , is situated in a plain on the N. side of the 
Ciminian Forest, 1211 ft. above the sea-level. It was the central 
point of the extensive grant called the 'patrimony of St. Peter', 
made by the Countess Matilda of Tuscia (d. 1115) to the papal see, 
and is frequently mentioned in history as a residence of the popes, 
and as the scene of the papal elections in the 13th century. Viterbo, 
called by old Italian authors the 'city of handsome fountains and 
beautiful women', still presents an abundance of fine architectural 
details and picturesque points, especially in and around the Piazza 
di S. Pellegrino. 

The Cathedral of S. Lorenzo, occupying the site of a temple of 
Hercules, dates from the 12th century. 

The Intekiob contains the tombs of the Popes John XXI., Alexan- 
der IV., and Clement IV. In a room (closed) to the right of the entrance 
is a much-damaged fresco by Lorenzo da Viterbo, representing Christ with 
four saints. The fine capitals of the columns in the nave deserve notice. 
— At the high-altar of this church, in 1279, Count Guido de Montfort, the 
partisan of Charles of Anjou, assassinated Henry, son of Count Richard of 
Cornwall, King of the Germans and brother of Henry III., in order thereby 
to avenge the death of his father who had fallen at the battle of Evesham 
in 1265 when fighting against Henry III. Dante mentions this deed and 
places the assassin in the seventh region of hell (Inf. 12, 120). 

In the piazza in front of the cathedral is the spot where in July, 
1155, Pope Hadrian IV. (Nicholas Breakspeare, an Englishman) 
compelled the Emp. Frederick I., as his vassal, to hold his stirrup. 

Adjacent is the dilapidated Episcopal Palace of the 13th cent., 
in which, by order of Charles of Anjou, the Conclave elected Gre- 
gory X. pope in 1271, John XXI. in 1276, and Martin IV. in 1281. 

The church and monastery of S. Rosa contain the blackened 
mummy of that saint , who was born here in the 13th century. She 
urged the people to rise against the Emp. Frederick II., and was 
expelled by the Ghibellines. 

S. Francesco, a Gothic church, contains, to the right, the "Tomb 

Bakdekek. Italy II. 8th Edition. 5 

66 Route 9. CASTEL D'ASSO. From Orvieto 

of Hadrian V. (de' Fieschi of Genoa, elected 11th July, died 16th Aug. 
1276 at Viterbo), with recumbent effigy. — S. Maria della Verita 
contains the *Marriage of the Virgin , with numerous portraits , al 
fresco, by Lorenzo di Qiacomo of Viterbo (1469). Fine monastery- 

Between the two last-mentioned churches lies the elegant little 
Bomanesque church of S. Giovanni in Zoccoli. The church of S. 
Maria dei Saluti, in the Vicolo della Pescheria, possesses a hand- 
some portal (13th cent.). 

In front of the *Palazzo Pubblico is a Roman sarcophagus with 
the Hunt of Meleager, bearing an inscription in memory of the 
beautiful Oaliana (1138), on whose account, like Helen of old, a 
war was once kindled between Rome and Viterbo , in which the 
latter was victorious. The Court contains an elegant Fountain and 
six large Etruscan sarcophagus-lids with figures and inscriptions. 
In the Mtjsbo Municipalb are Etruscan and Roman antiquities and 
paintings (*Pieta from the church of S. Francesco, painted by Seb. 
del Piombo under the influence of Michael Angelo) ; also the 'decree 
of Desiderius, king of the Lombards', and the Tabula Cibellaria, 
forgeries of the notorious Annius of Viterbo, a Dominican monk 
who died at Rome in 1502. 

The Fontana Grande in the market-place, begun in 1206, and 
the fountain in the Piazza della Rocca, of 1566, ascribed to Vignola, 
are also worthy of notice. 

Outside the Porta Fiorentina lies the Giardino Pubblico, with 
its gay flower-beds. 

Excursions. About IV2 M. to the E. of Viterbo, towards Orte (beyond 
the Porta Fiorentina; one-horse cab l>/2 fr.), is the suppressed Dominican 
monastery of the Madonna della Querela, the church of which is said to 
have been built by Bramante , with handsome courts and fountains. — 
About I72 M. farther is the small town of Bagnaia , with the charming 
"Villa Lante, built in the 15-16th cent., the summer-residence of the ducal 
family of that name (visitors admitted; carr. to the Quercia and Bagnaia 
and back, with stay at both places, 2 fr.). 

Several expeditions through picturesque scenery, and interesting to 
antiquarians, may be made from Viterbo to the surrounding ruins of an- 
cient Etruscan Cities. The volcanic nature of the district, indicated by the 
profound ravines and fissures of the rock, and the dreary desolation which 
prevails, combined with the proximity of the graves of 2000 years' antiquity, 
impart an impressive sadness to the scene. — The farther the traveller 
deviates from the main route, the more miserable do the inns become. 

From Viterbo to Toscanella, 12'/2M., see p. 6. 

Castel d'Asso, popularly known as Castellaccio , 5 M. to the W. of 
Viterbo, may be visited on horseback or on foot (guide necessary; lights 
should not be forgotten by those who intend to explore the tombs). Pass- 
ing the Bulicame (p. 65), the road traverses a moor and leads to the valley, 
which contains a succession of Etruscan Tombs, hewn in the rock. The 
fronts of these are architecturally designed , and bear some resemblance to 
the rock-tombs of Egypt; numerous inscriptions. On the opposite hill are 
the picturesque ruins of a mediaeval castle and the scanty remains of 
an ancient village, probably the Casiellum Axia of Cicero. 

The traveller may from this point proceed to Vetralla, 9 M. to the 
S.W. of Viterbo (diligence), situated near the Roman Forum Cassii. At 
Vetralla the road from Viterbo divides : that to the S.E. leads to (11 M.) 

to Rome. SUTRI. 9. Route. 67 

Sutri (see below); that to the W. by Monte Romano to Corneto (diligence 
on certain days), see p. 4. 

From Vetralla a bridle-path, traversing a bleak moor, leads in l'/z nr - 
to the 'Necropolis of Norchia (with guide), similar to that of Castel d'Asso, 
but more imposing. Two of the tombs manifest a bias to the Hellenic style. 
Adjacent are the picturesque ruins of a Lombard church. In the 9th cent. 
the village was named Orcle, but the ancient name is unknown. 

Bieda, the ancient Blera, a miserable village, 4'/-2 M. S. of Vetralla, 
possesses similar rock-tombs and two ancient bridges. Scenery striking. 

From Viterbo to Rome, 46^2 M. The road gradually ascends the 
wooded height of M(ms Ciminius, now generally called the Monte di 
Viterbo (highest point 3460 ft. above the sea-level), once considered 
the impregnable bulwark of central Etruria, until the Consul Q. 
Fabius, B.C. 308, successfully traversed it and signally defeated the 
Etruscans. The culminating point of the pass (2850 ft. above the 
sea), on which lies the old post-station of — 

5 M. L' Imposta, commands an admirable *Survey of the plain 
towards the N., and W. as far as the sea. A more imposing view is 
soon disclosed of the vast Campagna di Roma, surrounded by the 
long chain of the Umbrian and Sabine Apennines as far as Pa- 
lestrina and the Alban Mts. ; the isolated Soracte (p. 62) stands 
boldly out in the foreground ; below lies the small , round Lago di 
Vico, the Lacus Ciminius (1703 ft.) , an extinct crater surrounded 
by woods , the E. bank of which is skirted by the road. To the 
N. of the lake, hut inside the crater, rises the beautiful wooded 
Monte Venere (2897 ft.). According to an ancient tradition, a town, 
submerged by the lake, is still visible beneath the surface. 

About 3^2 M. from l'Imposta a path to the left leads through 
wood to the chateau of Caprarola (l 1 ^ M.). 

The once greatly renowned, but now seldom visited chateau of "'Ca- 
prarola, of pentagonal shape, surrounded by a rampart and fosse, is one of 
the most important works of Vignola, who erected it for Cardinal Alexan- 
der Farnese, nephew of Paul III. (1534-49). The saloons and other apart- 
ments are adorned with frescoes of scenes from the history of the Farnese 
family, allegories, etc., by Federigo, Oltaviano, and Taddeo Zucchero, Tem- 
pesta, and Vignola. A magnificent view is enjoyed from the upper terrace 
of the Palazzuolo, a tasteful structure by Vignola, in the grounds. 

At the S.E. end of the lake, 2 M. farther, lies the miserable 
village of Vico, beyond which we soon reach — 

12t/2 M. Ronciglione, a beautifully situated little town, with a 
ruined castle on the height (1369 ft. above the sea-level), on the 
margin of the Campagna di Roma. 

About. 272 M. to the S. of Ronciglione , on the road from Vetralla 
(p. 66), picturesquely situated on the crest of an isolated volcanic hill, 
is Sutri, the ancient Etruscan Sutrium , frequently mentioned in history 
as the ally of Rome in the wars against the Etruscans, from whom it 
was wrested by Camillus in B.C. 389 (Claustra Etruriae). In 383 it became 
a Roman colony. The deep ravine contains numerous Etruscan tombs, 
and, on the S. side, fragments of the ancient walls. Three of the five 
gates are ancient, two towards the S., and the Porta Furia on the N. side 
(said to be so named because once entered by M. Furius Camillus), now 
built up. Outside the Porta Romana at the foot of an eminence , near the 
Villa Savorelli and shaded by dense forest, is situated an admirably pre- 
served "Amphitheatre, hewn in the rock, dating from Augustus, erroneously 


68 Route 10. BASTIA. From Perugia 

regarded by some as Etruscan (axes 55 and 44 yds. respectively). The 
rocks above contain numerous tomb-chambers, one of which has been con- 
verted into a *Church, where, according to the various local traditions, the 
early Christians used to celebrate divine service. A legend attaching to 
the Grotta d 'Orlando , near the town describes it as the birthplace of the 
celebrated paladin of Charlemagne. — A bridle-path leads in 2 hrs. from 
Sutri to the Lake of Bracciano and Trevignano (p. 386). 

On the left, 7'/2 M. from Ronciglione, our road is joined by that 
from Borghetto, Oivita Castellana, and Nepi, see p. 62. About 2 M. 
farther on, near — 

22 M. Monterosi, we join the road coming from Vetralla (p. 66) 
and Sutri (5^2 M., see above), the ancient Via Cassia, which we 
now follow to Rome. We next pass (2 ! / 2 M. from Monterosi) the 
*Sette Vene inn, and 372 M. farther reach the somewhat unhealthy 
village of Baccano (Posta), situated on the brink of an ancient cra- 
ter ; in the vicinity is a mephitic pond ; to the W. lie the two small 
lakes of Stracciacappa and Martignano [Locus Alsietinus). Traces 
of ancient drains (emissaria) are distinguished on the left side of the 
road. Immediately beyond Baccano the road ascends and traverses 
the S. extremity of the crater, whence (or better from one of the 
hills to the left, 1010 ft.) in favourable weather a beautiful pano- 
rama of the environs of Rome is enjoyed ; of the city itself, how- 
ever, nothing is seen but the dome of St. Peter's, peeping forth 
above the ridge of Monte Mario. 

We next pass the site of the ancient Veii, on the left (p. 385). 

36Y2 M. La Storta (668 ft.), the last of the old post-stations 
before Rome (see p. 385). — 44 V2 M. Ponte Molle, see p. 356. — 
46V2 M. Porta del Popolo at Some, see p. 139. 

10. From Perugia to Foligno and Orte (Home). 

76 31. Railway in 31/2-41/4 hrs. (fares 13 fr. 40, 9 fr. 20, 6 fr. 40 c. ; 
express 14 fr. 25 c, 10 fr.). — The most interesting points are Assist, Spo- 
leto, and Terni. — Fkom Perugia to Rome, 127 31., in 53/4-7 3 /4 hrs. (22 fr. 
80, 15 fr. 75, 11 fr. 5 c. ; express 25 fr. 85, 17 fr. 90 c). 

Perugia, see p. 45. The train descends, passing through 
several tunnels. To the left we obtain a glimpse of the tomb of the 
Volumnii (p. 54). 7 M. Ponte S. Giovanni. The train crosses the 
Tiber, the ancient frontier between Etruria and Umbria, and the 
Chiascio. 12'/ 2 M. Bastia. 

14 M. Assisi. The town lies on a hill to the left (omn. 50c). 

Before ascending to Assisi the traveller should visit the magnifi- 
cent church of *S. Mabia dbglt Angela about l / t M. to the W. of 
the station, on the site of the original oratory of St. Francis. It was 
begun by Vignola in 1569, and completed by Martelli of Perugia 
and Giorgetti of Assisi. The nave and choir were re-erected after 
the earthquake of 1832, but the dome had escaped injury. 

The Interior contains, below the dome, the Oratory of the saint (called 
PorliuncuUi), on the facade of which is the "Vision of St. Francis in 1221, 

to Foligno. ASSISI. 10. Route. 69 

'Mary with a choir of angels', a fresco by Fr. Overbeck, 1829. — In the 
Cappella di S. Giuseppe in the left transept are a Coronation of the Virgin, 
St. Francis receiving the stigmata, and a St. Jerome, of the Robbia 
school. The Cappella delle Rose (at the end of the S. aisle) contains five 
frescoes from the life of the saint by Tiberio d'Assisi, 1518. Adjacent 
is a small garden with the roses which are said to have sprung from the 
thorns with which St. Francis used to castigate himself. — Farther on, 
to the right, is the hut in which St. Francis expired, 4th Oct. 1226, with 
inscription, and frescoes by Lo JSpagnai?), representing the followers of 
the saint. In the Sacristy are cabinets of the 16th cent, and an Ecce 
Homo by Perugino (?). The other parts of the church are modern. 

A beautiful path' leads from S. Maria degli Angeli to Assisi in 
3 /4 hr. The services of the guides who importune travellers at 
S. Maria degli Angeli and at Assisi are quite superfluous. 

Assisi. — Hotels. Albeego del Subasio, with a fine view, adjoin- 
ing the monastery of S. Francesco; Leone, near the Piazza; bargaining 
necessary at both ; Minerva, near the lower gate, unpretending but well 
spoken of. 

Good Photographs from Giotto's frescoes sold only by P. Lunghi, in 
the Piazza near S. Francesco, 2'/2 fr. each. 

Assisi, a small town and episcopal see, the ancient Umbrian Assi- 
sium, where in B.C. 46 the elegiac poet Propertius, and in 1698 the 
opera-writer Pietro Metastasio (properly Trapassi , d. at Vienna in 
1782) were born, stands in a singularly picturesque situation. 

It is indebted for its reputation to St. Francis, who was born here in 
1182. He was the son of the merchant Pietro Bernardone, and spent his 
youth in frivolity. At length, whilst engaged in a campaign against Perugia, 
he was taken prisoner and attacked by a dangerous illness. Sobered by 
adversity, he soon afterwards (1208) founded the monastic order o{ Francis- 
cans, which speedily found adherents in all the countries of Europe, and 
was sanctioned in 1210 by Innocent III., and in 1223 by Honorius III. Po- 
verty and self-abnegation formed the essential characteristics of the order, 
which under different designations (Seraphic Brethren, Minorites, Observan- 
tes, and Capuchins, who arose in 1526) was soon widely diffused. St. Francis 
is said to have been favoured with visions, the most important of which 
was that of 1224, when Christ impressed on him the marks of his wounds 
(stigmata). From the 'apparition of the crucified seraph' the saint is also 
known as Pater Seraphicus. St. Francis died on 4th Oct., 1226, and in 1228 
was canonised by Gregory IX., who appointed the day of his death to be 
kept sacred to his memory. He wrote several works, especially letters 
which display talent, and was one of the most remarkable characters of 
the middle ages. Dante (Paradiso 11, 50) says of him that he rose like a 
sun and illumined everything with his rays. 

Having reached the town, we proceed to the left to the conspicu- 
ous old **Monasteby op thb Franciscans on the brow of the hill, 
which was erected in the first half of the 13th cent, upon massive 
substructions. After having existed for six centuries, it was sup- 
pressed in 1866, but a few surviving monks are permitted to remain 
here till their death. Part of the building has recently been converted 
by government into a school for the sons of teachers. The Sagre- 
stano, who is generally to be found in the lower church, shows the 
churches and the monastery (1 fr.). Besides several frescoes of the 
16th and 17th cent, in the refectories, the *Choir-stalls by Domenico 
da S. Severino, recently brought from the upper church, dating from 
1450, and adorned with admirable carving and inlaid figures of 

70 Route 10. 


From Perugia 

saints, are particularly worthy of attention. From the external 
passage a magnificent *View of the luxuriant valley is enjoyed. 

The two *Chukches, erected one above the other, are objects 
of far greater interest. A third, the Crypt, with the tomb of the 
saint , was added in 1818 , when his remains were re-discovered. 
The lower church was erected in 1228-32, the upper in 1253, 
and consecrated by Innocent IV. The Northern Gothic style, intro- 

t^fad? de^i ]Ahgel 

duced by the German master Jacob, appears here in Italy for the 
first time, though not without incipient traces of Italian modifications. 
The architect of the tower was the monk Fra Filippo da Campello. 

The "lower Church, used for divine service , is always accessible ; en- 
trance by a side-door on the terrace , in front of which is a vestibule of 
1487. The interior is low and sombre (best light in the forenoon). To the 
right a tomb, above it a vase of porphyry, said to be that of John de Brienne, 
King of Jerusalem, who entered the order of St. Francis in 1237. Opposite 
the entrance is the chapel of the Crucifixion. 

To the right in the Nave, the chapel of St. Louis, with frescoes by 
Adone Doni (1560). On the vaulted ceiling prophets and sibyls, by Andrea 
del Ingegno of Assisi. The chapel of S. Antonio di Padova, with frescoes by 

Pace da Faenza (14th cent.), is modernised and partly whitewashed. The 

Cappella S. Maddalena is adorned with frescoes, representing scenes from 
the life of the saint and of Maria ^Egyptiaca, which were formerly attri- 
buted to Buffalmacco (about 1320). It is, however, certain that they were 
executed by a pupil of Giotto, a Florentine artist, who did not scruple to 
paint copies here of his master's pictures at Padua. — The Cappella S. 

to Foligno. ASSISI. 10. Route. 71 

Catekina, or del Ceocefisso, contains inferior compositions of the latter 
half of the 14th century. 

The S. Transept contains on its E. and W. walls three series of 
"Scenes from the life of Jesus , the "Resuscitation of a child of the Spini 
family, and over the doorway a Portrait of Christ, all by Giotto (probably 
at an advanced age). The master may have been assisted in these works 
by his pupils , but the style seems to indicate that they were chiefly 
painted by his own hand. 

The High Altak occupies the spot where the remains of St. Fran- 
cis once reposed. Above it are four triangular spaces on the groined 
vaulting , containing the famous "Feescoes of Giotto , illustrative 
of the vows of the mendicant order : poverty , chastity, and obed- 
ience; the fourth painting is an apotheosis of St. Francis. The first pic- 
ture represents the nuptials of St. Francis with poverty in rags. In the 
next, a monk, a nun, and a lay brother are represented taking the vow 
of chastity ; the foreground is enlivened by penitents, scourgers, and vota- 
ries of pleasure. Chastity herself is guarded in a tower by purity and 
bravery. Obedience is symbolised by the laying of a yoke on a monk. 
Each scene , moreover, is replete with allegorical allusions (chiefly from 
Dante), most of which will be readily understood by those, who are versed 
in the fanciful combinations of the period. 

At the end of the S. Transept is the Cappella del Sacramento, with 
frescoes from the life of St. Nicholas, generally attributed to Giottino, but 
probably executed by Agnolo da Siena (first half of the 14th cent.). On 
the entrance-wall: Resuscitation of a child killed by a fall from a house. 

The N. Transept contains Scenes from the Passion, of the Sienese 
School , formerly attributed to Cavallini and Puccio Gapanna , a pupil of 
Giotto, perhaps by Pietro Lorenzetti; these paintings are in a very damag- 
ed condition. — To the right of the entrance to the Sacristy, in which 
the treasures and the relics belonging to the church were formerly preserved, 
is a Madonna with St. Catharine and other saints (1516), by Lo Spagna. In 
the Saceisti, over the door, is a portrait of St. Francis, said to have been 
painted by Giunta Pisano, soon after the death of the saint. — To the 
left of the entrance to the church is the Pulpit, adorned with a Coro- 
nation of the Virgin by Simone Martini of Siena, and further on St. Francis 
receiving the stigmata, a fresco by Giotto. — The last Chapel to the N. 
contains "Scenes from the life of St. Martin, by Simone Martini (beginning 
of 14th cent.) ; this work , though only partly preserved, still remains val- 
uable as one of the best productions of the Sienese school, and in some 
respects bears comparison with the style of Giotto and the Florentines. 

The stained-glass windows of the lower church are by Angeletto and 
Pietro da Gubbio and Bonino d'Assisi; those of the upper church are more 
than a century older. 

The Crypt was constructed in 1818 , after the remains of St. Francis 
had been discovered in a rude stone coffin. It is approached by a double 
staircase, and is lighted with candles when visited by strangers. — Behind 
the tomb stand colossal statues of Popes Pius VII. and IX. 

The "Upper Church, the frescoes of which are undergoing restoration, 
has recently been converted into a museum of Early Tuscan Frescoes. 
It is entered either by the principal portal, or (by applying to the sacris- 
tan) from the lower church. The church is in the form of a Latin cross, 
with Gothic windows. The W. side possesses a splendid rose-window and 
handsome pediments. — In the N. Transept, as we enter from the lower 
church , are remains of Scenes from the Apocalypse , by Cimabue. The 
middle of the ceiling is adorned with frescoes of the four Evangelists, in 
the style of Cimabue and Jacopo Torriti , the mosaicist. — The S. Tran- 
sept contains the remains of a large Crucifixion, Transfiguration, Cruci- 
fixion of St. Peter, and Scenes from the life of Simon Magus, by Giunta 
Pisano. — In the Choir: Christ in a glory, and Assumption and Death of 
the Virgin , both by Cimabue. — Nave. In the upper section of the 
S. wall are sixteen scenes from the Old Testament history, from the 
Creation of the world to the Recognition of Joseph by his brethren; on 
the N. side , sixteen scenes from the New Testament, from the Annun- 

72 Route JO. ASSISI. From Perugia 

ciation to the Descent of the Holy Ghost, by pupils of Cimabue, show- 
ing gradual improvement in execution. The lower section contains 
twenty-eight Scenes from the life of St. Francis, illustrative of the farther 
development of the early-Florentine School (Filippo Busutti, and Gaddo 
Gaddi), of the close of the 13th century. The first and the last five of 
these frescoes are certainly by Giotto. On the ceiling of the nave are four 
Angels and four Fathers of the Church, in the earlier mosaic style. 

Quitting the upper church, and emerging on the space in front 
of it , we may follow the street ascending thence in a straight 
direction, which leads us to the Ospbdalb Civile (on the right, 
No. 11), the chapel of which is adorned with frescoes by Pier Anto- 
nio Mezzastris da Foligno and Matteo da Qualdo (1468), represent- 
ing the miracles of SS. Anthony and James the Great. We next 
reach the Piazza, in which rises the beautiful portico of a *Templb 
of Minerva, with six columns of travertine, converted into a church 
of S. Maria della Minerva. Ancient inscriptions immured in the 
vestibule. Adjacent to the church is the entrance to the ancient 
Forum, which corresponded to the present Piazza, but lay consider- 
ably lower. In the forum a Basement for a statue, with a long in- 
scription (fee !/ 2 fr-)- 

The Chiesa Nuova (PI. 7), reached by descending to the right, 
near the S.E. angle of the Piazza, occupies the site of the house in 
which St. Francis was born. 

The Piazza del Duomo, in the upper town, is embellished with 
a Statue of St. Francis, by Giov. Dupre", erected in 1882. 

The Cathedral oe S. Rtjfino (PI. 4), named after the first 
bishop (240), was completed in 1140, and the crypt in 1028. The 
ancient facade is adorned with three fine rose-windows. The in- 
terior was modernised in 1572. In the nave, to the right, is a Ma- 
donna with four saints by Niccolb Alunno. *Choir-stalls by Qio- 
vanni da Sanseverino (1520). 

From the cathedral a broad , unpaved road to the right leads in 
a few minutes to the Gothic church of S. Chiara (PI. 2), near the 
gate, erected by Fra Filippo da Campello in 1253. The flying but- 
tresses, supported by detached pillars, were afterwards added, and 
have been recently restored. Beneath the high-altar are the remains 
of S. Clara, who, inspired with enthusiasm for St. Francis, abandoned 
her parents and wealth, founded the order of Clarissines, and died 
as first abbess. A. handsome crypt of different coloured marbles has 
recently been constructed about her tomb. On the arch above the 
high-altar, frescoes by Oiottino; those in the Cappella di S. Agnese 
(right transept) are attributed to Giotto. — The piazza in front of 
the church commands a fine view of the fertile valley. 

On the S. of the Salita di Fonte Bella, which ascends on the S. 
margin of the town, is the Confraternita delie Stimate (15th cent.). 
The frescoes on the facade , representing Christ granting indul- 
gences to St. Francis for the church of St. Mary, and the Works of 
Charity, are attributed to Benozzo Oozzoli. — At the E. end of the 
town are remains of a Roman Amphitheatre (PI. 1). 

to Foligno. FOLIGNO. 10. Route. 73 

A magnificent *Vie-w of the town and environs is obtained from 
the Castello or Roeca Grande , above the town , reached from the 
piazza in about */ 2 hour. 

In a ravine of the lofty Monte Subasio (3612 ft.), at the hack of Assisi, 
is situated the hermitage delle Carceri, to which St. Francis was wont to 
retire for devotional exercises. 

From Assisi to Spello a very beautiful drive of 5 M. (one- 
horse carr. 4-5 fr.J. By train it is reached in 13 minutes. To the 
right of the road as the town is approached are the ruins of an amphi- 
theatre of the imperial period, but they are not visible from the railway. 

22 M. Spello, with 5000 inhab., picturesquely situated on a 
mountain-slope, is the ancient Hispel turn [Colonia Julia Hispelluni). 
The gate by which the town is entered, with its three portrait-sta- 
tues, as well as the Porta Urbana, the Porta Veneris , and portions 
of the wall, are ancient. 

The *Cathedral of S. Maria Maggiore contains good paintings. 

The Benitier to the right of the entrance is formed of an ancient 
cippus. To the left the Cappella del Sacramento with "Frescoes by 
Pinturicchio (1501) : on the left , the Annunciation (with the name and 
portrait of the painter) ; opposite to us the Adoration ; to the right, Christ 
in the Temple ; on the ceiling, the Sibyls. — The Choir contains a magni- 
ficent canopy in the early-Renaissance style. On the left a Pieta, on the 
right a Madonna by Perugino , 1521. — In the Sacristy, a "Madonna by 

S. Francesco (or Andrea), consecrated in 1228 by Gregory IX., 
contains in the right transept an altar-piece, Madonna and saints, 
by Pinturicchio (1508), with a copy of a letter by O. Baglione to 
the painter painted upon it. 

Among other antiquities the 'House of Propertius' is shown, 
although it is certain that the poet was not born here (p. 69). 
In the Pal. Comunale and on the church-wall of <S. Lorenzo are Ro- 
man inscriptions. The upper part of the town commands an ex- 
tensive view of the plain, with Foligno and Assisi. Numerous 
ruins occasioned by the earthquake of 1831 are still observed. 

The train crosses the Topino and reaches — 

24 M. Foligno, the junction of the Ancona line (R. 14). 

Halt of 1/4 br. ; mediocre Refreshment Room. — One-horse Carriage to the 
town (I/2 M.) 40 c. — Inns : *Posta, by the gate, R. from 2, D. 4, L. & A. 
1 fr. ; Trattoria Falcone, both in the main street, the Via della Fiera. 

Foligno. near the ancient Fulginium, a town with 10,000 (incl. 
suburbs 23,000) inhab., and an episcopal residence, lies in a fertile 
district. In 1281 it was destroyed by Perugia, from 1305 to 1439 it 
was governed by the celebrated family of the Trinci , and in 1439 
annexed to the States of the Church. The earthquake of 1832 
occasioned serious damage. 

At the entrance to the town a marble statue was erected in 
1872 to the painter Niccolh del Liberatore, surnamed VAlunno, the 
head of the school of Foligno (p. 46). Public grounds behind it. 

The Via della Fiera leads straight to the Piazza Maggiore ( Vit- 

74 Route 10. FOLIGNO. From Perugia 

torio Emanuele), with the Cattedralb S. Feliciano , the crypt 
of which dates from the 8th, the rest from the 12th century. The 
fine *Portal (1201) is adorned with portraits of Emp. Frederick II. 
and of Bishop Anselm, the founder of the church. The interior was 
modernised in the 16th and 18th centuries. — Opposite is the Pa- 
lazzo Orftni, with a charming facade of 1515. 

On the E. side of the piazza rises the Palazzo del Governo, 
the seat of the Trinci in 1398-1439. The room in front of the cha- 
pel is adorned with frescoes (Romulus and Remus) by Ottaviano 
Nelli, and the chapel itself also contains frescoes (history of the 
Virgin, Joachim, and Anna) attributed to the same master (?). 

The *Palazzo Deli (1510), in the Via Salara, is ascribed to 
Baccio d'Agnolo. — The church of S. Domenico , in the piazza of 
that name, dates from the 14th cent, and is now a riding-school. 

S. Maria infra Portas, dating in part from the 8th cent., con- 
tains numerous but mostly faded frescoes of the ll-15th centuries. 
Adjacent is the Scuola d'Arti e Mestieri, with casts of many almost 
inaccessible monuments of Umbrian art. 

In the Piazza S. Niccolo is the church of S. NiccolS, the second 
chapel to the right in which contains a large *Altar-piece (Nativity) 
by Niccolb Alunno (1492); the chapel to the right of the high-altar 
is adorned with a Coronation of the Virgin, by the same master. 

The Cappblla dblla Santissima Annunziata (beginning of 
the 16th cent.), in the Via della Croce Bianca, contains a Baptism 
of Christ, by Perugino ; in the sacristy is an *Entombment by Mon- 
tagna (or Lorenzo Lotto?). 

The badly-arranged Pinacotbca, in the old Ospizio di Mendi- 
cita , Via dei Monasteri , contains Roman sculptures (relief with 
circus-games) and several paintings by Umbrian masters, of which 
those by Mezzastris (Crucifixion , St. Anna and the Madonna with 
saints) are the most noticeable. 

The church of 8. Anna, or delle Contesse, once contained Raphael's 
famous Madonna di Foligno, now in the Vatican (p. 305). 

About 4 M. to the E. of Foligno, on the slope of the hills, is situated 
the Abbadia di Sassovivo, with cloisters built in 1229, resembling those of 
S. Paolo Fuori at Rome (p. 258). 

About 5 M. to the W. of Foligno is Bevagna, on the Clitumnus, the 
ancient Mevania of the Umbri , celebrated for its admirable pastures, with 
remains of an amphitheatre and other antiquities. The churches of S. Sil- 
vestro and S. Michele, dating from the latter part of the 12th cent., though 
not entirely preserved, present a picturesque appearance. 

From Bevagna (or from Foligno direct, 6 M.) we may visit the lofty 
Montefalco (Alb, deW Oreo, poor), one of the best places for the study ot 
Umbrian painting. The church of S. Leonardo, by the Porta di Spoleto, 
contains a Madonna and saints by Francesco Melanzio of Montefalco (1515). 
In S. Aijostino are a Madonna, St. James, and St. John of the Umbrian 
School (1522; left wall), and God the Father, Madonna, Apostles, and Saints 
by Benozzo Oozzoli (Vriyht wall). — The church of "S. Francesco, built in 
the 14th cent., with a portal of 1585, contains numerous interesting paint- 
ings: on the entrance-wall, Annunciation and Nativity, by Perugino; wall 
of left aisle, Madonna and saints by Tiberio d'Assisi (1510); Crucifixion, 
Miracles of St. Anthony, School of Benozzo Gozzoli; Madonna, an arch- 

to Orte. TRBVI. IQ. Route. 75 

angel, four saints, Umbrian School (1506); last chapel in the left aisle, 
Crucifixion and Christ appearing to Mary Magdalene, School of Giotto. The 
choir is adorned with -Frescoes by Benozzo Gozzoli (1452), representing the 
legend of St. Francis, with portraits of popes, cardinals, and church-fathers ; 
below the window, portraits of Dante, Petrarch, and Giotto. The frescoes 
on the wall of the right aisle are still partly concealed by the whitewash; 
the most important are those by Benozzo Gozzoli (1452; Crucifixion, Christ 
blessing, four church-fathers. Madonna and four saints). — The Pinacoteca, 
in the principal piazza, adjoining the Municipio , contains Three saints 
by Lo Spagna (7), a Madonna by Benozzo Gozzoli (?), and numerous other 
unimportant works. — The church of S. Foktdnato, 1 M. beyond the 
Porta di Spoleto , also possesses several interesting paintings. In the 
Cappella di S. Francesco (to the left in the court), Legend of St. Francis, 
by Tiberio d'Assisi (1512); in the nave, seven angels by Benozzo Gozzoli; 
in the choir, Madonna and saints, by Franc. Melanzio (1528) ; right aisle, 
*Madonna adoring the Holy Child, Angel with a musical instrument, by 
Ben. Gozzoli (1450). — A walk round the walls of the town affords magni- 
ficent -Views of the Umbrian plain. 

The Railway traverses the luxuriant, well- watered valley of 
the Clitumnus, whose herds of cattle are extolled by Virgil, to — 

30 M. Trevi (Locanda, near the Porta del Lago, poor; clean 
rooms at Paolo Cecchinfs, Via delle Rose; Cafe Cecchini, at the 
Porta del Lago). The small town , the ancient Trebia, lies pictur- 
esquely on the slope to the left. The Pinacoteca in the Municipio 
contains three works by Lo Spagna (1. Coronation of the Virgin, 
61. St. Cecilia, 65. St. Catharine). The church of S. Emiliano, of 
the 12th cent., possesses an interesting portal. (St. ^Emilian be- 
tween two lions) and three richly-ornamented *Altars by Rocco da 
Vicenza (1521). 

About 1/2 M. beyond the Porta del Lago lies the church of S. Mak- 
tino (key at the Cafe Cecchini, see above). In the outer chapel is a 
"Madonna in glory, surrounded with four saints, by Lo Spagna (1512); 
above the entrance, Madonna and two angels, by Tiberio d' Assist; in the 
interior, St. Martin by Lo Spagna (? to the left), and Madonna, St. Francis, 
and St. Anthony, of the School of Foligno (to the right). — The church 
of S. Mabia delle Lagrime, 3/4 M. from the Porta del Cieco, on the way 
to the railway-station, was built in 1487 by Antonio da Firenze and poss- 
esses a fine portal by Giovanni di Gian Pietro da Venezia, added in 1511. 
In the 1st chapel to the left is a Resurrection , by an Umbrian Painter; 
in the transept, to the left, "Entombment by Lo Spagna; 2nd chapel to 
the right , Adoration of the Magi, by Perugino ; 1st chapel to the right, 
Annunciation, Umbrian School. 

The small village of Le Vene, on the Clitumnus, is next passed. 
Near it, to the left, we obtain a glimpse of a small ancient *Temple, 
usually regarded as that of Clitumnus mentioned by Pliny (Epist. 
8, 8), but probably not earlier than Constantine the Great, as the 
Christian emblems, the vine and the cross, on the facade testify. 
The temple, now a church of S. Salvatore , lies with its back to- 
wards the road, about 2 1 / 2 M. from Trevi. Near Le Vene the 
abundant and clear Source of the Clitumnus , beautifully described 
by Pliny , wells forth from the limestone-rock. On the height to 
the left is the village of Campello. On the way to Spoleto, to the 
left, in the village of S. Oiacomo , is a church the choir of which 
is adorned with frescoes by Lo Spagna (Coronation of the Virgin, 

76 Route 10. SPOLETO. From Perugia 

Legend of St. James of Compostella ; 1526). Beautiful road through 
richly cultivated land. 

41 M. SpoletO. The town is »/ 4 M. distant; one-horse carr. l /2 tr- 

'Albergo & Rest. Lucini, in the upper town, near the theatre; La 
Posta, in the lower part of the town, near the railway-gate. — Tratto- 
ria delta Ferrovia, to the right of the gate. "Cafi delta Nazione and Bir- 
reria, Corso Vitt. Emanuele. — Baths, Piazza S. Luca. 

Spoleto, the ancient Spoletium, the seat of a bishop as early as 
A.D. 50, now an archiepiscopal see, is a busy town, beautifully situ- 
ated, and containing some interesting objects of art. The chief 
occupations of its 11,000 inhab. (commune 21,600) are the gather- 
ing of truffles in the surrounding woods and the preparation of pre- 
served meats, vegetables, and fruits. 

In B. C. 242 a Roman colony was established here, and in 217 the town 
vigorously repelled the attack of Hannibal when on his march to Picenum 
after the battle of the Trasimene Lake, as Livy relates (22, 9). It subse- 
quently became a Roman municipium , suffered severely during the civil 
wars of Sulla and Marius, and again at the hands of the Goths, after the 
fall of the W. Empire. The Lombards founded a duchy here (as in Bene- 
vento) in 570, the first holders of which were Faroald and Ariolf. After 
the fall of the Carlovingians, Guido of Spoleto even attained the dignity of 
Emperor, as well as his son Lambert , who perished while hunting in 898. 
Innocent III. and Gregory IV. incorporated Spoleto with the States of the 
Church about 1220. The Castle of Spoleto, erected by Theodoric the Great, 
restored by Narses, and strengthened with four towers by Cardinal Albornoz, 
now a prison , fell into the hands of the Piedmontese on 18th Sept., 1860, 
after a gallant defence by Major O'Reilly, an Irishman. 

The town is built on the slope of a hill, the summit of which 
is occupied by the old castle of La Rocca ; the church-spire most 
to the left when seen from the station is that of the cathedral. — 
Entering by the town-gate and following the main street which 
traverses the lower part of the town, we reach (5 min.) a gateway 
of the Roman period, called the Porta a" Annibale, or Porta delta 
Fuga, in allusion to the above-mentioned occurrence. 

We may continue to follow the Strada Umberto, ascending the 
hill in a wide curve, or take one of the direct but steep side-streets. 
Inclining towards the left, near the top, we come to the — 

"Cathedral op S. Maria Assunta, erected by Duke Theodela- 
pius in 617, but frequently restored. The facade (13th cent.) has 
a Renaissance portico of five arches with antique columns, a frieze 
with griffins and arabesques, and at each side a stone pulpit; above, 
Christ with Mary and John, a large mosaic by Solsernus (1207). 

To the right of the vestibule is a Baptistery, containing frescoes in 
the style of Oiulio Romano; the travertine font, with sculptures from the 
life of Christ, is of the 16th century. 

The Interior of the cathedral was restored in 1644 , and has been 
recently whitewashed. — The Choir contains "Frescoes by Fra Filippo 
Lippi, completed after his death by Fra Diamante in 1470, Annunciation, 
Birth of Christ, and Death of Mary, in the semicircle her Coron- 
ation and Assumption (unfortunately damaged). At the entrance to the 
chapel on the left of the choir, to the left, is the Tomb of Fit. Lippi, 
who died here in 1469 of poison administered by the family of Spinetta 
Buti, a noble Florentine. Although a monk, he had gained the affections 
of this lady and abducted her from a convent. The monument was erected 

to Orte. SPOLETO. 10. Route. 77 

by Lor. de' Medici; the epitaph is by Poliziano. Opposite is the mon- 
ument of an Orsini. — The Wihtek-Choir, in the left aisle, contains good 
carving of the 15th cent., and a Madonna by Lo Spagna. — In the Chapel 
to the right of the entrance are fragments of frescoes by Pinturicchio. 

In the Piazza del Duomo , in front of the cathedral , probably 
stood the palace of the Lombard Dukes. — On leaving the ca- 
thedral we prooeed in a straight direction , slightly ascending, to 
the Palazzo Pubblico , containing several inscriptions and the 
small Pinacoteca. 

Room II. Entrance-wall, Handsome chimney-piece of the beginning of 
the 16th cent. ; centre, Archaic inscription regulating the felling of timber 
in a sacred grove. — R. III. Entrance-wall , "Madonna with saints, by Lo 
Spagna; right wall, Virtues and Putti, by Lo Spagna. — R. IV. Right 
wall, Madonna and Child, by Bernardino Campello (1502) ; Adoration of the 
Holy Child, by Lo Spagna (?). 

The other churches are of inferior interest. S. Domenico con- 
tains a copy of Raphael's Transfiguration, attributed to Giulio Ro- 
mano. In the Convento di S. Domenico, now the Istituto Tecnico, 
is a *Crucifixion by Lo Spagna. /S. Pietro, outside the Roman gate, 
is a Lombard edifice ; facade adorned with sculptures. 

Some of the churches contain relics of ancient temples ; thus in 
that del Croceftsso (restored), outside the town, near the cemetery, 
fragments of a temple of Concordia (?) ; columns, etc. , in S. Andrea 
and S. Giuliano , remains of a theatre ; a ruin styled 'Palace of 
Theodoric', etc. ; but none of these claim special attention. The 
Conte Francesco Tonfs valuable Collection of Petrefactions, in the 
Palazzo Toni, Piazza S. Luca, is of great interest to geologists (visi- 
tors readily admitted). 

Travellers should not omit to extend their walk beyond the ca- 
thedral and the Palazzo Pubblico as follows. Continuing to ascend, 
after a few minutes we cross the Piazza Brignone in a diagonal 
direction, where a memorial slab commemorates the capture of the 
fortress in 1860. Passing the fountain, we leave the upper part of 
the Piazza by a street to the right, which passes immediately below 
the lower entrance of the fortress of La Rocca, now a prison. A 
little farther on, near a gate which here forms the entrance to the 
town, we perceive, to the left, polygonal foundations, being remains 
of the ancient castle-wall. Outside the wall is a profound ravine, 
spanned by the imposing aqueduct *Ponte delle Torri, built of brick, 
which is used as a viaduct, uniting the town with Monte Luco. It 
rests on ten arches , and is 290 ft. in height, and 231 yds. in 
length. Its construction is attributed to Theodelapius, third duke 
of Spoleto (604). A window midway affords a view. To the left on 
the height is perceived the monastery of S. Giuliano ; below is S. 
Pietro (see above), above which stands the former Capuchin mon- 
astery , shaded by beautiful trees. Beyond the bridge we turn to 
the left, generally following the direction of the aqueduct. After 
10-15 min. a more unbroken *Prospeet is obtained, embracing the 
fortress and town, and the spacious valley. 

78 Route 10. TERNI. From Perugia 

The ascent of Monte Luco, jU/2 hr. , ia somewhat fatiguing. Refresh- 
ments at the Franciscan convent near the top (adequate remuneration 
expected). The 'Fra Guardiano' conducts visitors to the best points of view. 
To the N. and E. lies the valley of the Clitumnus with Trevi, Foligno, 
Spello, and Assisi; then Perugia and the Central Apennines near Citta di 
Castello and Gubbio. In the other directions the view is intercepted by the 
mountains in the vicinity. Towards the E. these are overtopped by the 
rocky peak of the Sibilla, snow-clad until late in the summer. — Return- 
ing to the right we pass the former Capuchin monastery of S. Maria delle 
Grazie, an ancient resort of pilgrims. 

The Railway ascends during 1 hr. on the slopes of Monte 
Somma (4038 ft.) to the culminating point of the line (2231 ft.). 
— Beyond (51 M.) Qiuncano it passes through a long tunnel, and 
reaches — 

58Y2 M. Terni. — The town is 3 /4 M. from the station ; hotel-omnibus 
75 c; a seat in a carriage ('un posto') to the piazza 30-50 c, box 20 c. 

Hotels. Eukopa , in the piazza; Inghilterra, near the piazza, both 
belonging to the same owner, bargaining necessary; Italia, well spoken 
of; Alb. Nuovo, with Trattoria. — Cafi Elvezia, near the Europa. 

Terni, situated in the fertile valley of the Nera, with 15,900 
inhab. (incl. villages) and several manufactories , is the ancient 
Interamna , where , it is believed , the historian Tacitus and the 
emperors Tacitus and Florianus were born. Remains of an amphi- 
theatre (erroneously styled a 'Temple of the Sun'') in the grounds 
of the episcopal palace, Roman inscriptions in the Palazzo Pubblico, 
palaces of the Umbrian nobility, etc., are objects of interest. Pleasant 
walk on the ramparts, whence the beautiful Nera "Valley is surveyed: 
to the left Collescipoli, to the right Cesi, opposite the spectator Narni. 

The Waterfalls or Terni may be reached on foot in l'/ 2 hr- ; 
the whole excursion, including stay, requires about 4 hours. 

Carriage for 1 person 5, 2 pers. 7, 3 pers. 9 fr. , etc., according 
to tariff; or at the hotels 7, 10 and 15 fr. respectively, besides which 
a fee of 1-1 Y2 fr. is expected. — Guide (quite unnecessary) 3 fr. — 
The traveller should be abundantly provided with copper coins. At 
the different points of view contributions are levied by the custodians 
(3-4 soldi); flowers and fossils from the Velino are offered for sale, also 
for 3-4 soldi ; besides which the patience is sorely tried by the impor- 
tunities of a host of beggars and guides. 

Two carriage - roads lead from Terni to the waterfalls. The 
New Road (4 4 /2 M.), following the right bank of the Nera, and 
flanked with poplars, leaves the town near the Porta Spoletina, 
and crosses the plain in a straight direction. On the right rises 
the large new government manufactory of weapons. We now ap- 
proach the stream , the valley of which contracts. On each side 
tower lofty rocks, to which the luxuriant vegetation of the slopes 
forms a beautiful contrast. — The Old Road is reached from the 
piazza at Terni by passing the Albergo Europa and descending the 
Strada Garibaldi. We at first follow the Rieti and Aquila road (see 
Baedeker's S. Italy), which crosses the Nera just outside the gate, 
traversing gardens and olive-plantations ; after 2 M. (near a small 
chapel on the right) , a broad road to the left descends into the 
valley of the Nera , while the high-road ascends gradually to the 
right. The former descends in windings past the village of Papigno, 

to Orte. 


10. Route. 79 

picturesquely situated on an isolated rock, (3/ 4 M.) crosses the Nera, 
and on the right bank, near the villa of Count Castelli-Graziani, 
reaches the new road mentioned above (I-IV4 M. to the falls). 

The celebrated falls of the Velino (which here empties itself into 
the Nera), called the **Cascate delle Marmore, are about 650 ft. 
in height, and have few rivals in Europe in beauty of situation and 
volume of water. The rivulet is precipitated from the height in three 
leaps of about 65, 330, and 190 ft. respectively, the water falling 

perpendicularly at some places, and at others dashing furiously over 
rocks. The spray of the falls is seen from a considerable distance. 

The Velino is so strongly impregnated with lime that its deposit con- 
tinually raises its bed ; and the plain of Rieti (1397 ft.) is therefore 
frequently exposed to the danger of inundation. In ancient times Manius 
Curius Dentatus endeavoured to counteract the evil by the construction 
of a tunnel (B. C. 271), which, though altered, is to this day in use. 
The rising of the bed of the river, however, rendered new measures 
necessary from time to time. Two other channels were afterwards 
excavated, the Cava Beatina or Gregoriana in 1417, and the Cava Paolina 
by Paul III. in 1546; these, however, proving unserviceable, Clement VIII. 
re-opened the original 'emissarium 1 of Dentatus in 1598. In 1787 a new 
cutting was required , and another has again become necessary. The 
regulation of the Velino fall has long formed the subject of vehement 
discussions between Rieti and Terni , as the unrestrained descent of the 
water in rainy seasons threatens the valley of Terni with inundation. 

Fine views of the falls are obtained from several points. Before 
reaching the falls, we may ascend a path to the left, leading in 
10 min. to a small summer-house, which affords the finest view of 
the upper and central falls. — "We now return to the road, retrace 
our steps to the first path on the left, and cross the Nera by a 
natural bridge, below which the water has hollowed its own channel. 
Where the path divides, we ascend gradually to the left. The 

80 Route 10. NARNI. 

surrounding rocks (in which there is a quarry) have been formed by 
the incrustations of the Velino. The channel on the right (Cava 
Paolina) is full in winter only. In 12-15 min. we come to a point, 
where the division of the cascade is surveyed ; the central fall, in 
the spray of which beautiful rainbows are occasionally formed, may 
be approached more nearly. A farther steep ascent of 15-20 min. 
leads to a small pavilion of stone on a projecting rock, affording a 
beautiful view of the principal fall and the valley of the Nera. We 
next ascend a flight of steps (4 min.), and soon reach another point 
of view on the left, in the garden of the first cottage (20 c). — 
Following the same path for a few minutes more , we turn to the 
right and come to a small house; passing through its garden (10- 
15 c. ), and between several houses, we reach in 10 min. the road 
to Rieti and Aquila (see above), not far from a good osteria(No. 153). 
The road back to Terni (4 M.) commands a fine view. 

If time permit, the excursion may be extended from the upper 
fall to the beautiful *Lake of Piedilugo, 3 M. further. Following the 
above-mentioned road , we cross the Velino , reach the lake in 
'/2 h r -< skirt its indentations, and arrive at the village of Piedilugo, 
with its ruined castle, in 1/2 nr - more. Boats at the *Inn for a trip 
to the opposite bank, where a fine echo may be awakened. 

The Railway intersects the rich valley of the Nera. To the 
right on the hill lies Cesi , 5 M. to the N.W. of Terni , to the right 
of the S. Gemine and Todi road (p. 55), with remains of ancient 
polygonal walls and interesting subterranean grottoes. To the left, 

66Y2 M Narni (Angelo, tolerable,), the ancient Umbrian Narnia 
(originally Nequinum), birthplace of the Emperor Nerva, Pope John 
XIII. (965-72), and of Erasmus of Narni, surnamed Gattamelata, 
the well-known 'condottiere' of the 15th century. It is picturesquely 
situated, 3 / 4 M. from the station, on a lofty rock (1191 ft.) on the 
Nar, now Nera (whence its name), at the point where the river 
forces its way through a narrow ravine to the Tiber. The old castle 
is now a prison. — The Cathedral, erected in the 13th cent., with 
a vestibule of 1497. and dedicated to St. Juvenalis, the first bishop 
(369) , is architecturally interesting. — The Town Hall contains 
the Coronation of Mary by Lo Spagna (formerly in the monastery of 
the Zoccolanti, the strictest branch of the Franciscans), one of that 
master's finest paintings and for a long time attributed to Raphael, 
but lately spoiled by retouching. 

From Narni to Perugia by Todi, see p. 55. 

From Narni a road leads to the N.W. to the (6 31.) venerable and 
finely situated Umbrian mountain-town of Amelia, Lat. Ameria (inn outside 
the gate) , mentioned by Cicero in his oration Pro Roscio Amerino, with 
admirably preserved ''Cyclopean Walls and other antiquities (1388 ft.). 

The train turns towards the narrowing valley of the Nera, and 
passes close to the *Bridge of Augustus (on the left), which spanned 

IMOLA. 11. Route. 81 

the river immediately below Narni in three huge arches , and be- 
longed to the Via Flaminia (p. 92), leading to Bevagna (p. 74). 
The arch next to the left bank, 60 ft. in height, alone is preserved, 
while of the two others the buttresses only remain. 

The train continues to follow the valley of the Nera , with its 
beautiful plantations of evergreen oaks. Beyond (71 M.) Nera Mon- 
toro we pass through two tunnels, and then (near the influx of the 
Nera) cross the Tiber, which in 1860-70 formed the boundary be- 
tween the Kingdom of Italy and the Papal States. — Near — 

76 M. Orte, we reach the main line from Chiusi to Rome (see p. 61). 

11. From Bologna to Rimini, Faleonara (Borne), 
and Ancona. 

127 M. Railway in 5-7'/ 2 hrs. (fares 23 fr. 10, 16 fr. 15, 11 fr. 55 c; 
3rd class by slow train 9 fr. 25 c). On Sun. a fast through-train (1st class 
only) runs to Ancona in 4 hrs., without stopping. — Beautiful views of 
the sea between Rimini and Cattolica, and beyond Pesaro. A seat on the 
left should therefore be secured. — From Bologna to Rome , 300 M. , ex- 
press in 14Va hrs. (via Florence in 13 hrs.); fares 59 fr., 41 fr. 5 c. This 
train diverges to the S.W. at Faleonara, the last station before Ancona. 

The towns on the coast of the Adriatic are far inferior in attraction 
to those in the W. part of the peninsula (Tuscany and Umbria); but 
without a visit to them the traveller's acquaintance with Italy would be 
but imperfect. The views of the Adriatic to the E., and of the Apennines 
to the W. are often charming, and the situation of some of the towns, 
especially Ancona, is strikingly beautiful. Rimini, an ancient Roman 
colony and frontier fortress, possesses several fine monuments of antiquity, 
and its church of S. Francesco is an admirable Renaissance work. Roman 
triumphal arches are also preserved at Ancona and Fano ; and Lorelo boasts 
of valuable sculptures in the Renaissance style (p. 100). Vrbino, too, the 
birthplace of Raphael, lies within a short distance of this route. Many of 
the towns now have galleries of pictures collected from the suppressed 
monasteries, but of second-rate importance. 

Bologna, see Baedeker's Northern Italy. The line follows the 
ancient Via JEmilia , which ran from Placentia to Ariminum , and 
traverses a fertile plain. In the distance to the right are the spurs 
of the Apennines. 4^2 M. 8. Lazzaro (trains stop in summer only); 
7 M. Mirandola; lO 1 /^ M. Quaderna; 15 M. Castel S. Pietro, on the 
Sillaro , with a castle erected by the Bolognese in the 13th century. 

22 M. Imola (S. Marco), on the Santerno, an ancient town with 
29,400 inhab. (incl. villages), and an episcopal see since 422, was 
the Roman Forum Cornelii, having been built by L. Cornelius Sulla, 
but is mentioned by Paulus Diaconus, the Lombard historian, as 
early as the time of Charlemagne, as Imolae. After many vicissi- 
tudes it was at length annexed to the States of the Church by Pope 
Julius II. in 1509. Imola was the birthplace of St. Petrus Chry- 
sologus, archbishop of Ravenna (d. 449), whose tomb is in the cathe- 
dral of S. Cassiano, where the remains of the saint of that name also 
repose. The painter Innocenzo da Intola (Francucci, 1494-1550?) 
and the anatomist Valsalva (1666-1723) were also natives of Imola. 

The line crosses the Santerno. 26 M. Castel Bolognese, an an- 

Baedeker. Italy II. 8th Edition. 6 

S2 lioutell. FAENZA. From Bologna 

cient stronghold of the Bolognese, erected in 1380. In 1434 the Flor- 
entines under Nic. da Tolentino and Gattamelata were defeated 
here by the Milanese under Piccinino. Branch-line to Ravenna (see 
Baedeker's X. Italy). We cross the river Senio, the ancient Sinnus. 

31 M. Faenza (Corona, near the Piazza Maggiore ; Tre Mori), a 
pleasant town with 14,500 inhab. (commune 36,100), on the Arnone 
(ancient Anemo), the Faventia of the Boii, was the scene of Sulla's 
victory overCarbo. In the middle ages it witnessed numerous feuds, 
and in 1509 it was annexed by Julius II. to the States of the 
Church. The town was famous in the 15th cent, for its pottery, the 
manufacture of which has lately been revived ('faience'), and contains 
considerable silk and weaving factories. Faenza was the birthplace 
of Torricelli, the inventor of the barometer in 1643, to whose mem- 
ory a monument has been erected near the church of S. Francesco. 

The cathedral of 8. Costanzo, named after Constantius, the first 
bishop of Faventia in 313, contains a Holy Family by Jnnocenzo da 
Jmola, and bas-reliefs by Benedetto da Majano, 1472. 

In the Piazza Maggiore , which is flanked with arcades, are the 
Palazzo Municipale and the Torre dell' Orologio; the fountain in 
the centre, embellished with bronzes, dates from the 17th century. 

The Library contains 26,000 volumes. The adjoining Pinaco- 
teca has works of native artists, such as Bertucci; a Madonna by 
Guido Keni, a bust of John the Baptist by Donatello, etc. 

In the Commenda (in the BorgoJ is a handsome fresco, Madonna 
and saints, by Girolamo da Treviso (1533). 

Beyond Faenza the train intersects the plain in a straight direc- 
tion. It crosses the Amone, then the Montone, which, united with 
with the Ronco (Bedesis), falls into the Adriatic near Ravenna. 

40 M. Forli (Posta) , the ancient Forum Livii , founded by M. 
Livius Salinator after the defeat of Hasdrubal , is a well-built pro- 
vincial capital with 16,000 inhab. (including suburbs 41,000). 

Forli, where in 410 the marriage of Athaulf , king of the Visigoths, 
with Galla Placidia , sister of the Emp. Honorius was solemnised, was 
long an independent state in which the Guelphs retained their ascendancy 
down to 1315. The Ordelaffi then usurped the supreme power, which they 
retained till 1480, when they were succeeded by Girolamo Riario, a favour- 
ite of Sixtus IV. This prince was assassinated in 1488, and his widow, 
Caterina Sforza. was afterwards banished by Cesare Borgia. At length, 
in 1504, Pope Julius 11. annexed the city to the States of the Church. — - 
Forli was the birthplace of the poet Cornelius Gallus (d. B.C. 27), of the 
historian Flavio Biondo (15th cent.), and of the talented painter Melozzo 
da Forli (end of loth cent.) , who was closely allied to Piero della Fran- 
cesca, was rccngnised by his contemporaries as a master of perspective, 
and was afterwards engaged at Rome. 

The Piazza Vitt. Emanuele, the principal square (comp. Plan, 
p. S4) is enclosed by handsome palaces. Here, too, is the church of — 

S. Mercuriale (so named after the first bishop of Forli), which 
possesses a painting by Jnnocenzo da Imola, sculptures of 1536, and 
several good pictures by Marco Palmezzano , a native of Forli and 
pupil of Meloz/.o. Lofty and admirably built campanile. 

to Ancona. CESENA. 11. Route. 83 

The *Cathedral of S. Croce contains the Chapel of the Madonna 
del Fuoco, the dome of which was adorned in 1686-1706 with fres- 
coes by Carlo Cignani of Bologna, representing the Assumption of 
the Virgin. The painter is buried in the chapel. In the S. aisle is 
a St. Sebastian by Rondinello. A reliquary of the 14th cent., and 
the sculptures of the principal door (15th cent.) also deserve notice. 

S. Biagio e S. Girolamo contains in the 3rd chapel on the right 
a *Madonna with angels by Guido Reni, and in the first chapel on the 
right *Frescoes by Melozzo and Palmezzano. 

The*Pinacoteca in the Ginnasio Comunale in the Piazza S. Pel- 
legrino contains good pictures by Melozzo (including a fresco by 
the master, called the 'Pestapepe', originally a shop sign-board, re- 
presenting a youth using a pestle and mortar), Palmezzano, Rondi- 
nello , Cignani, Francesco Francia (*Adoration of the Child), and 
others. — In the court is a monument to Morgagni , the anatomist 
(d. 1771), inaugurated in 1875. — In a lunette over the entrance 
is a Madonna with angels , from the cathedral, by Simone di Giov. 
Ghini, erroneously supposed to have been a brother of Donatello. 
A cabinet contains a half-figure of Pino Ordelaf'fl in marble. 

The Citadel, constructed in 136 1 by Cardinal Albornoz, and en- 
larged by the Ordelaffi and Riarii, is now used as a prison. 

A diligence route leads from Forli through the Apennines by Rocca 
S. Casciano and S. Benedetto to Florence. 

The line to Rimini crosses the Ronco and passes (-45 M.) Forlim- 
popoli, the ancient Forum Popilii ; to the right, on the hill, Ber- 
tinoro, with its productive vineyards. It then passes Polenta and 
crosses the Savio (the ancient Sapis). 

52 M. Cesena (Leon d'Oro, R. 2'/2 fr. ; Cappello), with about 
10,000 inhab. (incl. villages 38,300), is surrounded by beautiful 
meadows and hills, and boasts of several interesting palaces. 

Caesena is one of the most ancient episcopal sees in Italy, where St. 
Philemon is said to have held the office as early as the year 92. During 
the middle ages it was at first an independent state, then became subject 
to the Ghibelline family of Montefeltro , and shortly afterwards to the 
Malatestas, who where partizans of the Guelphs. This rapid change of 
rulers is alluded to by Dante, Inf. xxvii, 52: 

Gosi com? ella sie" 1 ira il piano e il monte, 
Tra Uraturia si vive e stato franco. 

On 1st Feb., 1377, the town was cruelly sacked by Cardinal Robert 
of Geneva, and subsequently by Cesare Borgia, after which it was incor- 
porated with the States of the Church. 

In the Piazza is the handsome Palazzo Pubblico with a statue of 
Pius VI., who was born at Cesena in 1717, as well as his successor 
Pius VII. in 1742. In the picture-gallery a Presentation in the 
Temple, by Francesco Francia. — The Cathedral contains two marble 
altars of the 15th and 16th centuries. — The Library, founded in 
1452 by Domenico Malatesta Novello, contains 4000 MSS., many of 
them written for the founder , and afterwards used by the learned 
Aldus Manutius in preparing his famous editions of the classics. 

On an eminence, ^M, distant, stands the handsome church 


84 Route 11. RIMINI. From Bologna 

of *8. Maria del Monte, a work of Bramante. Productive sulphur- 
mines in the vicinity, towards the S. 

The train crosses the stream Pisciatello, the upper part of which, 
called Vrgone , is identical with the Rubicon of the ancients, the 
boundary between Italy proper and the province of Gallia Cisalpina, 
and memorable for its passage by Caesar at the beginning of the 
civil war between him and Pompey, B.C. 49. 

The most recent investigations tend to show that the Rubicon has 
entirely quitted its ancient course. It appears originally to have fallen 
into the Fiumicino, farther S., while at the present day its upper part 
(Urgone) unites with the Pisciatello. Most of the towns and villages of 
this district have in turn laid claim to the distinction of possessing the 
Rubicon within their territory. Nor did they rest satisfied with a mere 
literary feud in order to gain the object of their ambition. An action in- 
volving this question was instituted at Rome , and in 1756 the 'Rota' de- 
cided in favour of the claim of the Uso (see below), beyond the small 
town of Savignano. On the road between Cesena and Savignano stands a 
column bearing a decree of the Roman senate, which threatens to punish 
those who should without authority trespass beyond the Rubicon. Montes- 
quieu regarded this as genuine, but it is an obvious imposition and not the 
only one connected with the interminable dispute regarding the Rubicon. 

56M. Oambettola; 60^2 M. Savignano. The train crosses the 
Uso. 63 M. S. Arcangelo, where Pope Clement XIV. (Ganganelli) 
was born in 1705 (d. 1771). The Marecchia is next crossed. 

691/2 M. Rimini. — Aquila d'Oro, in the Corso, close to the Piazza; 
Albergo Noovo ; omnibuses at the station from both. — Trattoria d'Europa, 
Piazza Cavour; Caffe delta Speranza, Piazza Giulio Cesare. — Railway 
Restaurant, good wine of the country. 

Carriage from the station to the Piazza, with one horse 1 fr., with two 
horses 1 fr. 20 c. — Tramway to the bathing-place, completed in 1879. 

Rimini, beautifully situated on the Adriatic at the mouth of the 
Ausa and Marecchia, with 10,000 inhab. (incl. villages 37,000), and 
extensive fisheries and silk manufactories , has of late come into 
notice as a sea-bathing place. Handsome public rooms with a cafe 
and restaurant, and numerous lodging-houses have been erected on 
the pleasant promenade on the beach. 

Rimini, the ancient Ariminum, a town of the Umbrians , became a 
Roman colony in B.C. 269, and formed the frontier-fortress of Italy in the 
direction of Gaul , and the termination of the Via Flaminia from Rome, 
constructed in 220. The town was extended and embellished by Julius 
Csesar and Augustus. During the Exarchate, it was the northernmost of 
the Pentapolis Maritima, or 'Five Maritime Cities', which were ruled over 
by one governor. The other four were Pesaro, Fano, Sinigaglia, and Ancona. 
In 260 Ariminum became an episcopal see, and in 350 a council against 
Arianism was held here. The town afterwards belonged to the Lombards. 
In 1200 it was given by Otho IV. to the Malatestas, who were at first 
vicegerents of the emperor, but afterwards hereditary princes. In 1503 they 
surrendered the town to the Venetians, from whom it was soon wrested by 
the Pope. — It was from the history of the Malatestas that Dante derived 
the episode of 'Francesca da Rimini' in the 5th canto of the Inferno, and 
Leigh Hunt the material for his 'Story of Rimini'. 

A broad road leads from the Station (PI. D, 4) to the gate, within 
which it is called the Via Principe Umberto. After 4 min. we follow 
the Via al Tempio Malatestiano to the left. 

*S. Francesco (Duomo , Tempio dei Malatesta; PI. 3; C, 5), 

(rfo^raph. Anwla.1 

Wa^u-r ,i'- Dfbes, l.riptif 

to Ancona. RIMINI. 11. Route. 85 

built in the 14th cent, in the Italian Gothic style, was magnificently 
remodelled in 1447-50 by Sigismundo Pandolfo Malatesta from 
designs by Leo Battista Alberti in the early-Renaissance style. It is 
one of Alberti's chief works, but of the facade unfortunately the 
lower part only has been completed. On the cornice are the arms 
of the Malatesta and families allied with them (the elephant and 
rose being the cognizances of Sigismundo and his wife Isotta). The 
seven vaults on the S. side contain sarcophagi of the poets, orators, 
philosophers, and warriors whom Sigis. Malatesta (d. 1468), the 
undaunted enemy of Pope Pius II., entertained at his court. 

The Interior, without aisles, has an open roof and large lateral 
chapels. The massive pilasters with rich ornamentation were designed by 
Alberti. To the right of the entrance is the monument of Sigismund. 
Between the first and second chapel on the right is the entrance of the 
Chapel of Relics (Santuario, shown by the sacristan), containing a "Fresco 
by Piero della Francesca C Petri de Burgo opus H5V): Sigismund Malatesta 
kneeling before his patron St. Sigismund , king of Hungary. In the Cap- 
pella di S. Michele, the 2nd to the right, is the tomb of Isotta (d. 1450), 
Sigismund's wife. — The first chapel to the left, restored in 1868, was 
destined by Sigismund for the reception of his ancestors and descendants, 
as the inscription on the sarcophagus on the left announces. 

From the small piazza in front of the church, the Via Patara 
leads S. to the Piazza Giulio Cbsarb (PI. C, 5), the ancient forum. 
A stone Pedestal here bears an inscription of 1555, to the effect 
that Caesar harangued his army from it after the passage of the Rubi- 
con (?). Near it is a chapel, on the spot where St. Anthony once 
preached, and another on the canal is said to mark the spot where 
the saint preached to the fishes because the people refused to hear 
him. — The Coaso d'Augusto, which intersects this piazza, leads to 
the left to the Porta Romana, and to the right to the Piazza Cavour 
and the bridge of Augustus. 

The *Pobta Romana or Arco d'Augusto (PI. D, 6) is a triumphal 
arch of travertine, of simple design, erected to Augustus in B.C. 
27 out of gratitude for the restoration of the Via Flaminia , as the 
inscription records (which, however, has been inaccurately restored ; 
the letters to the right outside the gate also belong to it). Above 
are medallion figures, on the outside those of Jupiter and Minerva, 
on the inside those of Neptune and Venus. — The scanty remains of 
an Amphitheatre (to which the Via dell' Anfiteatro, the second side- 
street of the Corso from the Porta Romana, leads) do not merit a visit. 

The Palazzo del Comune (PI. 9), in the Piazza Cavour, contains 
a small picture-gallery comprising an *Altar-piece by Domenico del 
Ghirlandajo, and a Pieta by Giovanni Bellini (about 1470). — In front 
of it rises a bronze Statue of Pope Paul V- (inscription on the pedestal 
obliterated). Beyond the Teatro Vittorio Emanuele(¥l. 10), erected in 
1857, is the ancient Palace of the Malatestas (' Castello Sigismondo'' ; 
PI. B, 5), now a prison, and in a very dilapidated condition. Their 
arms are still to be seen over the entrance. The town-wall, to the 
right of the palace, commands a fine view of the mountains. 

The Library (PI. 8 ; C, 5), in the Via Gambalunga to the E. of the 

86 Route 11. PESARO. From Bologna 

Piazza Cavour, founded in 1617 by the jurist Gambalunga, contains 
23,000 vols, and several MSS. An arcade in a court to the left, 
now half built up, contains Roman inscriptions and sculptures, 
among which are a female figure in relief, with thin, close-fitting 
drapery; a fine female head, etc. 

At the end of the Corso the Marecchia (the ancient Ariminus) 
is crossed by the five-arched *Pontb d'Augusto, one of the finest 
ancient structures of the kind. It leads to the Borgo S. Giuliano, 
where the Via ^Emilia united with the Via Flaminia, which led to 
Rome. Here, too, is situated the church of — 

<S. Giuliano (PI. 6; A, 3, 4), containing the Martyrdom of St. 
Julian, an altar-piece by Paolo Veronese, and an old picture by 
Lattanzio della Marca (1357), the Life of the saint. 

In the Castello di S. Leo, 18 SI. to the W. of Rimini, the notorious im- 
postor Cagliosiro (Giuseppe Balsamo) died in confinement in 1794. From 
S. Leo a bridle-path, much frequented by fishermen, leads by Camaldoli and 
Vallombrosa to Florence. 

About 12 SI. from Rimini is situated the ancient republic of San Ma- 
rino, the smallest in the world (32 sq. SI. in area, with 8000 inhab.), said 
to have been founded in an inaccessible wilderness by St. Marinus at the 
time of the persecutions of the Christians under Diocletian. This diminu- 
tive state braved all the storms of mediseval warfare, and even the ambition 
of the popes. It retained its ancient constitution till 1847, when its senate 
was converted into a chamber of deputies. The precipito\is rock in a 
bleak district on which the town (Albergo Bigi) is situated is reached by 
one road only from Rimini. The village of Borgo at. the base is the residence 
of the wealthier inhabitants. The celebrated epigraphist and numismatist 
Bartolommeo Borghesi, born at Savignano in 1781, was from 1821 until his 
death in 1860, a resident at S. Marino, where he arranged and described 
his admirable collections, and received visits from foreign savants. 

Beyond Rimini the line skirts the coast, passes (75Y2 M.) 
Riccione, crosses the streams Marano and Conca (the Crustumius 
Rapax of Lucan), and reaches (81 M. ) La Cattolica, so called from 
having been the residence of the Roman Catholic bishops during the 
Council of Rimini in 359. A chain of hills descends here to the 
sea ; the train ascends for some distance, and then passes through 
them by means of a long tunnel. It crosses the Tavollo and passes 
the Villa Vittoria , situated on the left , on the road to Rimini. We 
then cross the Foglia, the ancient Isaurus or Pisaurus, to — 

90 1 o M. Pesaro. — Albergo Zongo, near the Piazza, tolerable; 
starting-point of the diligence to TJrbino (see p. 87). — Caffh delta Piazza, 
in the piazza, next door to the Urbino diligence-office (4 fr.); del Com- 
mercio , in the Corso. — Carriage from the station to the town, one-horse 
80 c, two-horse 1 fr. ; one-horse carr. to Urbino about 12 fr. 

Pesaro, with 11,000 inhab. (with suburbs 21,000), the ancient 
Pisaurum, is the capital of the united provinces of Pesaro and Ur- 
bino, and formerly belonged to the Peutapolis Maritima (p. 84). 

Of the provinces of the former States of the Church situated on the 
Adriatic, the four southern arc called the Marches ('Le Marclie'"), viz. Pesaro- 
Urbino, Ancona, Macerata , and Asroli, comprising an area of 3750 sq.31., 
with 051,000 inhabitants. In the Roman period the S. part as far as An- 
cona was called Picenum, while the N. part belonged to i'mbria. — Pesaro, 
a Roman colony as early as B.C. 184, w;is destroyed by Totila, and rebuilt 
by Belisarius. It was afterwards gnverned by the Malatesta family, then 

to Ancona. PESARO. 11. Route. 87 

by the S/orza, and later by the Rovere, dukes of Urbino, under whom, chiefly 
through the influence of Lucrezia d'Este, it became a centre of art and lit- 
erature , and was visited by Bernardo and Torquato Tasso. In 1631 the 
town was annexed to the Papal States. — The figs of Pesaro are excellent. 

Pesaro was the birthplace of the celebrated composer Oioacchino 
Rossini (b. 1789, d. at Paris 1868), the 'swan of Pesaro', to whom 
a bronze statue (on the right as the station is quitted) was erected 
in 1864 by his admiring friends, Baron Salamanca of Madrid and 
G. Delahante of Paris. 

The road from the station to the town , to the right , passes 
the back of Rossini's monument , and enters by the same gate as 
the old diligence-road. To the left is the Teatro Rossini , and in a 
straight direction the Piazza , with the imposing Prefettura , the 
ancient palace of the dukes of Urbino. The great hall, 132 ft. long 
and 48 ft. wide, still contains a coffered wooden ceiling with its ori- 
ginal painting. — Opposite the Prefettura is a facade , erected in 
1848, with marble statues of Rossini and Perticari, behind which is the 
former church of S. Dornenico, of the 15th cent., with a fine portal. 

The Biblioteca Olivieri contains 13,000 vols, and 600 MSS., 
including reminiscences of the golden age of Pesaro under the dukes, 
letters and notes by Tasso, etc. There is also a small museum here. 
In the entrance, the court, and the staircase are a few sculptures and 
inscriptions (on the staircase is an interesting Greek inscription on 
the fluting of a Doric column). The Palazzo del Municipio, also in 
the Piazza (nearer the sea), contains an admirable Majolica Collec- 
tion, chiefly from the famous manufactory of Urbino (permesso from- 
the secretary of the Municipio required; best time about 11 a.m.). 

The Foglia is crossed by a bridge of Roman origin. 

None of the churches possess much merit. S. Francesco con- 
tains an *Enthroned Madonna by Giovanni Bellini , a work (about 
1470) in which the master first showed his skill in the recently in- 
vented art of oil-painting. S. Cassiano has a St. Barbara by Simone 
da Pesaro, S. Spirito a *Christ on the Cross by Luca Signorelli, and 
<S. Giovanni Evangelista a Pieta, by Zoppo. 

Opposite the spacious Lunatic Asylum (Municomio or Osphio 
degli Incurabili) are the small Orti Oiuli, where a bastion of the 
town- wall commands a fine view of the Foglia and Monte S. Bartolo. 
— A memorial tablet near it records that the house once stood here 
where Bernardo and Torquato Tasso lived and wrote their poetry 
whilst at the court of the Rovere. 

Near Pesaro is Monte S. Bartolo, where the Roman dramatist L. Attius 
is said to have been born and to be interred. Beyond it lies 'X'Imperiale, 
once a favourite villa of the dukes, erected by Leonora Gonzaga , praised 
by Bernardo Tasso, and adorned with frescoes by Raffaello dal Colle. It 
has recently been restored, but the larger unfinished building is in a ruin- 
ous condition. One of the finest *Views in the environs is obtained from 
an eminence behind the monastery. 

An Excursion to Urbino is best made from Pesaro. Diligence 
daily (fare 4fr.), ascending in 5, and descending in 4 hrs. ; depart- 

88 Route 11. URBINO. From Bologna 

ure from the Albergo Zongo at Pesaro between 1 and 3 p.m., accord- 
ing to the season, and from Urbino between 2 and 3 a.m. ; a post- 
conveyance also leaves Pesaro daily at 10 a.m. The road leads through 
the valley of the Foglia, which falls into the sea at Pesaro, and then 
ascends, passing several unimportant villages. At the inn 'del Cap- 
pone', halfway, the horses are changed. Beyond Moline the road as- 
cends in long windings. The diligence stops in the main street, flank- 
ed on the left by arcades, in which the inn and cafe' are situated. 
TJrbino (*Albergo dell' Italia), the ancient Urbinum Hortense, 
celebrated as the birthplace of the greatest painter of all ages, 
Raphael Santi (b. 28th March, 1483; d. at Rome, 6th April, 1520), 
lies on an abrupt hill, surrounded by barren mountains. The town, 
with 16,900 inhab. (incl. villages), has a university with as many 
professors as students, and merits a visit for the sake of its monu- 
ments and historical associations. The situation is picturesque. 

In the 13th cent, the town came into the possession of the Montefeltro 
family, and under Federigo Montefeltro (1444-82) and his son Guidobaldo 
(1482-1508) attained to such prosperity as entirely to eclipse the neigh- 
bouring courts of the Malatestas at Rimini and the Sforzas at Pesaro. 
Federigo Montefeltro, who distinguished himself as a condottiere in the feuds 
of the 15th cent., married his daughter in 1474 to Giovanni della Rovere, 
a nephew of Sixtus IV., and was in consequence created Duke of Urbino. 
His court was regarded as a model among the princely courts of that period. 
It was visited for shorter or longer periods by numerous scholars and ar- 
tists , amongst whom the prince was pre-eminent for learning. His son, 
Guidobaldo , in spite of ill health and other misfortunes , zealously fol- 
lowed his example , with the able assistance of his beautiful and ta- 
lented wife Elizabeta Gonzaga. A famous description of the court of Ur- 
bino under Guidobaldo, depicting it as the most refined social school of the 
day, is given by Count Baldassar Castiglione in his 'Cortigiano 1 , the ideal 
of a courtier. In 1497 Guidobaldo was expelled by Cesare Borgia, the son 
of Alexander VI., after whose death, however, he returned to Urbino in 
1503. He died in 1508 and bequeathed his dominions to his nephew Fran- 
cesco Maria della Rovere, the favourite of Pope Julius II. In 1626 the duchy 
was incorporated with the States of the Church , when Urban VIII. per- 
suaded the last and childless Duke Francesco Maria II. to abdicate. 

Amongst the most distinguished Artists employed at the court of Ur- 
bino, during the zenith of its splendour under Federigo and Guidobaldo, 
were Paolo Uccelli , Piero della Francesco, and Melozzo da Forli. Even for- 
eign painters , like Justus van Ghent , a picture by whom is still preserved 
in the gallery (see below), were attracted to the court. The peculiar bond 
of union which existed here between the interests of science and art is 
chieily exhibited in the library pictures or ideal portraits of scholars painted 
by Melozzo da Forli and others, but which have been removed from Urbino 
together with the library. Timoteo Viti, or della Vite, of Ferrara 
(1467-1523), the best pupil of Francesco Francia, spent the greater part of 
his life in Urbino; he was the first painter who exercised an influence on 
Raphael, but at a later period he himself became subject to that great 
master's magic spell. — The master, however, in whom we are now spe- 
cially interested, is Giovanni Santi of Urbino (? 1450-94), the father of 
Raphael, whose frescoes at Cagli (p. 93) and Fano (p. 91) show considerable 
power and a keen sense of the graceful. As Giovanni died when Ra- 
phael was in his 11th year, his son can hardly have had the benefit of his 
instruction. After his father's death, Raphael remained in Urbino till 1500, 
but under what tuition is unknown. Another native of Urbino was Fed- 
Eitiou Baroccio (1528-1612) , some of whose works are able , while others 
display the customary affectation of the post-Raphaelite period. 

to Ancona. URBINO. 11. Route. 89 

In the centre of the town is the Pian del Mercato , or market- 
place, where the street in which the inn is situated ends. — The 
Via Pucinotti ascends hence to the right in a few minutes to a larger, 
but somewhat dull piazza, with the cathedral and ducal palace. 
The Cathedral contains some interesting pictures. 

In the K. Aisle a St. Sebastian by Federigo Baroccio. In the Chapel 
to the left of the high -altar, the Lord's Supper, also by Fed. Baroccio. 
High-altar-piece: SS. Martin and Thomas a Beckett, with a portrait of 
Duke Guidobaldo , by Timoteo Viti. In the sacristy is a Scourging of 
Christ by Piero della Francesca, elaborately executed in the miniature 
style. — The Crypt (entered from the right corner of the small piazza be- 
tween the cathedral and the palace) possesses a Pieta by Oiov. da Bologna. 

The **Ducal Palace, erected by Luciano Laurana of Dalmatia 
in 1468 by order of Federigo Montefeltro , was completed by 
Baccio Pintelli. The requirement of strength , coupled with the 
unevenness of the ground , has given rise to the irregularity of the 
building, but at the same time has enhanced its picturesqueness. 
The palace has always been much admired, and was regarded 
by the contemporaries of the founder as an embodiment of their ideal 
of a princely residence. According to modern standards, however, 
its dimensions are not grand, and even the court by Baccio, the en- 
trance to which is opposite the cathedral, is pleasing rather than 
imposing. The ornamentation of the apartments , the coloured 
friezes , the pillars and chimney-pieces (by Francesco di Giorgio of 
Siena and Ambrosio Baroccio, an ancestor of the painter), are all in 
the best Renaissanoe style. On the staircase is a statue of Duke 
Federigo, by Girol. Campagna. The celebrated library of the palace, 
founded by Federigo , and the other collections have been trans- 
ferred to Rome. The upper corridors contain a well-arranged col- 
lection of inscriptions from Rome and the Umbrian municipia, 
established by the epigraphist Fabretti. The palazzo is now used 
as a 'Residenza Oovernativa', and contains the archives. The Italian 
government has voted a considerable sum for the restoration of the 

Opposite the palace rises an Obelisk, facing which is the church 
of S. Domenico , with a pleasing portal and reliefs in terracotta 
above the door. 

We pass the Palazzo Ducale and proceed in a straight direction. 
The street contracts ; the comer house to the right, opposite the 
palace, is the University, with armorial bearings over the door. 
Farther on, descending a little, we come to the entrance (standing 
back from the street to the right) of the — 

Instittjto delle Belle Arti nelle Marchb, which contains 
a gallery of pictures, recently collected from suppressed churches 
and monasteries (custodian's fee '/2 f r 0- 

Principal Saloon. Right and left of the door : Lorenzo da San Se- 
verino, Crucifixion (repulsive). On the principal wall to the right : Timoteo 
Viti, St. Rochus ; 76. Justus van Ghent, Holy Communion, interesting from 
its numerous portraits (including Duke Federigo, and, to the right of the 
table, Caterino Zeno, the Persian ambassador), 1474; 79. Timoteo Viti, To- 

90 Route 11. URBINO. From Bologna 

bias; "82. Giovanni Sanli, Madonna with John the Baptist, SS. Sebastian, 
Jerome, Francis, and three kneeling donors, members of the Buffi family ; 
93. Timoleo Vili, Madonna and Child with St. Joseph; 101. Antonio Alberti of 
Ferrara, Madonna with twelve saints, stiff figures on a gold ground (1439); 
"102. Oiov. Sand, Pieta; 114, 115. Early Venetian School, Madonna and saints. 
On the main wall to the left: Titian, 140. Holy Communion, 158. Resur- 
rection, rapidly painted in advanced life. 

The Ground Floor contains casts, chiefly of ornaments from the Pa- 
lazzo Ducale , several original monuments of Dukes of Urbino from S. 
Francesco, and some fine majolicas. 

In the Contrada Raffaello , leading to the left from the 
market-place to the Fortezza, No. 275-278 on the left, with an in- 
scription, is the house in which Raphael was born. It was purchased 
in 1873 at the suggestion of Count Pompeo Gherardi , aided by a 
donation from Mr. Morris Moore, and now belongs to the 'R. Acca- 
demia Raffaello'. Visitors knock at the door of No. 278 ('/2 ft 0- 

The rooms are adorned with engravings from Raphael's pictures. In 
the room to the right is a Madonna with the sleeping Child (retouched) 
long regarded as an early work of Raphael, but ascertained to have been 
executed by his father Giovanni Sanli. It is proposed to erect in his native 
town a monument worthy of the great master, for which purpose a com- 
mittee was constituted some years ago. 

A little farther up the Contrada Raffaello we turn to the right 
into the side-street of S. Lucia, which leads to the church of S. Spi- 
rito, containing a *Cruciflxion and *Descent of the Holy Ghost by 
Luca Signorelli, originally a church-banner, of 1495. 

Returning to the market-place , and descending the Via Bal- 
bona, we follow the Via della Posta Vecchia, the first side-street to 
the right, and then the Via S. Giovanni, the first street to the left, 
which leads straight to the Oratorio della Confraternitil di S. Gio- 
vanni. The walls of the interior are covered with scenes from the 
history of the Virgin and John the Baptist , by Lorenzo da S. Seve- 
rino and his brother, of the school of Giotto (1416). 

In the Theatre , once famous for its decorations by Girolamo 
Genga, the first Italian comedy was performed. This was the Ca- 
landra of Cardinal Bibbiena (1470-1514), the friend of Pope LeoX. 
and patron of Raphael. 

The hill of the old Fortezza (ascend the Contrada Raffaello , at 
the top take the Via dei Maceri to the left, and knock at No. 1461 ; 
fee 25-50 e.) commands an interesting *Survey of the barren chain 
of the Apennines. A powder-magazine now stands at the top. 

About 1 M. to the E. of Urbino, to the left of the Pesaro road, 
are situated the conspicuous old monastery and church of S. Ber- 
nardino, with the new cemetery of Urbino. This spot commands a 
flue view of the town. The church contains the tombs of the Dukes 
Federigo and Guidobaldo, with their busts. 

From Urbino to Fossombrone (p. 93) ll'/ 2 M. ; no regular communi- 
cation (carriage 10 fr.). The 'Corriere del Furlo' passes through Fossom- 
bronc at 11 a.m. Carriage from Urbino to Oubbio 40 fr. (comp. p. 92). 
From Urbino to Vrbania, the ancient Urbimtm Metaurense , later Castel 
Durante , which was probably the birthplace of Bramante, diligence daily 
at 3 p.m., corresponding with others to S. Angelo, Citta di Castello (p. 54), etc. 

to Ancona. FANO. 11. Route. 91 

The Rail-way from Pesaro to Ancona skirts the coast, oc- 
casionally approaching close to the sea , of which a pleasant view 
is afforded. 

98 M. Fano (*Albergo del Moro , R. ll/ 2 , B. l/ 2 ft. J , the 
Fanum Fortunae of antiquity, is indebted for its origin to a temple 
of Fortune, a fact commemorated by a modern statue of fortune on 
the public fountain. It afterwards prospered, and is now a pleasant 
little town (20,000 inhab., incl. suburbs), surrounded by ancient 
walls and a deep moat. The once celebrated harbour is now unim- 
portant. Pope Clement VIII. (Aldobrandini) was bom at Fano in 
1536. The first printing-press with Arabic type was set up here in 
1514 at the cost of Pope Julius II. As a sea-bathing place Fano is 
less expensive than Rimini. 

In the centre of the town is the Piazza, in which rises the 
Theatre, formerly one of the most famous in Italy, erected by To- 
relli, a native architect, and decorated by Bibbiena (d. 1774), but 
recently almost entirely rebuilt. One of the rooms contains a David 
with the head of Goliath, by Domenichino (formerly in the Collegio 
Nolfi), which unfortunately was much injured by thieves in 1871. 

The S. side of the Piazza, which is enlivened by a fountain of 
flowing water, is skirted by the Corso. Following the latter to the 
right , we reach the Via dell' Arco d' Augusto , the second cross- 
street to the left. In a small piazza here rises the Cathedral of 
S. Forttjnato, the four recumbent lions in front of which formerly 
supported the pillars of the portico. 

In the Interior the chapel of S. Girolamo (the 2nd to the left) contains 
a monument of the Rainalducci family ; nearly opposite (4th to the right) 
is a chapel adorned with sixteen frescoes by Domenichino, once admirable, 
now disfigured by restoration. — In the chapel of the sacristy, a Madonna 
with saints, by L. Carracci. 

Farther on we come to the *Arch of Atjqustus, which spans 
the street, a structure of simple design, to which a second story 
was added in the 4th cent. , when it was re-dedicated to Constan- 
tine. It once had three openings, as is shown by a view of it on 
the adjacent church of S. Michele. — Adjoining the arch towards 
the town is the Spedale degli Esposti, a pleasing edifice with logge. 

Returning to the piazza, we follow the Via Boccaccio opposite the 
fountain, and then take the Via Bonaccorsi, inclining to the left, to 
the church of S. Maria Nuova, with portico. 

Interior. 1st chapel on the left: Giov. Santi, Salutation; 2nd chapel: 
Perugino , Annunciation, 1498. 3rd chapel on the right: ~Perugino, Ma- 
donna and saints, 1497; admirable predella, recalling Kaphael's style. 

8. Croce , the hospital-church, contains a *Madonna with four 
saints, by Giovanni Santi. — S. Paterniano, dedicated to the first 
bishop of Fano, a handsome structure, possesses a Betrothal of the 
Virgin, by Guercino. — S. Pietro is an imposing and richly-decorated 
church, with frescoes by Viviani; in the chapel of the Gabrielli (1st 
on the left) an Annunciation by Guido Reni. — In the vestibule of 
<S. Francesco (closed) are some monuments of the Malatesta (1488). 

92 Route 11. S1NIGAGLIA. 

Pope Clement VIII. (Aldobrandini) was born at Fano in 1536. 
The first printing-press with Arabic types was established here in 
1514 at the expense of Pope Julius II. 

Interesting excursion to the Monte Oiove, by a good road (4 M.). At 
the top is a monastery, where visitors nre lodged. Splendid view of the 

From Fano to Fossato by Fossombrone and the Furlo Pass, see p. 93. 

Beyond Fano the train crosses the river Metaurus (see below), 
celebrated as the scene of Hasdrubal's defeat (B.C. 207); then the 
Cesano, near (105 M.) stat. Marotta. 

1 12 M. Sinigaglia or Senigallia (*Albergo Roma, near the har- 
bour; Trattoria del Giardino, near the Municipio), the ancient Sena 
Gallica, with 22,500 inhab. (including villages), chiefly occupied 
in fishing. The town was destroyed by Pompey during the Civil 
War between Marius and Sulla. It was an episcopal see as early as 
the 4th cent., but was afterwards frequently devastated by fire and 
sword, so that it now presents quite a modern appearance. Pope 
Pius IX. (Conte Mastai-Ferretti) was born here on 13th May, 1792 
(d. 1878). A fair, instituted in the 13th cent., is held here from 
30th July to 8th Aug. annually ; it was once the most frequented 
in Italy, but has long since lost its importance. In summer Sini- 
gaglia is a favourite sea-bathing place. — The monastery-church of 
8. Maria delle Grazie (2 M. distant) contains in the choir a picture 
by Perugino (retouched), and over the 3rd altar on the right a 
small Madonna by Fra Carnevale. 

119'/ 2 M. Montemarciano. Pleasant view of the promontory of 
Ancona , rising from the sea. The train crosses the Esino and 
readies (122 M.) stat. Falconara, where the line to Rome diverges 
(passengers in the latter direction change carriages ; see R. 14). 
The town lies on the hill to the right. 

127 M. Ancona, see R. 13. New station, completed in 1879. 

12. From Fano through the Furlo Pass to Fossato. 

The high-road which connects Rome with the Valley of the Po traverses 
the Umbrian plains of Terni and Spoleto, and then ascends the valley of 
the Topino and the Chiascio , until it reaches its culminating point on the 
Apennines. Descending on the E. side of that range, it follows the course 
of the Metaurus to its mouth at Fano , skirts the coast, and leads N. to 
Bologna and the valley of the Po. It is identical with the ancient Via 
Flaminia, constructed in B.C. 220 by the Censor C. Flaminius (who fell 
at the Battle of the Trasimene Lake, see p. 44), in order to secure pos- 
session of the district of the Po which had been recently wrested from the 
Gauls. This road is still one of the most important in Central Italy, but 
since the completion of the Apennine Railway from Bologna to Florence, 
and of the line from Ancona to Rome (R. 14), it has been little frequented by 
tourists. It passes through attractive scenery and several interesting towns. 

Cokiueke daily from Fano to Fossato in lli/j hrs.; dep. from Fano at 
S.30 a.m., arr. at Fossombrone 11 a.m., at Cagli 3 p.m., at Schieggia 
6.30 p.m. and at Fossato 9 p.m. — Those who desire to make the inter- 
esting circuit by Gubbio must hire a carriage at Schieggia. — The most 

FOSSOMBRONE. 12. Route. 93 

attractive plan of making the whole tour is to combine it with a visit to 
Ukbino: 1st day, from Pesaro to Urbino; 2nd day, one-horse carriage to 
Fossombrone (in 2>/2 hrs., 10 fr.), corriere to Schieggia, one-horse carriage 
to Gubbio; 3rd day, by diligence or carriage to Fossato , and thence by 
train to Foligno and Eome. 

Fano, see p. 91. The road, the ancient Via Flaminia, quits 
Fano by the Arch of Augustus and the Porta Maggiore, and skirts 
the N. bank of the Metaurus, the fertile valley of which is well cul- 
tivated. About 1 M. from Fossombrone, near the church of S. Mar- 
tina al Piano, was once situated the Roman colony of Forum Sem- 
pronii, of which but scanty remains now exist. After its destruction 
by the Goths and Lombards, the modern Fossombrone sprang up. 

I51/2 M. Fossombrone (Ire Re; Pavone), long in possession of 
the Malatesta family, accrued to the States of the Church under 
Sixtus IV. It is now a busy little town with 9000 inhab. and silk- 
factories, prettily situated in the valley, which contracts here, and 
commanded by a castle. Ancient inscriptions on the cathedral, in 
the Seminary, etc. — From Fossombrone to Urbino, see p. 90. 

The Via Flaminia about 2 M. from Fossombrone crosses the 
Metaurus, which descends from the valley near S. Angelo in Vado 
from the N., and follows the left bank of the Candigliano, which 
at this point empties itself into the Metaurus. The valley soon 
contracts; to the right rises the hill of Pietralata, occasionally 
named Monte d'Asdrubale. Here, according to the popular tradition, 
was fought the memorable battle of the Metaurus in which, B.C. 
207, Hasdrubal, whilst marching to the aid of his brother Hannibal 
with 60,000 men, was signally defeated and slain by the consuls 
Livius Salinator and Claudius Nero. This was the great event 
which decided the 2nd Punic War in favour of Rome. 

The valley now becomes still more confined and is bounded by 
precipitous slopes. At the narrowest part, where the rocky walls 
approach so near each other as to leave space for the river only, 
is the celebrated * Furlo Pass (Furlo from forulus = passage, the 
ancient petra intercisa), a tunnel 17 ft. wide, 14ft. high, and" about 
32 yds. in length. The founder of the work was the Emp. Ves- 
pasian, as the inscription preserved at the N. entrance records (Imp. 
Caesar. Augustus. Vespasianus. pont. max. trib. pot. VII. imp. 
XXVIII. cos. VIII. censor, faciund. curavit). 

A little beyond it is the small church Badia del Furlo. At 
the confluence of the Candigliano and Burano, 9 M. from Fossom- 
brone , lies the village of Acqualagna. The road crosses the Can- 
digliano and then follows the left bank of the Burano. At the foot 
of the hill on which Cagli is situated , an antique bridge, built of 
huge masses of rock, crosses a tributary brook. 

31 M. Cagli (Posfa, in the Piazza, charges according to bar- 
gain) occupies the site of the ancient borough of Cales, or Calle. 
8. I)omenico contains one of the chief works of Giovanni Santi, 
Raphael's father, a Madonna with saints, al fresco. The angel on the 

94 Route 12. GUBBIO. From Funo 

right of the Madonna is said to be a portrait of the young Raphael. 
Also a Pieta with St. Jerome and Bonaventura, by the same master. 
<S. Francesco and <S. Angelo Minore also possess several pictures. 

Travellers beyond Oagli are generally conveyed in smaller car- 
riages. About 6 M. beyond Cagli is Cantiano , -with 3000 inhab. ; 
the church della Collegiata contains a Holy Family by Perugino. — 
The road ascends rapidly, and reaches the height of the pass, 
2400 ft. above the sea. A little before arriving at Schieggia the road 
crosses a ravine by the curious Ponte a Botte, constructed in 1805. 

43 1 /.) M. Schieggia, an insignificant place, lies at the junction 
of theFossato andFoligno, and theGubbio roads. On Monte Petrara, 
in the vicinity, stand the ruins of the celebrated temple of Jupiter 
Apenninus, whose worship was peculiar to the Umbrians. Several 
bronzes and inscriptions have been discovered in the environs. 
Picturesque oak-plantations in the neighbourhood. 

The main road continues to descend the green valley of the 
Chiascio, and leads by Costacciaro and Sigillo (stalactite caves) to — 

55 M. Fossato, a station on the Ancona and Rome line, p. 101. 

From Schieggia to Gubbio, and thence to Fossato. 

Between Schieggia and Gubbio (about 6 M.) there is no regular 
communication ; one-horse carriage 5 fr. and a gratuity (in the reverse di- 
rection 6 fr.). — Gubbio alone is most conveniently visited from the Fos- 
sato station (p. 101) with which it communicates three times daily by 
diligence (in 2>/2 hrs. ; fare 2 fr. ; oflice at Gubbio, Corso 28 ; carriage 10 fr.). 

The hilly road between Schieggia and Gubbio ascends towards 
the S.W. The highest mountains visible are the Monte Cucco and 
the Monte d'Ansciano. After a good hour's drive we reach the sum- 
mit of Monte Calvo (2970 ft. J. The road then descends rapidly in a 
ravine, bounded by precipitous rocks, at the end of which lies 
Gubbio (a drive of 25 min. from the pass) ; to the left is the ancient 
aqueduct of Gubbio. 

Gubbio {Leone d'Oro, bargaining necessary; Rosetta , primi- 
tive, but clean and cheap; both in the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele), 
with 5000 inhab., lies at the foot and on the slopes of Monte Calvo. 
The town presents quite a mediaeval appearance , and the proximity 
of the Apennines also give it a different character from most other 
Italian towns. Conspicuous among the houses is the huge Palazzo 
dei Consoli, and above them towers the church of S. Ubaldo. 

Gubbio is the ancient Jguvium or Eugubium, mentioned by Cicero and 
Csesar. It was destroyed by the Goths, was besieged in 1155 by the Emp. 
Frederick I., then became an independent state, afterwards belonged to the 
duchy of Urbino, and with it finally accrued to the States of the Church. 

Gubbio was the native place of Oderisi, a famous miniature painter 
(d. about 1300), who is called by Dante in his Purgatorio (xi,80) TOnor 
d'Agobbio' ; but no authentic work by his hand now exists. In the 14th 
and 15th cent, a branch of the Umbrian school flourished here, and among 
its masters, whose renown extended even beyond their native place, were 
Guiuu Palmeeccci (1280-1345?) and several members of the Nelli family, 
particularly Ottaviano Nelli (d. 1444). — Gubbio occupies a still more 
important page in the history of Artistio Handicrafts. Like Urbino, 

to Oubbio. GUBBIO. 12. Route. 95 

Pesaro, and Faenza, it was noted for the manufacture of Majolica, or earthen- 
ware vases and tiles which were covered with a white coating of colour 
before being baked. One of the most distinguished majolica painters was 
'Maestro Giorgio' of Gubbio, who is said to have invented, or rather re- 
discovered and perfected, the metallic, ruby-coloured glazing for which the 
Italian majolicas are remarkable. 

At the bottom of tlie spacious Piazza Vittorio Emanuele is the 
church of 8. Francesco. We ascend hence by old-fashioned streets 
to the Piazza della Signoria, on the slope of the hill, supported 
by massive vaults, where the most conspicuous building is the — 

*Palazzo dei Consoli, a huge pinnacled edifice with a tower, 
erected in 1332-46 by Giovunello Maffei of Gubbio, surnamed 
Gattapone, and at present disused. The ground-floor contains two 
slabs with Etruscan inscriptions. Fine *View from the roof (fee 
l /2 fr.). — Opposite rises the — 

Palazzo Pretorio, now 'Residenza Municipale', containing 
several collections recently united here (fee 1 /%-l fr.). 

On the first floor are the so-called Eugubian Tablets, which were dis- 
covered in 1440 near the ancient theatre. They are of bronze, and bear 
inscriptions, four in Umbrian, and three in Latin characters, which long 
baffled the investigation of the learned. They contain in the TJmbrian 
language, an old Italian dialect akin to Latin, liturgical regulations and 
formulae of nearly uniform import, dating from different periods. The 
older, in the Umbrian character, are read from right to left. The later, in 
Latin letters, date from about the 2nd cent. B.C. 

The upper saloon (handsome door) contains a number of pictures, 
including several fine works, chiefly of the Umbrian school; admirable 
Wood-carving of the 15th and 16th cent.; cabinets, chairs, and a num- 
ber of ancient and modern ^Majolicas. 

The third side of the piazza is occupied by the modern Palazzo 
Bangliiasci-Brancaleone, the property of the Marchese of that name, 
who has a valuable collection of pictures (including a *Coronation 
of the Virgin, by Nardini of Forli] and antiquities. Conte Fabiani- 
Beni, Piazza S. Martino, also possesses several good pictures. 

Ascending the Via dei Duchi to the left, and then following the 
Via di S. Ubaldo, we reach the *Palazzo dei Duchi, an old Go- 
thic edifice, which was remodelled by Luciano Laurana, the archi- 
tect of the palace of Urbino. The colonnaded court is almost an 
exact reproduction of that of Urbino. The interior is quite a ruin. 

Opposite the entrance to the court of the Pal. dei Duchi rises 
the Cathedral of S. Mariano and Jacopo Martire , a structure 
of the 13th cent., destitute of aisles and so built against the slope 
of the hill that its back is embedded in the ground. The facade is 
adorned with early mediaeval sculptures of the Four Evangelists. 

Among the pictures in the interior (first altar on the left) is a Ma- 
donna with SS. Ubaldo and Sebastian, by Sinibaldo Ibi of Gubbio. By 
the 2nd altar a ^Coronation of Mary Magdalene by Timoteo della Vile. The 
sacristy contains a Flemish vestment, presented by Pope Marcellus II. 

The church of S. Maria Nuova, situated near the E. end of the 
Via delle Fonti, running above and parallel with the Corso , at the 
corner of the Via Nelli, contains an admirably-preserved Madonna 
by Ottaviano Nelli, 1403. 

96 Route 13. ANCONA. Environs 

S. Pietro, S. Domenico, S. Agostino (frescoes in the choir ascribed 
to Ottaviano Nelli), and S. Maria della Piaggiola (outside the Porta 
Vittoria ; over the high-altar, *Madonna by Gentile da Fabriano), 
also contain pictures of the same period. 

The ancient town extended farther into the plain than the mo- 
dern. Among the ruins still existing is a Theatre, discovered in 
1863, apparently of the republican era. 

It is not entirely excavated, but part of the external row of arches is 
preserved, and the stage, facing the town, is distinctly traceable. (We quit 
the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele bv the Porta Trasimeno, turn to the right, 
and lastly pass through a modern gateway on the left, towards a farm.) 

The road to Fossato, 11 M., skirts the foot of the range of hills, 
and then passes through a defile into the level valley of the Chiascio 
in which Fossato is situated, see p. 101. 

From Gubbio to Perdgia by the high-road 25 M. (carr. in 6 hrs., 
30 fr.) ; bleak hill-country. The route via Fossato and Foligno is pleasanter. 

13. Ancona and its Environs. Osimo. Loreto. 

Hotels. 'Vittoria (Pl.b; C, D, 3), in the Corso ; kept by Pietro 
Ragni, newly fitted up, R. 2, B. 1, D. 4, L. & A. 1, omn. 1 fr.; Alb. Reale 
della Pace (PI. a; C, 3), on the quay, R. 3y 2 , D. 4, omn. 1 fr., L. 60, A. 
60 c; ,: MiLANo (PI. c; C, 4), Corso di Porta Pia, commercial, with restau- 
rant and garden. Hotel-omnibuses at the station. — Gaffe del Commercio 
at the theatre; Dorico, opposite the Exchange (p. 98). 

Post Office (PI. 20; 8-8 o'clock), Piazza Roma. — Telegraph Office, 
Via del Porto. 

Cabs. One-horse cab from station to town , incl. luggage, 1, at night 
I1/2 fr. ; two-horse f/2 or 2 fr. — For 1 hr. li/ 2 -2 fr.; each 1/2 hr. more, 
60-80 e. — Beyond the town, 2 fr. 50 or 3 fr. 60 c. for 1 hr. ; each 1/2 *"•■ 
more, 1 fr. 15 or 1 fr. 70 c. 

Steamboats of the Peninsular and Oriental Company on Sat. mornings 
to Brindisi and Alexandria; on Sun. to Venice. Societa Riunite Florio- 
Rubattino, on Mon. mornings to Zara in Dalmatia, in 9 hrs. ; on Mon. 
afternoons to Tremiti, Viesti, Bari, Brindisi, the Pirams, and Constanti- 
nople; on Tues. nights to Venice, in 12 hrs. Austrian Lloyd, to Zara and 
Fiume every alternate Sat. ; to Trieste every alternate Sunday. 

Sea Baths, near the railway -station. Warm Baths, Piazza Stamura 
(PI. E 4). 

' Ancona, the capital of a province, with 28,000 inhab. (incl. 
suburbs 47,700), of whom upwards of 6000 are Jews, and possessing 
an excellent harbour, is beautifully situated between the promon- 
tories of Monte Astagno (PL C, 6) and Monte Quasco (PI. C, 1). 
Since 1860 the government has improved the harbour and endeav- 
oured to foster the trade of Ancona, but business has declined 
somewhat of late years. Silk and oil are largely manufactured here. 
Ancona was founded by Doric Greeks from Syracuse, and thence named 
Dorica Ancon (i. e. 'elbow', from the form of the promontory). It was 
afterwards a Roman colony, and the harbour was enlarged by Trajan. In 
the middle ages it repeatedly recovered from the ravages of the Goths and 
others, and in 1532 was made over by Gonzaga to Pope Clement VII., who 
built a fort and garrisoned it. Ancona is also frequently mentioned as a 
fortress in modern history. Thus in 1796 it was surrendered to the French, 
in 1799 to the Austrians, in 1805 to the French again; and in 1815 it was 
ceded to the pope, to whom it belonged till 1860. In 1832-38 the citadel 
was garrisoned by the French, to keep in check the Austrians, who held 

alia. Station!, delta. Ferrori t- / B 

Gcogxajih An stall tdtl 

Wagner & Debes,Teipzi£ 

of Ancona. ANCONA. 13. Route. 97 

Bologna and the surrounding provinces. In 1849 the town revolted, but on 
18th June was re-captured by the Austrians. On 20th Sept., 1860, after the 
Battle of Castelfldardo (p. 98), it was finally occupied by the Italians. 

The Harbour, an oval basin of about 990 by 880 yds. in dia- 
meter, is considered one of the best in Italy. A handsome quay, 
called the Banchine, has recently been completed. The N. pier 
is of ancient Roman origin. At the beginning of it rises the well- 
preserved marble "Triumphal Arch. (PI. 2; B, 1), erected A.D. 112 
by the Roman senate in honour of Trajan on the completion of the 
new quays, as the inscription records. The holes to which its ori- 
ginal bronze enrichments were attached are still observed. The 
new pier constructed by Pope Clement XII. , a continuation of the 
old, also boasts of a Triumphal Arch (PI. 1 ; B, 1), designed by Van- 
vitelli, but far inferior to the other. Its facade is towards the sea 
and has no inscription. At the S. angle of the harbour is the old 
Lazzaretto, built in 1732 , now a bonded warehouse (Magazzini 
Generali, PI. B, 5). The harbour is defended by several forts. 

The "Cathedral of S. Ciriaco (PI. 6 ; C, 1), dedicated to the first 
bishop of Ancona, stands on the Monte Guasco (PI. C, 1), one of 
the above-named promontories , which shelters the harbour from 
the N.E., and an excellent point of view. The church occupies the 
site of a temple of Venus mentioned by Catullus and Juvenal, and 
contains ten beautiful columns which once belonged to the ancient 
temple. Like St. Mark's at "Venice, it is in a mixed Lombard and 
Oriental style of architecture , and in the form of a Greek cross, 
each of the arms being flanked with aisles. The octagonal dome 
over the centre of the cross is one of the oldest in Italy. The facade 
(13th cent.), ascribed to Margaritone d'Arezzo, has a beautiful Go- 
thic portico, the foremost columns of which rest on red lions. 

The Cktpt or the Right Transept contains the "Sarcophagus of Titus 
Gorgonius, Prsetor of Ancona , with scenes from the life of Christ (the 
Nativity, Adoration, Baptism, Entry into Jerusalem, Christ before Pilate, 
Christ as Judge, Christ and the apostles with Gorgonius and his wife at 
the Saviour's feet), and other Christian antiquities (Mary and two saints, 
head of Christ of 1213, Entombment in painted terracotta, etc.). — The 
Crypt of the Left (modernised) Transept contains the tombs of SS. Cyria- 
cus, Marcellinus, and Liberius, in the rococo style. 

Within a house at the foot of the cathedral are scanty remains 
of a Roman Amphitheatre. 

ThePalazzo Comunale (PI. 15; C, 2) contains a few unimportant 
Roman antiquities, and several ancient and modern pictures. 

The Strada delle Scuole descends thence to the left, to the 
church of S. Francesco (PI. 9 ; D, 3 ; now a barrack) , resting on a 
massive substructure, with a very rich Gothic *Portal. — The street 
next leads (r.) to the Prefettura. In front of the fine Renais- 
sance archway leading into the court we turn to the right (Contr. 
della Catena) to the church of S. Maria delta Piazza (PL 11 ; C, 3), 
with its peculiar Romanesque-Lombard *Fa^ade of the 12th cent, 
and traces of a projected portico. The choir contains a *Madonna 
with saints, by Lorenzo Lotto. — We now return through the 

Baedeker. Italy II. 8th Edition. 7 

98 Route 13. OSIMO. Environs 

Prefettura (with fine pointed arcades to the left in the court) to the 
Piazza Maggiore, or di S. Domenico (PI. D, 3), surrounded by lofty 
houses and adorned with a statue of Clement XII (Corsini, 1730-40). 
The church of S. Domenico (PI. 7) contains two pictures by Titian 
(in the choir and over the last altar on the right) and a very large As- 
sumption by Lor. Lotto (first altar on the right). 

The street quitting the piazza on the side opposite the statue 
leads to the *Loggia dei Mercanti (Exchange, PI. 14; C, 3), an early- 
Gothic edifice with Moorish touches, by Tibaldi ; over the door is 
an equestrian statue. — The street to the left leads to the Piazza 
del Teatro (PI. C, 3), the centre of business, beyond which is S. 
Agostino, with a late-Gothic portal showing a Renaissance tendency. 

From the Piazza del Teatro the well -paved Corso Vittorio 
Emanuele (PI. C, D, 4) ascends towards the E., through the new 
quarters of the town. At the end is the spacious Piazza Cavour, 
with a colossal statue of the minister in the centre (PI. 21 ; E, 4). 

Excursions prom Ancona. 

The Province of Ancona, the ancient Picenum, is a remarkably fertile 
district, replete with beautiful scenery. The Apennines send forth a series 
of parallel spurs towards the sea, forming a number of short, but pictur- 
esque valleys. The towns and villages are invariably situated conspicuously 
on the heights. To the W. the view is bounded by the Central Apen- 
nines , which here attain their greatest elevation in several continuous 
ranges, from the Montagna della Sibilla to the Gran Sasso tpltalia (9817 ft.), 
and are covered with snow till July. Towards the E. glitters the broad 
Adriatic, on which numerous sails are visible in clear weather. 

On the coast, 9 M. to the S. of Ancona, rises the * Monte 
Conero (1763 ft.), with an old Camaldulensian monastery, com- 
manding a superb panorama. The pedestrian follows a tolerable 
road over the coast-hills nearly to (7 M.) Sirolo (2000 inhab.), 
whence a path to the left ascends in 3 / 4 hr. to the top. A carriage 
(see p. 96) may be taken as far as the foot of the hill. 

The Ancona-Foggia Railway (to Loreto, 15 M., in 36-53 min., 
fares 2 fr. 70, 1 fr. 90, 1 fr. 45 c. ; to Porto Civitanova, 27 M., in 
1 hr. 5 min. to 13/ 4 hr.) penetrates the heights enclosing Ancona by 
means of a tunnel. To the left, Monte Conero. 4 M. Varano. 

10 M. Osimo {Albergo della Corona , in the market-place ; om- 
nibus from the station to the town, 2 l /z M., 60 c), the ancient 
Auximum, colonised by the Romans B.C. 157, and mentioned by 
Caesar, is now a country-town with 5000 inhab. , and lies on a hill 
in a commanding position. The greater part of the *Town Wall, 
dating from the 2nd cent. B.C. , still exists. A walk round it affords 
a beautiful view. The Palazzo Pubblico in the large Piazza contains 
inscriptions and statues of celebrated natives of the place, dating 
from the imperial epoch, but barbarously mutilated on the occasion 
of the capture of the town in the 16th century. One of the inscrip- 
tions mentions Pompey, who resided at Picenum. 

Proceeding hence by railway, we perceive, to the right, Castel- 

of Ancona. LORETO. 13. Route. 99 

fidardo, where on 18th Sept. 1860, the papal troops under Lamo- 
riciere were totally defeated by the Italians under Cialdini. 

15 M. Loreto [Campanella, or Posta, in the principal street; 
Pace ; omnibus to the town 60 c), situated on a hill at some dis- 
tance from the line, and affording admirable *Views of the sea, 
the Apennines , and the province of Ancona, is a celebrated resort 
of pilgrims (nearly half a million annually). It consists of little 
more than a single long street , full of booths for the sale of rosa- 
ries, medals, images, etc., and is much infested by beggars. 

According to the legend, the house of the Virgin at Nazareth became 
an object of profound veneration after the year 336, when the aged 
Empress Helena, mother of Constantine, made a pilgrimage thither, and 
caused a basilica to be erected over it. Owing to the incursions of the 
Saracens the basilica fell to decay , and after the loss of Ptolemais the 
Casa Santa was miraculously transplanted by the hands of angels in 1291 
to the coast of Dalmatia (the precise spot being between Fiume and 
Tersato), where it remained undisturbed during three years. For some un- 
known reason, however, it was again removed by angels during the night, 
and deposited near Recanati, on the ground of a certain widow Laureta 
(whence the name Loreto). A church was erected over it, and houses soon 
sprang up for the accommodation of the believers who flocked to the spot. 
In 1586 Pope Sixtus V. accorded to Loreto the privileges of a town. 

Among the numerous pilgrims who have visited this spot may be 
mentioned Tasso, who thus alludes to it : — 

k Ecco fra le tempeste, e i fieri venti 

Di questo grande e spazioso mare, 

santa Stella, il tuo splendor m'ha scorto, 

Ch? illustra e scalda pur Vumane mentf. 

The *Chiesa della Casa Santa has been repeatedly restored 
since 1464. The handsome facade was erected under Sixtus V., a 
colossal statue of whom adorns the entrance flight of steps. Over 
the principal door is a life-size statue of the Madonna and Child, 
by Oirolamo Lombardo , his sons , and his pupils ; there are also 
three superb bronze-doors, executed under Pope Paul V., 1605-21. 
The campanile , designed by Vanvitelli , is a very lofty structure in 
a richly- decorated style, surmounted by an octagonal pyramid. The 
pincipal bell, presented by Pope Leo X. in 1516, weighs 11 tons. 

In the Interior, to the left of the entrance, is a beautiful "Font, cast 
in bronze by Tiburzio Verzelli and Giambattista Vitale , and adorned with 
basreliefs and figures of Faith, Hope, Charity, and Fortitude. On the al- 
tars and in the chapels of the nave are 'Mosaics representing St. Francis 
of Assisi, by Dornenichino, and the Archangel Michael, by Guido Reni ; also 
a number of valuable pictures, frescoes, and sculptures. 

In the centre of the church rises the 'Casa Santa' (or 'Holy House'), 
a simple brick-building, 1372 ft. in height, 28 ft. in length, and 1272 ft. 
in width, surrounded by a lofty "Marble Screen designed by Bramante, 
and executed by Andrea Sansovino, Girolamo Lombardo, Giovanni da Bo- 
logna, Bandinelli, Tribolo, Guglieltno della Porta, etc., with bronze doors by 
Girolamo Lombardo. This handsome work was begun under Leo X., con- 
tinued under Clement VII., and completed under Paul III. It is adorned 
with statues of prophets and sibyls, and with reliefs, among which are: — 

W. Side. Annunciation , by Sansovino, termed by Vasari, 'una opera 
divina' ; smaller representations by Sangallo , Gir. Lombardo , and Gugl. 
della Porta. 

S. Side. Nativity, by Sansovino; David and Goliath, Sibyls, Ado- 
ration of the Magi, by other masters. 


100 Route 13, LORETO. 

E. Side. Arrival of the Santa Casa at Loreto , by Niccolb Tribolo; 
above it, Death of the Virgin, by Domenico Aimo of Bologna. 

N. Side. Nativity of the Virgin, begun by Sansovino, continued by 
Baccio Bandinelli and Rafaele da Montelupo. Basreliefs : Nuptials of the 
Virgin, by the same masters. 

In a niche of the interior is a small image of the Virgin and Child 
in cedar, painted black, attributed to St. Luke. It is richly adorned with 
jewels , the lustre of which is enhanced by silver lamps always kept 
burning. In 1798 it was carried off to Paris by the French. 

In the N. Tkansept is the entrance to the "Treasury (open to the 
public on Sun. till 11.30 a.m.; at other times fee 1 fr.), which contains 
valuable votive offerings and curiosities, the gifts of monarchs and persons 
of rank. Several of the treasures disappeared at the time of the Peace of 
Tolentino (1797). The ceiling-painting is by Pomaruncio, who also painted 
the now damaged frescoes in the dome. 

In the Piazza in front of the church are situated the Jesuits' 
College and the — 

*Palazzo Apostolico, begun in 1510 from designs by Bra- 
mante. It contains a small picture-gallery [Titian , Christ and the 
woman taken in adultery ; Vouet, Last Supper ; Schidone, St. Clara ; 
Ouercino, Descent from the Cross; Ann. Carracci, Nativity, etc.), and 
a ""Collection of Majolicas, chiefly from the manufactory in Urbino. 

Bail-way from Loreto in 20 min. to — 

17^2 M. Recanati, loftily situated at some distance from the 
line, and commanding charming views. It was a fortified and impor- 
tant place in the middle ages. A charter of municipal privileges ac- 
corded to it by Emp. Frederick II. in 1229 is shown at the Palazzo 
Comunale. The Cathedral of S. Flaviano , with a Gothic porch, 
contains the monument of Gregory XII., of 1417. Several of the 
palaces deserve notice, especially that of the Leopardi, containing 
the collections of the scholar and poet Giacomo Leopardi (d. 1837). 

Excursion from Recanati to Macerata (p. 102), passing the ruins of 
Helvia Ricina (remains of an amphitheatre, bridge, etc., on the Potenzd). 
Omnibus from Macerata to stat. Civitanova. 

The train crosses the Potenza. 23 M. Potenza Picena, named 
after a Roman colony, the ruins of which have disappeared. On the 
hill, 4'/2 M. distant, lies Montesanto. 

27 M. Porto Civitanova, at the mouth of the Chienti ; the town 
of Civitanova lies 1 M. inland. — Thence to Macerata, see p. 102. 

To Pescara, Foggia, etc., see Baedeker's S. Italy. 

14. From Ancona to Foligno (Orte, Home). 

80 M. Railway in 4'/ 4 -5 3 /4 hrs. (fares 13 fr. 85, 9 fr. 50, 6 fr. 60 c. ; ex- 
press 14 fr. 60, 10 fr. 25 c). To Rome (184 M.) in 9-123/4 hrs. (fares 32 fr. 
35, 22 fr. 30, 15 fr. 35 c. ; express, 35 fr. 90, 24 fr. 90 c). 

The train runs on the rails of the Bologna line, which with the 
old Toad skirts the coast (to the right a retrospect of the town and 
harbour), as far as (5 M.) Falconara (p. 92). 

Here the train diverges to the S.W. into the valley of the 
Esino (Lat. JEsis~) , which it soon crosses at (10 M.) Chiaravalle, 
a small town with a Cistercian monastery. 

17'M. Jesi, with 20,000 inhab. (incl. villages), now one of the 

FABR1AN0. U. Route. 101 

most prosperous manufacturing towns of the province, was the an- 
cient JEsis, where the Emp. Frederick II., the illustrious son of 
Henry VI. and Constantia of Sicily, and grandson of Frederick Bar- 
barossa, was born on 26th Dec. 1194. The cathedral is dedicated 
to the martyr St. Septimius, the first bishop of Jesi (308). Jesi was 
also the birthplace of the composer G. Spontini (1778-1851). 

The valley contracts, and the train crosses the river twice. 26 M. 
Castel Planio. Beyond (30 M.) Serra 8. Quirico, near Monte Rosso, 
the valley narrows - to a wild ravine, endangered by falling rocks. 
Long tunnel through the Monte Rosso. 37 M. Albaccina. 

About 7Vs M. to the S. lies Matelioa, a town with 4000 inhab., pos- 
sessing pictures by Palmezzano and Eusebio di S. Giorgio in the church 
of S. Francesco, and a small picture-gallery in the Pal. Piersanti. From 
Matelica to Camerino (p. 103) 3Vz M., to San Severino (p. 103) 11 M. 

44 Ya M. Fabriano (Leon d'Oro; Campana), a prosperous town 
with 18,000 inhab. (incl. suburbs), noted since the 14th cent, for its 
paper-manufactories, lies near the sites of the ancient Tuficum and 
Attidium. The Town Hall contains ancient inscriptions and a small 
collection of pictures. The Campanile opposite bears a bombastic in- 
scription about the unity of Italy. The churches of S. Niccolb, 
S. Benedetto, S. Agostino, and S. Lucia, and the private houses 
Casa Morichi and Fornari, contain pictures of the Fabriano school, 
of which Gentile da Fabriano (71370-1450; p. 46) was the head. 
The Marchese Possenti has a fine *Collection of ivory objects. 

From Fabriano a good mountain-road (9 M.) leads by the picturesque 
La Oenga to the lofty Sassoferrato , situated in a fertile valley, consisting 
of the upper and lower town, with 2000 inhab., and possessing interesting 
churches and pictures. Giambatlista Salvi , surnamed Sassoferrato , was 
born here in 1605; he was especially noted for his Madonnas, and died at 
Rome in 1685. S. Pietro contains a Madonna by him. In the vicinity are the 
ruins of the ancient Sentinum, where, B. C. 296, the great decisive battle took 
place between the Romans and the allied Samnites, Gauls, Umbrians, and 
Etruscans, in which the consul Decius heroically sacrificed himself. The 
Roman supremacy over the whole of Italy was thus established. 

Beyond Fabriano the train skirts the brook Giano , and pene- 
trates the central Apennine chain by a tunnel 1 Y4 M. long. 

At (54 Y2 M.) Fossato (diligence to Gubbio thrice daily; p. 94); 
we enter the plain of the Chiascio. To the left on the hill, Palazzolo ; 
to the right, Pellegrino; to the left, Palazzo and S. Facondino. 

57 M. Gualdo Tadino, a small town with 7000 inhab. , lies about 
2 M. from the railway (cab 40 c), near the insignificant ruins of 
the ancient Tadinum. In 552 Narses defeated and slew the Ostro- 
gothic king Totila here , and owing to this victory , soon gained 
possession of Rome. In the Palazzo Comunale is a small picture- 
gallery with a Pieta by Niccolo Alunno (1471) and works by native 
artists ; in the corridor are an ancient sarcophagus and a few in- 
scriptions. The church of 5. Francesco contains an altar-piece by 
Niccolo Alunno (1471). The Cathedral has a fine rose-window; in 
the sacristy, pictures by Niccolo Alunno. 

The train gradually descends to (68 M.) Nocera, an episcopa} 

102 Route 14. MACERATA. From Ancona 

town, on the site of the ancient Nuceria, a city of the Umbri (3 M. 
from the station; omn.). The Cathedral and the church of the Ma- 
dernina contain a few tolerable paintings. Some admirable frescoes 
of 1434 were discovered in 1877 on the organ-screen of S. Fran- 
cesco, and others of less importance (c. 1500) in the nave and choir. 
The Orfanotrofeo (Vescovado Antico) contains portraits of the bish- 
ops of Nocera from the 1st cent, of our era(?), painted in 1659. 
Near the town are mineral springs, known since 1510. 

The train now enters the narrow Val Topina, crosses the brook 
several times, passes through a tunnel, and descends by Ponte Cen- 
tesimo to — 

80 M. Foligno ; thence to Rome, see p. 75 et seq. 

High Eoad from (Ancona) Civitanova to Foligno (Rome). 

75 M. No through-conveyance. 

"We quit the railway at Civitanova (p. 100). The road ascends 
the fertile valley of the Chienti , affording a view of the Sibilla 
(9111 ft.), which is covered with snow until late in summer. 

18 M. Macerata (Pace ; Posta), a flourishing town with 20,300 
inhab., capital of the province of Macerata, picturesquely situated 
on the heights between the valleys of the Chienti and Potenza, 
possesses a university, an agricultural academy, etc. In the Cathe- 
dral a Madonna with St. Francis and St. Julian , ascribed to Peru- 
gino. In S. Oiovanni an Assumption of the Virgin, by Lanfranco. 
The Palazzo Municipale aud the Pal. Compagnoni contain inscrip- 
tions and antiquities from Helvia Ricina (p. 100), after the de- 
struction of which the modern towns of Recanati and Macerata 
sprang up. Macerata also has a triumphal arch, called the Porta 
Pia. The Biblioteca Comunale contains a small Pinacoteca, the 
chief treasures of which are a Madonna and SS. Julian and Anthony 
of Padua by Gentile da Fabriano (Nos. 35, 22), a Madonna by Carlo 
Crivelli (1470; No. 36), and a Madonna with saints by Alegretto da 
Fabriano (1368 ; No. 39). 

Outside the gate, 3 /4 M. from the town, is the church of the Madonna 
delle Vergine, ascribed to Bramante. — About 6 M. to the S.W. of Macerata, 
and 3 M. to the E. of Tolentino, is TJrbisaglia, the Roman Urbs Salvia, 
with extensive ruins, amphitheatre, walis, baths, etc. 

28 Y2 M. Tolentino (Corona), the ancient Tolentinum Picenum, 
prettily situated on the Chienti, with 12,000 inhab. , was once 
strongly fortified The Palazzo Municipale in the Piazza contains 
a few Roman antiquities, the most important of which is a female 
portrait-statue of the time of the Flavian emperors. The Basilica 
di S. Niccolb possesses a court of the 13th cent, and a Gothic *Portal, 
presented to his native town by Niccolo Mauruzzi, the celebrated 
oondottiere (1435). A chapel in the interior is adorned with fres- 
coes from the life of St. Nicholas , by Lorenzo and Jacopo da San 
Severino, and another contains two paintings of the Venetian school 
(the Fire at St. Mark's at Venice, and the Plague in Sicily). The 

to Rome. SAN SEVERINO. 14. Route. 103 

church of S. Francesco, dating from the 13th cent., contains a fresco 
of the Crucifixion executed in 1360 (chapel to the right of the 
high-altar) and another of 1475 , representing the Madonna and 
S. Amicone healing the infirm (chapel to the left). The church of 
S. Catervo, on the E. side of the town, possesses an early-Christian 
sarcophagus, embellished with reliefs (Adoration of the Magi, Christ 
as the Good Shepherd) and containing the remains of St. Catervus, 
who is highly revered in the Marches. The frescoes of the Cruci- 
fixion and the Evangelists date from the 15th century. The Pal. 
Gentiloni contains the proceeds of the excavations carried on by 
Count Silveii Gentiloni since 1880 in the Picene necropolis sur- 
rounding the town (adm. by visiting-card). The tombs, dating from 
c. 525-350 B.C., yield numerous weapons and amber ornaments. 

The learned Francis Philelphus, one of the first students and dissemi- 
nators of classical literature, was horn at Tolentino in 1388. — The pictur- 
esque environs command fine views of the mountains. 

San Severino, 6 M. to the N.W. of Tolentino, in the valley of the Po- 
tenza, arose from the ruins of the ancient Septempeda. In the church del 
Castello, frescoes by Diotisalvi oVAngeluzzo, and an altar-piece by Niccolb da 
Foligno (1468) ; in the sacristy of the Duomo Nuovo a Madonna by Pinluricchio. 
S. Lorenzo stands on the site of an ancient temple. Inscriptions and anti- 
quities in the town-hall, and at the residence of the Conte Servanzi-Collio. 

From San Severino diligence daily to (12'/2 M.) Camerino, the ancient 
Camerinum Umbrorum, on a height at the foot of the Apennines. This 
was once the capital of the Umbrian Camertes, who during the Samnite wars 
allied themselves with Rome against the Etruscans. It contains 12,000 in- 
hab. (incl. villages), a university, and a bishopric (founded in 252). The 
cathedral of S. Sovino occupies the site of a temple of Jupiter; in front of 
it is a bronze Statue of Pope Sixtus V. , of 1587. The painter Carlo Maratta 
was born here in 1625 (d. at Rome in 1713). — From Camerino to (5'/2 M.) 
La Muccia, on the Roman road, see below. 

Another road leads from S. Severino to the N. by Matelica (11 M.) to 
Fabriano (25 M.), see p. 101. 

The Roman road leads from Tolentino on the left bank of the 
Chienti, through a pleasant district and plantations of oaks, to Bel- 
forte , the post - stations Valcimara and Ponte delta Trave , and 
(1872 M. from Tolentino) — 

47 M. La Muccia (Leone), the usual halting-place of the vet- 
turini. At Gelagno the road begins to ascend, and the country be- 
comes barren and bleak. The passage of the Apennines from La 
Muccia to Foligno takes 6 hrs. by carriage. Serravalle lies in a 
narrow ravine ; above it rise the ruins of an old castle. The sources 
of the Chienti (see above) are I72 M. farther. The road now as- 
cends to the table-land of Colfiorito (2903 ft.), skirts a small lake, 
traverses a grove of oaks, and descends somewhat abruptly by Case 
Nuove and Pale to Foligno. Above Pale towers the lofty Sasso di 
Pale, one of the last spurs of the Apennines. In descending, the 
road affords a beautiful *View of Foligno and the charming valley 
of the Clitunno. The road follows the course of the brook, and 
72 M. from Foligno reaches the Via Flaminia (p. 92). 

75 M. Foligno, see p. 73, 



(Plans of Rome in Appendix, at the end of the Volume.) 

Arrival. At the railway-station (Plan I, 25) numerous hotel-omnibuses 
are in waiting, for the use of which a charge of l-l'/a fr. is made in the 
bill. One-horse cab ('botti' and 'citadine', see Appx.) for 1-2 or 3 pers., 1 fr. ; 
at night 1 fr. 20 or 1 fr. 40 c. ; each additional pers. 20 c, at night 40 c. ; 
two-horse carr. , for 1-4 pers., 1 fr. 70, at night 1 fr. 90 c. ; small ar- 
ticles of luggage free, each small box 20 c, trunk 50 c. ; porter 25-60 c. 
— Police Office (Questura): Via SS. Apostoli 17 (PI. II, 16, 19). — Railway 
enquiry-office in the town, Via della Propaganda 8. 

Embassies and Consulates. There are two classes of diplomatic agents 
at Rome, those accredited to the Italian government, and those accredited 
to the Papal court. The offices of two of the former class alone need here 
be mentioned : English Embassy , Sir Augustus Berkeley Paget, Via Venti 
Settembre, near Porta Pia ; American Embassy, Mr. William Astor, Piazza 
di Spagna 20. — English Consulate : Mr. Alex. Macbean , consul , Corso 
378. American Consulate: Mr. L. Richmond, consul-general, Via Bocca 
di Leone 22; Mr. James Jlooker, vice-consul. 

Hotels (comp. pp. vi, xx). The best and most expensive, are in the 
Strangers' 1 Quarter, between the Porta del Popolo and the Piazza di Spagna, 
and also between the latter and the railway-station (some of them incon- 
veniently situated): — 

"Costanzi (PI. I, 23, p), Via S. Nicola di Tolentino 14, R. 4-6, D. 5 fr. ; 
"Quirinale (PI. I, 25, A), Via Nazionale, a large hotel in the Swiss style, 
R. & L. 4, B. lVs, D. 5, A. 1 , omn. 1, 'pension' 12 fr. and upwards; 
"Russia (PI. 1 , 18, b) , Via del Babuino 9 , with a pleasant garden , D. 
5fr.; Roma (PI. I, 17, i), Corso 128, R. 4, D. 5, B. lV2fr., good cuisine; 
Londra (PI. I, 17, c), Piazza di Spagna 13, D. 6 fr. ; Europa (PI. I, 20, d), 
Piazza di Spagna 35; "Inghilterra (PI. I, 17,/), Via Bocca di Leone 14, B. 
l'A, D. 5 fr. ; "Hotel du Louvre (PI. I, 23, y), Via S. Nicola di Tolentino 
(the last four belong to Sign. Silenzi); "Bristol (PI. I, 22, x), Piazza Bar- 
berini , R. 2>/2, B. l'/2, D. 4, L. 1, A. Va fr- ; Hotel Continental , near 
the station , well spoken of; Serny, Via S. Sebastiano 3, and Hotel de 
Paris, adjacent, both for families ; "Hotel Hassler (PI. I, 17, «), corner 
of the Via Bocca di Leone and Via Carrozza, R. from 2, D. 4 ! /2 fr. ; Alle- 
magna (PI. I, 17, *), Via Condotti 88; America (PI. I, 17, g), Via del Ba- 
buino 79; Hotel de la Ville (PI. I, 18, o), Via del Babuino 196. At all 
these, 'pension'' for a prolonged stay, 10-12 fr. per day, and upwards. 

Somewhat less expensive: Anglo-American© (PI. I, 17, t), Via 
Frattina 128; Molaro (PI. I, 19, w), Via Gregoriana 56; Italia (PI. I, 23, 
aa), Via delle Quattro Fontane 12; Laurati, Via Nazionale 153-155; Vitto- 
hia (PI. I, 19, I), Via de' Due Macelli 24, all these well spoken of; Sud (PI. I, 
19, v ), Via Capo le Case 56, R. from 2 fr. ; La Nuova Roma, at the corner 
of the Via del Viminale and Via Principe Umberto, near the railway-station; 
La Pace (PI. I, 19, z), Via Sistina 8. 

In the interior of the city : Minerva (PI. II, 16, m), Piazza della Mi- 
nerva 69, well spoken of; Hotel and Pension Centrale (PI. I, 16, ad), 
Via della Rosa; Cavour, Via S. Chiara; France, Via S. Chiara; Senato, 
Via Coppelle 16. — At all these visitors are expected to dine at the table 

Hotels Garnis. Travellers who have some acquaintance with the Ian- 

Restaurants. ROME. Prelim. Information. 105 

guage will find it less expensive to procure apartments at one of the follow- 
ing houses, and to take their meals at a cafe or restaurant, and they will 
also be more independent : — Obiente (PI. I, 19, a b), Via del Tritone 6, 
R. from 2 1 /*, B. I 1 -/,, D. 4, omn. li/ 2 fr., L. 60 c, 'pens.' 7'/ 2 fr., well 
spoken of; Alibert (PI. I, 17, q), Vicolo d' Alibert, quiet and commended; 
Cesaei (PI. 1, 16, «), Via di Pietra, well spoken of. Enquiry as to charges 
should always be made beforehand (see p. xxi). 

Pensions. ! 'Mme. Tellenbach, Piazza di Mignanelli 51, from 8 fr. per 
day; Miss Smith, Piazza di Spagna 93; Bellevue di Pincio, Via di Porta 
Pinciana 18, English hostess, 8-10 fr.-, Mrs. Shearman (American), Via 
della Croce 71 ; Frau von Brockdorff, Via Nazionale 87, 9 fr. ; Francese, 
Via Mercede 51; Suez, Via S. Nicola di Tolentino 21; Mme. Masson, Via 
del Tritone 28, 2nd floor, 6-8V2 fr. ; Chapman, Via Nazionale 75, English; 
Mme. Freddi, Via del Babuino 82, well spoken of; Mad. Michel, Via 
Sistina 72; Von Krueger, Via Nazionale 181, frequented by Americans, 
from 8 fr. per day; Signora Liverani, Via Margutta 61. — Arrangements 
for pension may also be made at most of the above-mentioned hotels. 

Private Apartments. The best are situated in the quarter bounded 
by the Corso and the Via del Babuino on one side , and by the Piazza di 
Spagna and the Via de' Due Macelli on the other, and also in the Via Capo 
le Case, Via Sistina, Piazza Barberini, and other streets on the Pincio. 
The most expensive, and often the least sunny, are in the Corso, Piazza di 
Spagna, and Via del Babuino. A northern aspect should be studiously 
avoided, and a stipulation made for stove, carpet, and attendance (stufa, 
tappeti, servizio). Bent of two well-furnished rooms in a good locality 150- 
250 fr., one room 50-80 fr. per month; for a suite of 3-5 rooms 300-500 fr. 
and even more. Artists generally reside in the Via Sistina, Quattro Fon- 
tane, and that neighbourhood. In the Forum of Trajan and the adjoining 
streets (as the Via della Consolazione near S. Maria della Consolazione, 
PI. II, 20) the visitor may obtain sunny apartments, conveniently situated 
with regard to the ancient part of the town. Rooms may be procured in 
almost every street in the strangers*' quarter, where notices and placards 
are frequently observed ; but, as they are seldom removed when the rooms 
are let, the traveller must be prepared for a number of fruitless enquiries. 
Those who engage apartments in the Corso should come to an under- 
standing with regard to the windows for the Carnival. — House-agent, 
Karl Pochalsky, Corso 455. — Firewood at FicchellCs, Piazza di Spagna 87. 

Rome does not yet possess a complete Director? ; but much informa- 
tion is afforded by the Guida Commerciale della Citta di Roma, published 
by Tito Monad (6 fr.). An unknown address may be ascertained at the 
Ufficio di Anagrafe on the Capitol, under the arches of Vignola, above 
the stairs leading to the Monte Caprino (p. 212). 

Restaurants (those of more moderate pretensions are called Trattorie). 
Handsomely fitted up and expensive (D. b prix fixe 6 fr. and upwards): — 
Nazzarri, Piazza di Spagna 81, 82; F. Spillmann, Via Condotti 10; Renaud, 
Via Frattina 97; Ranieri, Via Mario de' Fiori 26; Cafe' di Roma (p. 106). 

Second class, with good French cuisine : Corradelti, Via della Croce 
81; List, Via Frattina 121 (these establishments also supply families with 
dinners at their own apartments, for 2 pers. 4-6, 3 pers. 6-8 fr.). — The 
"Cafe' del Parlamento, Corso 202-203, the Cafi di Venezia, near the Piazza 
Venezia, the Arehetto , Piazza di Pietra (opposite the Hotel Cesari, see 
above), and the Birreria Morteo & Co. (Vienna beer) , Corso 196, are also 
good restaurants. "Restaurant Cavotir, Via di Mercede (PI. I, 16, 17); "Trat- 
toria Toscana, Palazzo Marignoli, Via S. Claudio 90. 

The Trattorie are recommended to those who have some acquain- 
tance with the language and customs of the country : — Rosetta, Via Rosetta 
1, opposite the Pantheon to the left; "Falcone, Piazza di S. Eustachio 58, 
near the Pantheon (Roman cuisine) ; Nazionale, Via Nazionale 10; Cervigni, 
opposite the last, well spoken of; "Al. Fagiano , Piazza Colonna, at the 
corner of the Via Colonna, much frequented; Posta, Via Colonna 36; 
Trattoria Piemontese, Piazza Trevi 101 (Piedmontese cuisine) ; Tratt. degli 
Artisli, Via della Vite 68 (Vienna beer; German cooking); Rebecchino, 
Via Bocca di Leone 7; "Scacchetli (formerly Carlin), Via delle Quattro 

106 Prelim. Information. ROME. Cafes. 

Fontane 173-5. with rooms to let. The following are unpretending: Oab- 
bione, Via del Lavatore 40, by the Fontana Trevi; Torretta, Via della 
Torretta 1, near the Palazzo Borghese; Tratt. Europea, Piazza Rusticucci 
21 & 26 ; Genio, Via de' Due Macelli 12, moderate ; Bucci, Pescheria delle 
Coppelle 54-57 (fish and 'zuppa alia marinara'). — Restaurant du Chalet, 
Prati di Castello, on the Tiber, with a garden (see below). 

Osterie (wine-houses, comp. p. xxiii) : — Palombella, Via della Palom- 
bella, at the back of the Pantheon to the right (with a better room on 
the first floor), good Montefiascone 'Est-Est', Monte Puleiano, Orvieto, and 
Aleatico; Osteria del Ghetto ('Jewish tavern'), Via Rua 111 (PI. II, 17); Cam- 
pattella, near the Theatre of Marcellus , Via di Monte Savelli 78, a side- 
street of the Via Montanara; the Osteria Via della Croce 76 a; the Osteria 
opposite the Fontana Trevi 95 ; the Osteria Via della Pietra 67 (good Gen- 
zano). There are also favourite Osterie on the Monte Testaccio (p. 252), in 
the Prati di Castello (p. 186; much frequented on Sundays and holidays), 
and by the Ponte Molle (p. 356). 

The ordinary wines of the environs of Rome ( Vino dei Caslelli Romani) 
are generally served in clear bottles containing one, a half, or a fifth litre 
(mezzo litro 6-10s.), and the better qualities in smaller bottles (fiaschetti). 
Amongst these last are Velletri, Genzano (8-10s. per mezzo litro), Orvieto 
(18s.), Montefiascone ('Est-Est', comp. p. 64 ; 30s.), and Aleatico (25s.). 

The best Tuscan Wine Houses are CasellPs, Via dell' Impresa 25 (cold 
viands), and Mellinfs, Piazza S. Lorenzo in Lucina 34; Tuscan and Pied- 
montese wine also in the Via dell' Archetto. The Tuscan wine is generally 
served in large bottles (fiaschi) covered with reeds , and payment is made 
according to the quantity consumed (6-10s. per mezzo litro). 

Foreign wines are sold at the restaurants (p. 105), and by Presenzini, 
Via della Croce 32; Burnel <fc Guichard Aini, Via Frattina 116; Boudrand 
(French wines), Corso 477. Also by the Liquoristi : "Aragno, Corso 237, 
Piazza Sciarra, and Piazza Monte Citorio 118-120 (good Roman wines); Gia- 
cosa, Via della Maddalena 17-19; Tine. Attili, Via del Tritone 13 A; Morteo 
(see p. 105). 

Beer (birra). The best is sold at the Birreria Morteo & Co. , Corso 
196, entrance to better dining-room by Via S. Claudio 79 (Vienna beer 
and good cuisine), see p. 105; branch-establishment, Via Nazionale 47; 
Tratt. degli Arlisli, see above. — Roman beer is brewed and sold by Ger- 
mans : Via de' Due Macelli 74; Via di S. Giuseppe, Capo le Case 24; also 
at the cafe's, etc. 

Cafes. " Parlamento , Corso 203; 'Roma, Corso 426-433; degli Specchi, 
Piazza Colonna; Venezia, Corso 289, 290; "Nazionale, corner of the Corso 
(179) and Via delle Convertite ; Greco, Via Condotti 86, and Artisti, Via de' 
Due Macelli 91 , both frequented by artists. Other cafe's in almost every 
street; coffee generally good; sent, if desired, to private apartments. — 
Ices at the "Sorbetteria Napoletana , Via dell' Impresa 22-23, to the N. of 
the Piazza Colonna, 50 c. per portion, 30 c. per half-portion. 

Confectioners: Ronzi & Singer, in the Piazza Colonna, corner of the 
Corso (No. 349) ; Pesoli, Via della Stamperia 18 ; Ramazzotli, Via Frattina 76 ; 
Nazzarri, Piazza di Spagna 81, 82 (comp. p. 105). — English Baker, 
Via del Babuino 100; German, Via Bocca di Leone 9, Via della Croce 91; 
Viennese, Via Nazionale 143. — Grocers: Lowe, Piazza di Spagna 76 (good 
tea); Casoni, Piazza di Spagna 46,47; Caetrati, Piazza Trevi 89; Donzelli, 
Via della Croce 11; Corso 98 A. — Fruit Shops: Gangalanti, Piazza S. Lo- 
renzo in Lucina 19; Posidoro, Via dell' Angelo Custode 53; Via della 
Croce 9. 

Tobacco (comp. p. xxiii) at the Regia dei Tabacchi, corner of the Corso 
and Piazza Sciarra ; foreign cigars 25 c. and upwards. 

Gratuities. As exorbitant demands are often made, the following aver- 
ages are given. In the galleries for 1 pers. 10 soldi, for 2-3 pers. 15s., for 
4 pers. 1 fr. ; regular frequenters 5 soldi. To attendants who open doors 
of houses, churches, gardens, etc., 5s.; for other services (guidance, expla- 
nations, light, etc.), 1/2-I fr. — It is also usual to give a trifle (l-2s.) to the 
waiters at the cafe's. 

Physicians. ROME. Prelim. Information. 107 

Baths (1 .1/2-2 fr. ; fee 25 c.) at the hotels ; "Via Volturno 38 ; "Nimfeo 
di Egeria , in the Prati, with a swimming-basin in summer; also Vicolo 
d'Alibert 1, Via Belsiana64, Via del Babuino 96, Via Ripetta 116. — Hydro- 
pathic Establishments: Piazza del Plebiscito (PI. I, 10); Via Crociferi 44. 

Hairdressers : Giardinieri, Corso 423; Lancia, Via Condotti 48, 1st 
floor; Pasquali, Via Condotti 11; all with ladies' rooms. — Perfumers, 
Corso 390, 342, 343. 

Liecx d' Aisance : Vicolo del Sdrucciolo , near the Piazza Colonna ; 
Via dei Pianellari ; Via Belsiana (at these 10 c). — Vicolo del Governo 
Vecchio; Vicolo Tata Giovanni; Vicolo Tribuna Tor de' Specchi; Via 
Alessandrina ; Piazza Barberini (by the Cappuccini) ; Passeggiata di Ripetta ; 
in the colonnade of the Piazza of St. Peter, on the side next the Porta 
Angelica ; outside the Porta del Popolo, to the left. 

Climate (comp. Introd.). The mean temperature at Rome is 60° Fahr.; 
the greatest heat in summer being about 100° in the shade, and the greatest 
cold about 21°. Snow falls rarely, and does not lie long. The average 
temperature in January is 45°, in July 75°. The pleasantest season is 
from the beginning of October to the end of May. In summer when the 
fever-laden aria cattiva prevails, all the inhabitants who can afford it 
make a point of leaving the city. The prevalent winds are the Tra- 
montana, or north wind, which generally brings clear and bracing wea- 
ther , and the Scirocco, or south wind , which is relaxing and rainy. As 
the temperature usually falls rapidly after sunset, and colds are very 
easily caught, the traveller should not dress too lightly. Invalids should 
of course consult their medical advisers before choosing rooms, but even 
persons in robust health will do well to remember the Roman proverb : 
'■Dove non va il sole, va il medico'. 

Physicians. English: Aitken, Via S. Nicola di Tolentino 72; Gason, 
Via S. Sebastianello 8; Gregor, Piazza di Spagna 3; MacMillan, Via di S. 
Basilio 8; Drummond, Piazza di Spagna 3, 3rd floor; Young, Piazza di 
Spagna 20; Thompson, Via de' Due Macelli 60. — German: Bosdny, Via S. 
Claudio 57; Erhardt , Mario de' Fiori 16; Fleischl, Via Borgognona 42; 
Hoyer, ViadelleCarrozze 52; Moleschott, Via Volturno 58 ; Neuhaus, ViaGre- 
goriana 7 ; Weber, Via Sistina 46 ; v. Wendt, Via de' Due Macelli 3 ; Wittmer, 
Via delle Quattro Fontane 17; Held (homoeopath), Palazzo Poli, Piazza 
Poli; Zawerthal , professor at the university, for pulmonary complaints, 
Via Fontanella di Borghese 46, Pal. Fausti. — Italian: Ceccarelli, Pal. 
Salviati, Corso; Galassi, Circo Agonale 13; Manassei, Via de' Lucchesi 9; 
Nardini, Pal. Doria, in the Piazza Venezia; Occhini, Via in Lucina 10. — 
Surgeons: Mazzoni, Mario de' Fiori 89; Toriani, Via di Marforio 106. — 
Oculists : Dantone, Piazza Monte Citorio 121 (hours for consultation 11-1) ; 
Businelli, Palazzo Fiano, Piazza S. Lorenzo in Lucina 4a (consultations 2-4). 
— Dentists: Chamberlain (American), Piazza di Spagna 44; Curtis (Amer- 
ican), Piazza di Spagna 93, 1st floor; Galassi, Piazza di Spagna 68; Tan 
Marter (American), Via Nazionale 172; Martin, Corso 389; SteMin, Via 
delle Carozze 3, 1st floor. 

Chemists: Sinimberghi, Evans, & Co., Via Condotti 64-66, patronised 
by the English and American embassies; Baker rf- Co., Piazza di Spagna 
42, patronised by the German embassy ; Borioni, Via del Babuino 98, 99 ; 
Garneri, Via del Gambero 39, 40; Marignani, Corso 435; other Italian 
chemists in every part of the town. — Surgical Instruments: Jmmelen, 
Via Frattina 134. 

Bankers. English: Macbean & Co., Piazza di S. Silvestro 81; Packen- 
ham, Maquay, & Hooker, Piazza di Spagna 20 ; Handley d- Montague, Piazza 
di Spagna 79; Plowden d- Co., Via di Mercede 50. Italian: Cerasi, Via del 
Babuino 51 ; Spada, Flamini, & Co., Pal. Torlonia, Via Condotti 20; Georgi 
tt Biscossi, Via Frattina 113. German: Schmitt , Nasi, <fc Co., Via della 
Vite 11; Salomonsohn A Co., Palazzo Chigi, Piazza Colonna; Theoph. hin- 
der (Swiss), Via Condotti 9; Canzini, Fueter, & Co., Piazza di S. Silvestro 
92; Wagniere, Piazza Capranica 78. — Money Changers in the Corso, Via 
Condotti, etc. (comp. Introd.). 

108 Prelim. Information. ROME. Libraries 

Booksellers. Loescher & Co., Corso 307, Palazzo Simonetti, entered from 
Via del Colleglo Romano; Spithoever, Piazza di Spagna 84, 85; Mtiller ('Li- 
breria Centrale') , Corso 146, Pal. Bernini; English, German, and French 
books at all these. Fratetti Bocca, Corso 217, Italian and French books. — 
Religious works and music, Via di Propaganda Fide 6. — Maps at Bossfs, 
Via Condotti 72, and at Loescher's (see above). — Old Books at Rossi's, 
Corso 40, and Bocca's, Via del Giardino; also at Loescher's and Spithoe- 
ver's. — Bookbinders. Andersen, Via de' Due Macelli 30 (Roman bindings, 
etc.); Olivieri, Via Frattina 1; Santinelli, Via Pie di Marmo. 

Libraries. The principal public and private Roman libraries, which 
however do not lend out books, are: — Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, see 
p. 322. Permessi addressed by the cardinal secretary of state to the chief 
librarian, see p. 323. Readers admitted from the middle of Nov. to 
29th June, 8-12 o'clock; the library is closed on Sundays and Thurs- 
days. — Biblioteca Alessandrina in the Sapienza (p. 194) ; enter by princi- 
pal portal, ascend stairs to the left, and traverse the gallery. Open daily 
except Sundays : from Oct. to March 8-2 and 6-9 ; from April to Sept. 8-2 
and 7-10. — Biblioteca Angelica (p. 192), open to the public daily 9-2, except 
Sundays; closed in Oct. — Biblioteca Barberina (p. 168), open to the public 
tin Thurs. 9-2; closed from the middle of Sept. to the end of Oct. — 
Biblioteca Casanatensis (p. 197), open to the public daily, 9-3, except Sun- 
days. — Biblioteca Chisiana (p. 147), admission by permesso, obtainable 
through the traveller's embassy, Thurs. 9-12; closed in summer. — 
Biblioteca Corsiniana (p. 328), open to the public daily for three hours be- 
fore Ave Maria, except Sun. and Wed. ; closed from 1st Aug. to 4th Nov. 

— Biblioteca Vallicelliana (p. 202), open on Wed., Thurs., and Sat., 8>/2-12. 

— Biblioteca Vittorio Emanuele (p. 148), open daily, 9-3 and 7-10 (in summer 
.8-11). — New State Archives, see p. 148. 

Lending Libraries. English books at Piale's, Piazza di Spagna 1, and 
at Loescher's (see above). The German Bibliothek des Kiinstlervereins and 
the Bibliothek der Deutschen in Rom in the Palazzo Caffarelli (p. 210) are 
available to subscribers only. 

Reading Rooms. Piale, Piazza di Spagna 1 (English and American 
newspapers); Monaldini, Piazza di Spagna (London daily papers). 

Newspapers, very numerous, 5-10 c. per number: Opinione, 5 c. ; Dirilto, 
10c. ; Liberia, 5c. ; Italie (in French, containing a list of the sights of the 
day), 10c; Fanfulla (similar to the Paris Figaro), 5c. ; Capitate, radical, 
.5c. ; Osservatore Romano and Voce delta Verita, both clerical. — The Italian 
Times is an English paper published at Rome. 

Guide. Mr. R. S. Forbes, Via del Babuino 93, publisher of a Tourist 
Directory and of a little book entitled Rambles in Rome, is an efficient 
cicerone to the antiquities of Rome. 

Teachers of Italian (2-3 fr. per lesson) : enquire at the booksellers'. 

Music Sellers. Successori Landsberg, Via Condotti 85, 1st floor (pianos 
and music for sale or hire); Bossola, Corso 140; Carlo Ducci, Palazzo 
Ruspoli, Via Fontanella di Borghese; Venturini A Co., Corso 387; Paolo 
Pucci, Via Belsiana 70; Ricordi, Corso 392; Bartolo, Via Condotti 70. — 
Strings at Serafini's, Via della Valle 46. — Teachers of music and singing 
may be heard of at the booksellers' or at the music-shops. M. Ravnkilde, 
a Dane, is a well-known composer and teacher of the piano, Ripetta 39. 

Studios. Sculptors : Achtermann, Piazza de' Cappuccini 1; Amid, Via 
Flaminici 44; L. Ansiglioni, Via S. Nicola di Tolentino 2; C. & R. Cauer, 
Via della Frezza 59 ; Dausch, Via S. Giacomo 18 ; Galletti, Via Laurina 31 ; 
Gerhard, Passeggiata di Ripetta 33; A. Gilbert, Via S. Basiliol8; Hastelriis 
(Dane), Via del Babuino 39; Ives (English), Via Margutta 53; Jos. Kopf, 
Vicolo degli Incurabili 8; Monteverde, Piazza dell' Indipendenza ; Miiller 
(of Coburg) , Pass, di Ripetta 16 ; Otto, Via Manzoni ; Rogers (American), 
Via Margutta 53; F. Schulze, Via Purificazione 14; JSommer, Monte Caprino 
24a; Spies, Piazza S. Pietro in Vincoli 40a; Story (American), Via di S. 
Martino 7 (a Macao) ; Voss, Palazzo Barberini ; Warrington Wood (English), 
Villa Campana, Via S. Giovanni, 

Studios. Shops. ROME. Prelim. Information. 109 

Painters: Alvarez, Via S. Sebastiano 3; Brandt, Via di Ripetta 39$ 
L. Cabat, director of the French Academy (p. 142); Coleman (American),, 
Via Margutta 33; Consoni, Palazzo Campanari, Ripetta 246; Corrodi (water- 
colours), Via dell' Angelo Custode 30; H. Corrodi, Via degli Incurabili 8;; 
Freeman , Via Margutta 53 B ; Erminia von Gadenstedt , Via Condotti 29 ;; 
Graf, Via S. Nicola di Tolentino 72; Griswold (English), Via del Basilio* 
46; Hdslin, Via Margutta 53 B; Kaiser, Palazzo Venezia; Koelman , Via. 
dell' Olmo (miniatures); Kronberg (Swede), Via Margutta 33; Lindemann- 
Frommel (landscape), Via del Babuino 39; Lowenthal, Via Margutta 33; 
Ludwig , Via Sistina 72; Martens, Via delle Quattro Fontane 88; Qustav 
Miiller (of Coburg), Via dei Pontefici 51 ; R. Milller (water-colours), Piazza 
Barberini 56; Nerly (landscapes and sea-pieces), Via S. Nicola di Tolen- 
tino 72; Podesti, Palazzo Doria, Circo Agonale 13; Poing d?Exter (Ameri- 
can), Via dei Greci 36; Riedel, Via Margutta 55; Schlosser, Vicolo del 
Vantaggio 1; Scifoni, Via Margutta 33; Seitz, Senr., Via S. Nicola di 
Tolentino 72; L. Seitz, Piazza de' Cappuccini 6; Siemiradski (Pole), Via 
Margutta 5; Vannutelli, Palazzo Pamphilj, Circo Agonale; Vedder (Ameri- 
can) , Villa Strohlfern , outside the Porta del Popolo ; Vertunni (land- 
scape) , Via Margutta 53 B ; Weckesser, Piazza Barberini 43 ; R. Werner,. 
Via Sistina 72; Zielke , Via de' Marroniti 4; Ziircher (water-colours), 
Via Sistina 123. 

International Association of Artists, Vicolo d'Alibert2. — British 
Academy, Via Sistina 75 D. 

Works of Art, both ancient and modern , are liable to duty on ex- 
portation. — Goods Agents: Davis, Turner, A- Co., Via Fontanella di 
Borghese 36; Lowe, Piazza di Spagna 76; Giordani & Ferroni, Piazza Co- 
lonna 370A; Roesler, Franz, & Co., Via del Bufalo 133; C. Stein, Via di ; 
Mercede 42; Tombini, Via del Gambero 6. — Packek ('Incassatore') : Fer- 
roni, Ripetta 228. 

Shops. Antiquities : Alessandro Caslellani, Via di Poli 88 ; Augvsto> 
Caslellani, Piazza di Trevi 86 ; Martinetii, Via Bonella 74; Giacomini, Piazza 
Trinita de' Monti 7 and Via Sistina 16 (also works in marble and carved 
furniture) ; Innocenti, Via Frattina 117. 

Art, Works of, see Cameos, Casts, Copies of Bronzes, Engravings, etc. 

Artists' Materials. Corteselli, Via Sistina 150; Dovizielli , Via del 
Babuino 136. 

Articles de Voyage: Barfoot (English saddlery), Via del Babuino 150 C 
and 152; Chiara, Via delle Colonnelle 18; Deangeli, Via di Mercede 10, etc. 

Cameos: Saulini, Via del Babuino 96; Siotto, Piazza di Spagna 97;. 
Angelici, Via Sistina 19; Pianella, Via S. Giuseppe, Capo le Case 17;, 
Raimondo d'Eslrada, Via Sistina 26, and Via del Babuino 154. 

Casts: Marsili, Via de' Due Macelli 86; Leopoldo and Alessandro Mai- 
pieri, Corso 54 and 51; Fedeli, Via Laurina43, for Renaissance ornaments.- 

Clothing. For Gentlemen: Quastalla, Corso 335 (large shop); Fra- 
telli Bocconi , Corso 31S (moderate); Old England, Via Nazionale. See' 
also Tailors. — Ladies' Dress and Millinery: Fratelli Pontecorvo, Corso- 
172; R. Massoni, Corso 306; Compagnie Lyonnaise , Corso 473; Madame' 
Boudrot, Via Condotti 81. Less pretending: Picarelli, Corso 313; Quattrmi,, 
Via Frattina 93 (also straw-hat warehouse); and see Haberdashery. 

Copies^OjF Ancient Bronzes and Marbles : Hopfgarten , Via de' Due- 
Macelli &i\HChiapparelli, Via del Babuino 124; Parisi, Via Sistina 105;, 
Nelli, Via dSHSBabuino 139; Rainaldi , Via del Babuino 51 A (large stock,, 
fixed prices). 

Drapers: Guastalla, Corso 335; Todros, Corso 418; Schostal <£• Haert- 
lein, Corso 161 ; Ousset, Corso 244 ; Corso 405. 

Dressmakers: Angelina Giubergia, Corso 28 (good, but expensifej; 
Costanza Federico, Via Rasella 145, ii (for moderate requirements). 

Engravings at the Regia Calcografla, formerly the Stamperia Caraera'le 
(moderate prices), Via della Stamperia 6 (p. 144). 

Gloves : Chanal , Corso 143 ; also at Piazza S. Lorenzo in Luciinai .'39 ; 
Via della Vite 10; Via Frattina 15; Via di Pietra 76. 

110 Prelim. Information. ROME. Theatres. 

Goldsmiths: "Castellani , Piazza di Trevi 86, who also possesses an 
interesting collection of ancient golden ornaments, and executes imitations 
from Greek, Etruscan, and Byzantine models ; Marchesini , corner of the 
Corso and Via Condotti; Bellezza, Piazza S. Carlo, in the Corso ; Ansorge, 
Piazza di Spagna 72; Fasoli, Via del Babuino 50 and Via Condotti 76. 

Haberdashery : Borgia, Via dei Prefetti ; Ville de Lyon, in the same 
street; Massoni, Corso 372 ; Bronner, Corso 165; Sorelle Friedrich, Via Frat- 
tina 53; see also Clothing, Dressmakers, Roman Shawls. 

Hatters : Bessi, Corso 395 ; Giordani, Via de' Due Macelli 115 ; Miller, 
Via Condotti 16. 

Jewellery, see Goldsmiths, Roman Pearls. 

Lamps , etc. : Faucillon , Via di Propaganda 25 ; Fiuzi & Bianchelli, 
Corso 153. 

Marble-Cutters: Placidi, Via Sistina 75 C; Saleri, Via Sistina 75 A. 

Milliners, see Haberdashers, Dressmakers, etc. 

Mosaics: Gallandt (fixed prices), Piazza di Spagna 7; Barberi, Piazza 
di Spagna 99; Corradini, Piazza di Spagna 92; Roccheggiani, Via Condotti 
14. Mosaics and cameos, at moderate prices, in the Stabilimento, Piazza 
Borghese 106. 

Opticians: Hirsch, Corso 402; Priotti, Corso 419; Suscipi, Corso 182. 

Photographs : Loescher (p. 108) ; Spitlwever (p. 108 ; Braun's photographs); 
Ed. Mailer (p. 108) ; Andersen, Via de' Due Macelli 30; Molins, Via Condotti 
28 (views of the Parker Collection, for archaeologists) ; Monaldini, Piazza 
di Spagna 79, 80 ; Casali, Via Sistina 119 (Mang's photographs) ; Cuccioni, 
Piazza di Spagna 43; Hefner, Via Frattina 133 (Semelli's photographs); 
Alinari tt Cook, Corso 90. 

Photographs for artistic purposes (reproduction of sketches, pictures, 
etc.) : Mang, Via Sistina 113, first floor. — Portraits: Alessandri, Corso 12; 
Le Lieure, Piazza Mignanelli 23; Montabone , Piazza di Spagna 9; Rocca, 
Passeggiata di Ripetta 16; Schemboche, Via di Mercede 54; Fotografia Na- 
zionale, Via Gregoriana 20; Suscipi, Via Condotti 48; delta Valle, Via 
della Croce 67. -X^ 

Roman Pearls (key, Via del Babuino 122; Bartolini, Via Frattina 67; 
Lacchini, Piazza di Spagna 69. 

Roman Shawls: Augustini, Campo Marzo 3; Bianchi, Via della Minerva 
34 (also other Roman silk wares) ; Amadori, Corso 221 ; Arvotti, Via Con- 
dotti 4. 

Shoemakers: Berardi, Via Fontanella di Borghese 23; Briigner, Via 
in Arcione 104, i. ; Oiangrandi, Via Frattina 79; Jest, Corso 129; Rubini, 
Corso 223; Fratelli Miinster, Corso. 

Small Wares, etc.: Cagiati, Corso 167, 169; Janeiti, Via Condotti 18; 
A. Cagiati, Corso 250; Corti & Bianchelli ('Emporio Franco-Italiano') , at 
the corner of the Corso and Via Frattina; Old England, Via Nazionale; 
also Corso 405. 

Stationers : Calzone , Corso, entrance in the Via Lato ; Ricci , Corso 
214, Piazza Colonna; Antonelli, Corso 229, Piazza Sciarra; Brenta, Via del 
Plebiscito 104, near Palazzo Venezia; also Via Frattina 51. 

Tailors: Schraider, Piazza di Spagna 29; L. Evert, Piazza Borghese 
77; Mons, Via de' Due Macelli 48; Segre, Piazza di Trevi 86; Brassini, 
Corso 137. 

Umbrellas : Gilardini, Corso 185 ; Motta, Corso 354. 

Upholsterers: Levera, Via Condotti 60; Futterer, Via Sistina 132. 

Watchmakers: Kobell, Via Tre Cannelle 7; Kolbauer, Via de' Due 
Macelli 108; Gondret, Corso 144; Hausmann, Piazza Colonna 210. 

Weapons (permesso necessary , see p. xvi) : Spadini , Via de 1 Due 
Macelli 66; Toni, Corso 41. 

Theatres. The largest is the Teatro Apollo (PI. I, 10; for operas, 
always with ballet), near the Ponte S. Angelo, seats 8 or 4 fr. — 
Teatro Costanzi (PI. I, 25), Via Firenze ; Teatro Argentina (PI. II, 13, 
16), Via di Tor Argentina, near S. Andrea della Valle, for comic operas; 
Tkatro Valle (PI. II, 13, 15), near the Sapienza, for dramas, seat 3fr.; 

Post Office. ROME. Prelim. Information. 1 1 1 

Anfiteatro Umbekto I. (PI. I, 14), in the Mausoleum of Augustus (p. 185). 
— Besides these there are the smaller theatres : Teatro Capranica (PI. I 
16), Piazza Capranica; Teatro Metastasio (PI. I, 13, IS), Via di Palla- 
corda, near the Via della Scrofa, for vaudevilles with 'Pulcinella' (perfor- 
mances at 6.45 and 9.30 p.m., seat 1 fr. 25 c); Teatro Politeama, Traste- 
vere, near the Ponte Sisto; Teatro Manzoni, Via Urbana 153; Teatro 
Quirino (PI. II, 16, 19), Via delle Muratte, near the Fontana Trevi, for 
small operettas and ballet (performances at 5.30 and 9 p.m., adm. 1 fr.)- 
Alhambra, Prati di Castello (operas and ballet). — Circo Reale, Prati 
di Castelli. 

The companies usually change three times a year, one performing in 
autumn and winter tiil Christmas, another till Lent, and a third after Lent. 
Boxes are generally let permanently, and visits paid and received there. 
Ladies frequent the boxes only, gentlemen the pit (platea). Particulars 
about admission, etc., are published in the hand-bills. Comp. p. xxiv 

Marionette Theatre: Teatro Goldoni, Via de' Soldati. 

Cabs, Omnibuses, and Tramways, see Appendix. 

Porters (Fattorini Pubblici). The best are those of the Impresa Eo- 
mana, Via delF Umilta 79, with the name on their caps and a brass 
number on their coats. Porter with letter or luggage under 33lbs., 25- 
75 c. according to the distance. 

Post Office (comp. Introd., p. xxiv), Piazza di S. Silvestro in Capite, a 
large new edifice, open from 8 a.m. to 9.30 p.m. (PI. I, 16; also entered 
from the Via della Vite). Poste Restante letters ('ferma in posta 1 ) are de- 
livered at several windows for the different initials under the arcades 
in the court, on the right. Under the arcades, on the left, is a writing, 
room (letter 10 c). Branch Offices : at the railway-station (open till 10 
p.m), Via del Babiuno 106, Borgo Nuovo 7, Monte Savelli 4, Via Sistina 
147, Piazza Kavona, Via Alessandrina 99, Monte Citorio 132 (open 8-8). — 
Parcels Post at the general post-office and at Monte Citorio 132 (9-5). 

Telegraph Office, open day and night, in the General Post-office building, 
Piazza di S. Silvestro in Capite. Branch Offices : Piazza Aracoeli 33, Piazza 
S. Bernardo alle Terme 14, Piazza Ponte S. Angelo 33. 

English Churches. Old Anglican Church, established in 1818, near the 
Porta del Popolo (p. 139); services at 8. 30 a.m., 11 a.m., and 3 p.m., in 
summer 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. — Trinity Church, Piazza di S. Silvestro (p. 146); 
services at 11 a.m. and 3 p.m. — American Episcopal Church, a handsome 
brick edifice by Street, Via Nazionale; services at 9 a.m., 11 a.m., and 
4 p.m. — Scotch Presbyterian Church, outside the Porta del Popolo; services 
at 11 a.m. and 3 p.m. — English Methodist Church, Via della Scrofa 64. — 
American Episcopal Methodist Church, Piazza Poli. — Baptist Chapel, Piazza 
di San Lorenzo. — American Baptist Church, Strada Concorda, near the 
Teatro Valle. — A handsome new English church, designed by Street, is 
being erected in the Via del Babuino. 

Anglo-American Club, Via Condotti 21. — English Club, Via della 
Croce 78. 

Church Festivals. Since the annexation of Rome to the kingdom of 
Italy on 20th Sept., 1S70, the great ecclesiastical festivals have lost most 
of their splendour. The public ceremonies at which the Pope formerly 
officiated in person, such as those of the Holy Week, the benedictions, 
and the public processions including that of the Fete de Dieu, have been 
discontinued. The Pope still officiates on high festivals in the Sistine 
Chapel, but visitors are not admitted without an introduction from very 
high quarters. (Gentlemen are required to wear uniform or evening 
dress. Ladies must be dressed in black, with black veils or caps.) 

The following enumeration of the various festivals, as they were 
celebrated prior to 20th Sept. 1870, will still be found useful in many 
respects. Details are contained in the Qerarchia Cattolica , and the Diario 
Romano, published annually. The best work on the ceremonies of the 
Holy Week and their signification is the Manuale delle cerimonie che hantio 

112 Prelim. Information. ROME. Church Festivals. 

iuogo nella settimana santa e nelV otiava di pasqua al Vaticano (1 fr., also 
a French edition), obtainable at the bookshops mentioned at p. 108. 

The Pope used to officiate in person three times annually, on Christmas 
Day, Easter Sunday, and the Festival of St. Peter and St. Paul (29th June) ; and 
four times annually he imparted his benediction, on Holy Thursday and Easter- 
day from the balcony of St. Peter's , on Ascension Day from the Lateran, 
and on 15th Aug., the anniversary of the 'Assumption of the Virgin', from 
S. Maria Maggiore. The most imposing ceremonies were those of the Holy 
Week, from Palm Sunday to Easter Sunday, the most important of which took 
place in the Sistine Chapel , accompanied by the music ('lamentations' , etc.) 
of Palestrina and other old masters , on which occasions the papal band 
(cappella papale) performed. 

The following were the principal festivals: — 
January 1. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. m. 

— 5. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 3 p. m. 

— 6. Epiphany. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. m. ; at 4 p. m. 

procession in Araceli. 

— 17. S. Antonio Abbate (PI. II, 25, near S. Maria Maggiore) , bene- 

diction of domestic animals. 

— 18. Anniversary of foundation of the chair of St. Peter , Cap. Pa- 

pale in St. Peter's, 10 a. m. 
February 1. Illumination of the lower church of S. Clemente (p. 264). 

— 2. Candlemas. Cap. Papale in St. Peter's, 9 a. m. 

On Ash Wednesday and every Sunday during Lent, Cappella Papale in the 
Sistine at 10 a. m. The Lent sermons in Gesii (PI. II, 16), S. Maria 
sopra Minerva (PI. II, 16), and other churches are celebrated. 

March. Every Friday at 12 the Pope repaired to St. Peter's to pray during 
the confession. 

— 7. St. Thomas Aquinas, in S. Maria sopra Minerva (PI. II, 16). 

— 9. S. Francesca Romana (in the Forum). 

— 16. Festival in the chapel of the Palazzo Massimi (PI. II, 17) in 

commemoration of a resuscitation by S. Filippo Neri. 

— 25. Annunciation. Cap. Papale in S. Maria sopra Minerva (PI. II, 16). 

Holy Week. 

Palm Sunday. Cappella Papale in St. Peter's , 9 a. m. Consecration of 
palms and procession ; then mass. At 2 p. m. confession in the 
Lateran (PI. II, 30). 

Wednesday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 3 p. m. Tenebrse, Miserere. 

Holy Thursday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. m. Towards noon 
the benediction 'Urbi' from the loggia of St. Peter's. Then 
washing of feet in St. Peter's , immediately after a dinner to 
twelve pilgrims in the loggia of St. Peter's. Cappella Papale 
in the Sistine ,3 p.m. Tenebree and Miserere. 

Qood Friday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine , 9 a. m. (music by Pales- 
trina). At 3 p. m. Tenebrse and Miserere. 

Saturday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 9 a.m. (Missa di Papa Mar- 
cello, by Palestrina). Baptism of converts in the Lateran. 

Easter Sunday. Cappella Papale in St. Peter's , 9 a. m. The Pope ap- 
peared in the church at 10 o'clock and read mass. The eleva- 
vation of the host (about 11) was accompanied by the blast of 
trumpets from the dome. The Pope was then carried in proces- 
sion from the church, and about noon imparted the great bene- 
diction 'Urbi et Orbi' from the loggia of St. Peter's. After 
sunset, illumination of the dome of St. Peter's ; 1 hr. later 
torches were substituted for the lamps ('il cambiamento'). 

Easter Monday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 9 a. m. 

Easter Tuesday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 9 a. m. 

Saturday in Albis. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 9 a. m. 

April 25. Procession of the clergy from S. Marco (PI. II, 16) to St. Peter's 
at 7. 30 a. m. 

May 26. S. Filippo Neri. Cappella Papale in the Chiesa Nuova, 10 a. m. 

Popular Festivals. ROME. Prelim. Information. 113 

Ascension. Cappella Papale in the Lateran. Great benediction from the 

Whitsunday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine , 10 a. m. 
Trinity. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. in. 
Corpus Domini (Fete de Dieu). Procession of the Pope and clergy round 

the piazza of St. Peter's, 8 a. m. 
June 1. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, in memory of Gregory XVI. 

— 24. John the Baptist. Cappella Papale in the Lateran, 10 a. m. 

— 28. Eve of SS. Peter and Paul. Cappella Papale, St. Peter's, 6 p.m. 

— 29. SS. Peter and Paul. — Forenoon, Cappella Papale, St. Peter's. 
July 14. S. Bonaventura, in S. S. Apostoli. 

— 31. S. Ignazio, in Gesii. 

Aug. 1. St. Peter in Vinculis, in S. Pietro in Vincoli (PI. II, 23). 

— 5. S. Maria della Neve, in S. Maria Maggiore (PI. II, 25). 

— 15. Assumption of the Virgin. Cappella Papale in S. Maria Mag- 

giore (PI. II, 25), 9 a. m. ; great benediction from the loggia. 
Sept. 8. Nativity of the Virgin. Cappella Papale in S. Maria del Popolo 
(PI. I, 18), 10 a.m. 

— 14. Elevation of the Cross, in S. Marcello (PI. II, 16). 
Oct. 7. S. Marco, in the church of that saint (PI. II, 16). 

— 18. S. Luca, in the church of that saint (PI. II, 20). 

Nov. 1. All Saints' Day, Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. m. and 
3 p. m. 

— 2. All Souls' Day. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. m. 

— 3. Requiem for former Popes. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 

10 a. m. 

— 4. S. Carlo Borromeo. Cappella Papale in S. Carlo, 10 a. m. 

— 5. Requiem for deceased cardinals in the Sistine. 

— 7. Requiem for deceased singers of the Cappella Papale in the 

Chiesa Nuova (PI. II, 10). 
On the four Sundays of Advent, Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a.m. 

— 22. St. Cecilia. Cappella Papale in S. Cecilia in Trastevere (p. 335). 

Illumination of the Catacombs of Calliatus (p. 342). 

— 23. Illumination of the lower church of S. Clemente (p. 264). 

Dec. 8. Conception. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 3 p. m. Proces- 
sion from Aracosli (PI. II, 20). 

— 24. Christmas Eve. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 8 p. m. To 

wards midnight , solemnities in Aracoeli , about 5 a. m. in S. 
Maria Maggiore (PI. II, 25). 
Dec. 25. Christmas Day. Cappella Papale in St. Peter's, 9 a. m.; eleva- 
tion of the host announced by trumpets in the dome. 

— 26. St. Stephen's Day. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. m. 

— 27. St. John the Evangelist. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. m. 

— 31. Cappella Papale in the Sistine; after which, about 4 p. m., 

grand Te Deum in Gesii (PI. II, 16). 

Popular Festivals (which have lost much of their former interest) : — 

Epiphant (6th Jan. ), celebrated in the evening in the Piazza Navona, 
since 1873 (formerly near S. Eustachio) ; array of booths and prodigious din 
of toy-trumpets. 

The Carnival, which has of late regained a little of its former splen- 
dour, lasts from the second Saturday before Ash Wednesday to Shrove 
Tuesday, and consists in a daily procession in the Corso, accompanied by 
the throwing of bouquets and comfits (except on Sundays and Fridays, 
when a 'gala corso' generally takes place), and concluding with a horse-race. 
The last evening is the Moccoli (taper) evening, the tapers being lighted 
immediately after sunset. A window in the Corso is the best point of view. 
The liveliest scene is between the Piazza Colonna and S. Carlo. Balconies 
there are in great request (as high as 600 fr.) ; single places are let on stands 
fitted up for the occasion. 

The October Festival, in the vintage-season, once famous, is celebrated 
with singing, dancing, and carousals at the osterie outside the gates. 
Baeoekkb. Italy II. 8th Edition. 8 

114 Prelim. Information. ROME. Collections, Villas, etc. 

The Festa dello Statuto, or Festival of the Constitution, introduced 
since the annexation of Rome , is on the first Sunday in June. Military 
parade in the forenoon in the Campo di Maccao (p. 175). In the evening a 
~Girandola> or illumination and iire-works at the Castello di S. Angelo. — 
On the anniversary of the Foundation of Rome (21st April), it has of late 
been usual to illuminate the Colosseum and the Forum with Bengal fire. 

The opening of Parliament is also inaugurated with festivities. 

Street Scenes. The top of the Scala di Spagna (PI. I, 20) and the 
Via Sistina are the favourite haunts of artists' models, chiefly Neapolitans, 
whose costumes are a well-known subject of photographs and pictures. 

The picturesque Campagnoli, or herdsmen of the Campagna, are less 
frequently seen in the streets of Rome than formerly. They pass a great 
part of their lives on horseback, while tending their oxen and horses. Their 
equipment consists of a low felt-hat, wide, grey mantle, leathern leggings, 
and spurs; and they carry a 'pungolo', or iron- pointed goad, for driving 
their cattle. The peasants of remote mountain- districts, wearing sandals 
(whence termed ciociari), and with swathed feet and ankles, also present a 
grotesque appearance. — The favourite haunts of the country-people are in 
front of the Pantheon (PI. II, 16 ; especially on Sundays), the Piazza Montanara 
(PI. II, 17) below the Capitol, and the market-place of the Campo di 
Fiori (p. 203). 

The Garrison of Rome consists of 6 regiments of Infantry (wearing 
the 'giubba 1 , or dark blue coat common to the whole army, grey trousers, 
white leather belts , and caps) ; 2 regiments of Oranatieri (or Grenadiers ; 
infantry uniform, with a burning grenade on the cap to distinguish them); 
1 regiment of Bersaglieri or riflemen (dark blue uniform with crimson 
facings, large plumed caps worn on one side , forming an elite corps like 
the Austrian Kaiserjager) ; 1 regiment of Cavalry (dark blue uniform, light 
grey trousers, and helmets ; the Lanzieri wear fur caps and trousers faced 
with black); 1 brigade of Field Artillery (dark blue uniform with yellow 
facings) ; and 1 brigade of Engineers (dark blue uniform with crimson fa- 
cings). To these we may add the Carabinieri, or gensdarmes (p. xvi). 

Collections, Villas, etc. 

Changes in the arrangements take place so frequently that the follow- 
ing data cannot long remain accurate. Even the lists of sights contained 
in some of the daily newspapers are not always trustworthy (best in 
'L'ltalie'). Intending visitors should therefore make additional enquiry 
at the hotels, booksellers, etc. — Galleries and palaces within angular 
brackets in the following list are temporarily closed. Fees, comp. p. 108. 
Aceademia di S. Luca (p. 239), pictures, Mon. to Sat., 9-3. 
*Albani, Villa (p. 164), antiquities and pictures : Tuesdays, except 
in wet weather, from 10 or 11 to dusk; admittance by permesso, 
obtainable at the office in the Palazzo Torlonia, Piazza Venezia 
135, to the left on the ground-floor, on presenting a visiting- 
card (or at the consulate). Often closed for several months in 
summer and autumn. 
Barberini, Palazzo (p. 167), picture-gallery and antiquities : daily, 
except Sun. and Thurs., 12-5; Thurs. 2-5; library on Thurs., 
9-2 (closed from the middle of Sept. to the end of Oct.). 
Bartholdy, Casa (p. 143), a room with frescoes by Cornelius, Over- 
beck, and others : hours vary ; apply to porter. 
"'Borghese, Palazzo (p. 186), pictures: Mon., Wed., andFrid., 9-3. 
*Borghese, Villa (p. 160), garden: Tues., Thurs., Sat., and Sun., 
after 1 ; statues in the casino, Sat., in winter 1-4, in summer 
by permesso, 4-7. 

Collections, Villas, etc. ROME. Prelim. Information. 115 

* Capitoline Museum (p. 217), daily, 10-3, 50 c; Sun. and some pub- 

lic holidays, 10-1, free; closed on certain festivals (p. 213). 
Castello S. Angelo (p. 278) : daily by pennesso, obtainable at the 

Comando di Divisione Territorial di Roma , Via del Burro (a 

street connecting the Piazza di Pietra and Piazza S. Ignazio ; 

PI. I, II, 16), No. 147, second floor. 
Catacombs of St. Callistus (p. 341), daily, see p. 336. Each visitor 

should be provided with a candle (cerino). 

* Colonna, Palazzo (p. 155), picture-gallery: Tues. & Sat., 11-3. 

* Conservators , Palace of (p. 213), new collection, bronzes and 

pictures : times of admission same as for the Capitoline Museum. 
Corsini, Palazzo (p. 327), picture-gallery: Mon., Thurs., and Sat., 

10-3, except on holidays ; but daily during the Easter fortnight. 
*Doria, Palazzo (p. 151), picture-gallery: Tues. and Frid. 10-2; 

or Wed. or Sat., if one of the usual days is a holiday. 
Farnese, Palazzo (p. 203) : no admission.] 
Farnesina, Villa (p. 326): closed at present ; professional visitors 

with satisfactory introductions may obtain admission by written 

application to the Duca di Ripalto.] 

* Forum Romanum (p. 223): daily, 7-12 and 3-7. 

* Kircheriano, Museo (p. 149), antiquities and ethnographical col- 

lection : daily, except public holidays, 9-3 (1 fr.). Sun. free. 

* Lateran, Collections of the (p. 272) : daily, 9-3. 
S. Luca, Academy of (p. 239): daily, 10-3. 

*Ludovisi, Villa (p. 163), ancient sculptures: Thurs. from 10 till 
dusk (often closed in summer) by permesso (for 6 persons), pro- 
curable at the traveller's consulate. 
Maltese Villa and S. Maria Aventina (p. 255) : Wed. and Sat., 9 

to dusk. 
[Massimo, Villa (p. 276), frescoes : admission rarely granted.] 
Medici, Villa (p. 142), collection of casts: daily, 8-12, and 
afternoon till dusk, except Sat. 

* Palatine Excavations (p. 243): daily, adm. 1 fr. ; on Sun. and 

holidays gratis, 9 till dusk ; closed in summer 12-3. 
*Pamphilj, Villa Doria (p. 332): Mon. and Frid., 1 till dusk; ad- 
mission to the Casino , the Private Garden , and the Colum- 
baria, by permesso, obtainable at the Palazzo Doria (p. 151); 
on Mon. and Frid". afternoons two-horse carriages and one-horse 
carriages without numbers also admitted. 
Quirinale , Palazzo del (p. 169), the residence of the King, daily, 
but part of it only is shown. 
*Rospiyliosi, Casino (p. 170), pictures: Wed. and Sat., 9-3. 
[Sciarra - Colonna , Palazzo, seep. 148.] 

Spada alia Regola, Palazzo (p. 204), antiquities, pictures : usually 
Tues., Thurs., and Sat., 10-3; closed in the height of summer. 
*Thermae of Caracalla (p. 259): daily, 9 till dusk (1 fr.); Sun. 


116 Prelim. Information. ROME. Collections, Villas, etc. 

Thermae of Titus (p. 238): admission as to the preceding. 
Torlonia, Museo (p. 328), by written application to the prince 

(Palazzo Torlonia, Piazza di Venezia 135). 
[Torlonia, Palazzo, closed, seep. 157.] 
Torlonia, Villa (p. 172) : Thurs., 1-3, by permesso obtainable at 

the Palazzo Torlonia, Piazza di Venezia 135. 
* Vatican Collections and Library (p. 290) accessible on the days 

mentioned below (but always closed on Sat., Sun., and holi- 
days), gratis, by perinessi, to be obtained through a consul, or 

by direct application at the Segretaria of the Maggiordomo (9-1 

o'clock) in the Cortile di S. Damaso (p. 290). 
Intending visitors apply to the Swiss guard (no gratuity) at the 
Portone di Bionzo, opposite the chief entrance to the Vatican (p. 290), and 
are conducted to the office, where they write their names in the permesso. 
The hotel-keepers also procure permessi for their guests at a charge of 
f/2 fr. each. On leaving the Vatican the visitor who intends to return 
should at once procure another permesso in the way above mentioned, 
or ask the custodian to give him back the old one O/2 fr.). 

Besides the permessi for artists and scientific men mentioned below, 
there are three kinds of ordinary permessi (each available for 5 persons): 
1. For Raphaels Sianze and Loggie , the Picture Qallery , and the Sistine 
Chapel, 9-3 o'clock on the first five week-days, festivals excepted. — 2. For 
the Museum of Statuary , Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, 
9-3. — 3. For the Etruscan Museum, Egyptian Museum, and RaphaeVs Tapestry, 
Thursday 9-3, feast-days excepted. — The Permessi Nos. 1 and 2 are 
printed on white paper, No. 3 on yellow. 

The Vatican Library is open on the same days as the Museum of Sta- 
tuary (Mon., Tues., Wed., Frid., 8-12), no permesso being required. 

Wolkonsky, Villa (p. 277) : Wed. and Sat. from morning till 
dusk. Permesso available for 6 persons. 

Those who desire to study, draw , or copy in Roman museums or pri- 
vate collections must procure a Permesso through their ambassador or con- 
sul. For the Papal Museums permission is granted by Monsignor Theodoli 
(maggiordomo of the pope) at his office (see above) , the written appli- 
cation having been left there a day or two previously. (Separate permessi 
required for the museums of the Vatican and Lateran, the Vatican picture- 
gallery, and Raphael's Loggie.) In the case of Private Galleries, application 
must be made to the proprietor in Italian or French, stating also which 
picture it is intended to copy, and the size and description of the copy. 
In some collections copies of the original size must not be made. As to 
this and similar regulations, information should be previously obtained from 
the custodian. The following form of application to the Monsgr. Maggior- 
domo, may be also addressed to a principe or marchese, the 'Revma' being 
in this case omitted. 

Eccellenza Revma, 

II soltoscritto, che si trattiene a Roma con lo scopo di proseguire in questa 
capitate i suoi sludj arlistici (storici, etc.), si prende la liberla di rivolgersi 
con questa a Vra Eccellenza Revma pregando La perche voglia accordargli it 
grazioso permesso di far degli sludj (dei disegni, delle notizie, etc.) nel Museo 
(nella Galleria) Vaiicano. 

Sperando di essere favorito da Vra Eccellenza Revma e pregando La di 
gradire anticipatamente i piii sinceri suoi ringraziamenli, ha Vonore di pro~ 
testarsi col piii profondo rispelto ,. „ . „ „ _, 

di Vra Eccellenza Revma 
Roma li . . . . Ummo Obbiho Servitore 

A Sua Eccellenza Revma N. iV. 

Monsignor Theodoli 

Maggiordomo di Sua Sanlila. 

Diary. ROME. Prelim. Information. 117 


(To be compared with the preceding Alphabetical List). 

Daily: Capitoline Museum (p. 217) and Palace of the Conser- 
vatori (p. 213), 10-3, adm. 50c; Sun., 10-1, gratis. — Forum 
Romanum (p. 223), 7-12 and 3-7. — Excavations on the Palatine 
(p. 243), 9 till dusk; adm. 1 fr. ; Sun. gratis (closed in summer 
from 12 to 3). — Thermae of Caracalla (p. 259), 9 till dusk ; adm. 
1 fr. ; Sun. gratis (closed in summer 12-3). — Catacombs of St. 
Oallistus (p. 341), etc. 

Daily, except Sundays and Holidays : Collections of the Lateran 
(p. 272) 9-3. — Academy of S. Luca (p. 239) 9-3. — Galleria 
Barberini(p. 167) 12-5, Thurs. 2-5. • — Museo Kircheriano (p. 149) 
9-3. — Casino of the Villa Doria PamphTlj (p. 332). 

Sundays: Villa Borghese (p. 160), in the afternoon. 

Mondays : Vatican Collections (Raphael's Stanze and Loggie, 
Picture Gallery, Sistine Chapel, Museum of Statuary, and Library), 
9-3. — Galleria Borghese (p. 186) 9-3. — Galleria Corsini (p. 327) 
9-3. — Galleria Spada (p. 204) 10-3. — Villa Pamphllj (p. 333). 

Tuesdays: Vatican Collections (Raphael's Stanze and Loggie, 
Picture Gallery, Sistine Chapel, Museum of Statuary, and Library), 
9-3. — Galleria Doria (p. 151) 10-2. — Galleria Colonna (p. 155) 
11-3. — Villa Albani (p. 164), and Villa Borghese (p. 160), in the 

Wednesdays : Vatican Collections (Raphael's Stanze and Loggie, 
Picture Gallery, Sistine Chapel, Museum of Statuary, and Library), 
9-3. — Casino Rospigliosi (p. 170) 9-4. — Galleria Borghese (p. 186) 
9-3. — Galleria Spada (p. 204) 10-3. — Villa Wolkonsky (p. 277). 

— S. Maria Aventina (p. 255), from 9 a.m. 

Thursdays : Vatican Collections (Raphael's Stanze and Loggie, 
Picture Gallery, Sistine Chapel, Etruscan and Egyptian Museums, 
and Raphael's Tapestry), 9-3. — Dome of St. Peter's (p. 288) 8-11. 

— Galleria Corsini (p. 327) 9-3. — Barberini Library (p. 168) 9-2. 

— Villa Ludovisi (p. 163), 10 till dusk. — Villa Torlonia (p. 172) 
1-3. — Villa Borghese (p. 160), in the afternoon. 

Fridays : Vatican Collections (Raphael's Stanze and Loggie, Pic- 
ture Gallery, Sistine Chapel , Museum of Statuary , and Library), 
9-3. — Galleria Borghese (p. 186) 9-3. — Galleria Doria (p. 151) 
10-2. — Villa Doria-Pamphilj (p. 332). 

Saturdays: Casino Rospigliosi (p. 170) 9-4. — Galleria Spada 
(p. 204) 10-3. — Galleria Corsini (p. 327) 9-3. — Galleria Co- 
lonna (p. 155) 11-3. — Villa Borghese, and antiquities in the Ca- 
sino (p. 160), in the afternoon. — Villa Wolkonsky (p. 277). — 
S. Maria Aventina (p. 255) 9 till dusk. 

118 Prelim. Information. ROME. Duration of Visit. 

Duration of Visit. To become thoroughly acquainted with the 
matchless attractions of Rome , the traveller should spend a whole 
winter in the 'Eternal City', and even to obtain a hasty glimpse at 
them he must make a stay of 10-14 days at least. 

Summary of Chief Attractions. 

Churches : St. Peter's (p. 281), S. Giovanni in Laterano (p. 269), S. Maria 
Maggiore (p. 176), S. Lorenzo fuori le Mura (p. 180), S. Paolo fuori le 
Mura (p. 256), Sistine Chapel (p. 291), S. Agostino (p. 192), S. Clemente 
(p. 264), S. Croce in Gerusalemme (p. 182), S. Maria degli Angeli (p. 174), 
S. Maria in Aracoeli (p. 210). S. Maria sopra Minerva (p. 196), S. Maria della 
Pace (p. 199), S. Maria del Popolo (p. 139), S. Maria in Trastevere (p. 334), 
S. Onofrio (p. 325), S. Pietro in Vincoli (p. 184), S. Prassede (p. 178). 

Palaces : Palazzo della Cancelleria (p. 202) , Farnese (p. 203), Giraud 
(p. 279), di Venezia (p. 157). 

Ruins : Forum (p. 223), Colosseum (p. 235), Imperial Palaces (p. 242), 
Cloaca Maxima (p. 250), Thermae of Titus and Caracalla (pp. 238, 259), 
Pantheon (p. 194), Theatre of Marcellus (p. 208), Forum of Trajan (p. 240), 
the so-called Temple of Antoninus Pius (p. 148), Pyramid of Cestius 
(p. 253). — Catacombs of St. Callistus (p. 341). 

Collections op Statues in the Vatican (p. 306), Capitol (p. 213), La- 
teran (p. 272), Villa Ludovisi (p. 163), Albani (p. 164), Borghese (p. 160), 
Palazzo Spada (p. 204), Museo Torlonia (p. 328). 

Pictures : Raphael's Loggie and Stanze (p. 296), galleries of the Vatican 
(p. 304), Palazzi Borghese (p. 186), Barberini (p. 167), Colonna (p. 155), and 
Doria (p. 151). 

Promenades : Monte Pincio (p. 141), where a military band plays daily 
2 hours before sunset (but in summer in the Piazza Colonna), attracting a 
fashionable crowd both of Romans and foreigners. — Also the Villa Bor- 
ghese , the most popular of the Roman villas (p. 160); the Villa Doria- 
Pamphllj (p. 332); and the Via Appia (pp. 258, 348). 

Points op View on the left bank: The Pincio (PI. 1,18; p. 141), 
Basilica of Constantine (PI. II, 20), Palatine (PI. II, 21), the space in front 
of the Lateran (PI. II, 30), Monte Testaccio (PI. Ill, 13); on the right 
bank: *S. Pietro in Montorio (PI. II, 12), S. Onofrio (PI. II, 7), the gar- 
den of the Palazzo Corsini (PI. II, 11). 

A Fortnight's Visit. The traveller who desires to see most of 
the above sights within a fortnight must economise time by drawing 
up a careful programme for each day before starting, or by following 
the plan suggested below. With regard to meals, it is hardly ne- 
cessary to say that the heavy 'dejeuner a la fourchette' in the middle 
of the day should be eschewed, as it encroaches on the most valu- 
able part of the day , and that the usual English hours for a sub- 
stantial breakfast, slight lunch, and late dinner should be observ- 
ed. One of the first things to be done is to secure 'permessi' for the 
Vatican, Villa Albani, Villa Doria-Pamphilj, Villa Ludovisi, etc., 
in the way mentioned on p. 116, or through the Consulate (p. 104), 
which is much simpler. 

1st Day. The first part of this had better be devoted to what may 
be called an '■Orientation Drive''. 

Engage a cab for 2-3 hrs. (tariff, see Appendix) and drive down the 
Corso as far as the Piazza di Venezia, through the Via di Marforio to the 
Forum, past the Colosseum, through the Via di S. Giovanni in Laterano 
to the Piazza in front of the church, commanding a fine view of the Al- 
ban Jits.; then through the Via Mtrulana, passing S. Maria Maggiore, 
through the Via di S. Maria Maggiore, Via di S. Lorenzo in Paneperna, 

Fortnights Visit. ROME. Prelim. Information. 119 

Via Magnanapoli, across the Forum of Trajan, through the Via di S. Mar- 
co, Via delle Botteghe Oscure, across the Piazza Mattei, with its hand- 
some fountain, through the Via de' Falegnami, Piazza S. Carlo, Via de' Pet- 
tinari, by the Ponte Sisto to Trastevere, through the Longara to the Piazza 
di S. Pietro; then through the Borgo Nuovo, across the Piazza Pia, 
past the Castle of S. Angelo, over the Ponte S. Angelo , and through the 
quarter on the left hank of the Tiber to the Piazza in Aracoeli at the foot 
of the Capitol , where the cab may be dismissed. Ascend to the Piazza 
del Campidoglio (p. 211), visit the Capitoline Museum (p. 217) and the Forum 
Romanum (p. 223), and lastly spend the evening on the Pincio (p. 141). 

2nd Day (Mon. or Wed.). Mausoleum of Augustus (p. 185) : Grtlleria 
Borghese (p. 186; 9-3); S. Agostino (p. 192); Pantheon fp. 191);' 5. Maria 
sopra Minerva (p. 196); S. Maria delV Anima (p. 198); S. Maria della 
Pace (p. 199); Cancelleria (p. 202); Pal Farnese (p. 203); Ponte Sisto (p. 329); 
S. Maria in Trastevere (p. 334); S. Pietro in Montorio fp. 330); then, if time 
permit, walk from the Porta S. Pancrazio to the Porti Portese (p. 332). 

3rd Day (Mon., Tues , Wed., or Frid.). Palazzo Oiraud (p. 279); St. 
Peters fp. 281); Sistine Chapel (p. 291; 9-3); Antiquities (p. 306; 9-3); walk 
through the Porta Angelica to the Monte Mario and Villa Mellini (p. 358). 

4tii Day (Mon., Thurs., or Sat.). Raphael's Slanze and Loggie, Vatican 
Picture Gallery (p. 296; Mon. to Frid. 9-3); Galleria Corsini and garden 
(p. 327; 10-3); Palatine (p. 242). 

5th Day (any week-day). Museo Kircheriano (p. 149) ; Forum of Tra- 
jan (p. 240); Fora of Augustus (p. 240) and Nerva (Colonnacce, p. 239); 
S. Pietro in Vincoli (p. 184); Thermae of Titus (p. 238); Colosseum (p. 235); 
Arch of Constantine (p. 237) ; walk over the Caelius (p. 262), if time permit. 

6th Day (Tues.). S. Maria del Popolo (p. 139); Gesii (p. 159); Galle- 
ria Doria (p. 151; 10-2); Galleria Colonna (p. 155; 11-3); Quirinal (p. 169); 
S. Bernardo (p. 171); S. Maria degli Angeli (Thermae of Diocletian, pp. 173, 
174); Villa Albani (p. 164; after 10 or 11 a.m.); S. Agnese fuori le Mura 
(p. 172), if time left. 

7th Day (any day). S. Clemente (p. 264); Lateran, Museum (9-3), 
Church and Baptistery (p. 271). Return to the Forum Eomanum: Janus 
Quadrifrons (p. 250); Cloaca Maxima (p. 250); Ponte Rotto (p. 251); so- 
called Temple of Fortuna Virilis (p. 250) and that of Hercules Victor 
(p. 251); S. Maria in Cosmedin (p. 250). Then Monte Testaccio (p. 253); 
Pyramid of Cestius (p. 253); S. Paolo fuori le Mura (p. 256). 

8th Day (Thurs.). Ascend Dome of St. Peter's (p. 288; 8-10); Etrus- 
can Museum (p. 319; 9-3); Raphael's Tapestry (p. 321); second visit to 
Sistine Chapel and to Raphael's Stanze and Loggie or to the Picture Gal- 
lery (9-3); S. Onofrio (p. 325); Villa Ludovisi (p. 163). 

9th Day (any day). .S. Maria Maggiore (p. 176) ; S. Prassede (p. 178) ; 
Arch of Gallienus (p. 179); Temple of Minerva Medica (p. 181); 8. Croce 
in Gerusalemme (p. 182); S. Lorenzo fuori le Mura (p. 180); return by 
tramway; Galleria Baroerini (p. 167; 12-4, Thurs. 2-4). Excursion to Ponte 
Molle and Acqua Acetosa (p. 356). 

10th Day (any day). S. Maria in Aracoeli (p. 210) ; collections in the 
Palace of the Conservatori (p. 213 ; 9-3) ; Thermae of Caracalla (p. 259) ; 
Via Appia, within and without the city (pp. 25S, 348), and the Catacombs 
of Callistus (p. 341). Back by the tombs on the Via Latina (p. 353). 

11th & 12th Days. Another day or two should be devoted to revisit- 
ing the collections of antiquities in the Vatican and the Capitol and the 
Borghese Gallery; a visit may also be paid to the Casino of the Villa Bor- 
ghese (p. 160; Sat., in winter only, 1-4), the Galleria Spada (p. 204; 
Mon., Wed., Sat., 10-3), etc. 

13th & 14th Days. Lastly, a day should certainly be devoted to the 
Alban Mis. (p. 359), and another to Tivoli (p. 369)." These excursions 
should not be postponed till the end of the visitor's stay at Rome. They 
may be made on a Sunday, which is not a good day for sight-seeing. 

120 Prelim. Information. ROME. Bibliography. 


The literature on the history and topography of Rome, especially of 
ancient Rome, is so extensive, that it is impossible to do more than in- 
dicate a few of the most useful works on the subject. At the revival of 
learning after the dark ages numerous scholars, such as Poggio (1440), 
Flavio Biondo, and Lucio Fauno, devoted themselves with enthusiasm to 
exploration in this field. The most important of the mediaeval works on 
Rome is Nardinfs Roma Antica (1660), edited by Nibby in 1818. Among 
modern works we may mention the following: — 

1. Italian. Nuova Descrizione di Roma Antica e Moderna 1820, by C. Fea. 

Indicazione Topografica di Roma Antica (3rd ed., 1841) and other works 

by Canina. 
Roma neW Anno 1838, by Nibby (3 vols.; 1843). 

2. German. Gesehichte und Beschreibung der Sladt Rom, by Sachse (1824). 

Besehreibung Rome, by Niebuhr, Plainer, Bunsen, Ulrichs, and others, a 
learned and extensive work forming the basis for all subsequent ex- 
ploration (6 vols., 1830-42). An abridgment of this work, in 1 vol., 
was issued by Platner and Ulrichs in 1845. 

Handbuch der Romischen Alterthiimer, by W. A. Becker, a useful sup- 
plement to the foregoing. 

Topographie der Stadt Rom im Allerthum, by H. Jordan, with an ac- 
count of the present state of the excavations (1871-78). 

Darstellnngen aus der Sittengeschichte Roms in der Zeit von August bis 
zum Ausgang der Antonine , by L. Friedlaender , a valuable contri- 
bution to the social history of the imperial era (5th ed., Leipsic, 
1881-82). " 

Gesehichte der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter, by Ferdinand Gregorovius , a 
history of Rome in the middle ages, closing in 1535 (1858-72). 

Gesehichte der Stadt Rom, by A. von Reumont, a history of Rome from 
its foundation to 1846 (3 vols. ; Berlin, 1867-70). 

3. English. Walls in Rome, by Augustus J. C. Hare (11th ed., 1883). an 

admirable cicerone for the ordinary visitor to Rome (may be bor- 
rowed at Piale's library). 

Rome, Ancient and Modem , by the Rev. Br. Donovan (4 vols. ; 1842), 
based on the works of Professor Nibby. 

Transformation or The Marble Faun, by Nathaniel Hawthorne, contains 
much incidental matter of interest for the visitor to Eome. 

Archaeology of Rome, by J. It. Parker, with about 500 photographs. 

Architectural History of Rome, by /. H. Parker (1881). 

Rome under Pius IX., by S. W. Fullom (1864). 

Rome Illustrated, by Fronds Wey. 

Architectural Antiquities of Rome, by Taylor A Cresy (new ed., 1874). 

Rome and the Campagna, by Burn. 

Historic and Monumental Rome, by C. J. Hemans (1874). 

Manual of Roman Antiquities, by Prof. Ramsay. 

Topography of Rome and its Vicinity, by Sir William Gell (1846). 

The Roman Catacombs , by the Rev. J. Spencer Northcote (new ed., 

The reader need scarcely be reminded of the histories of Gibbon, Nie- 
buhr, Mommsen, Merivale, Arnold, Ihne, and Schmitz. 

Origin of Rome. ROME. History. 121 

History of the City of Rome. 

Difficult as it undoubtedly is to trace the career of the Eternal 
City throughout upwards of two thousand years, and to mark and 
appreciate the manifold vicissitudes which it has undergone, the 
traveller will naturally desire to form some acquaintance with 
the history of the ancient centre of Western civilisation, the city of 
the Republic and Empire, on the ruins of which the seat of a vast 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction was afterwards founded , and now the 
capital of an important and steadily progressing modern state. 
Wherever we tread , our thoughts are involuntarily diverted from 
the enjoyment of the present to the contemplation of the past ; and 
the most careless of pleasure-seekers will find it difficult to with- 
stand the peculiar influence of the place. The following sketch is 
merely designed to put the traveller in the way of making farther 
researches for himself, and deals exclusively with those leading and 
general facts with which he ought to be acquainted before proceed- 
ing to explore the city in detail. 

As the more remote history of Italy is involved in much ob- 
scurity, so also the origin of the city of Rome is to a great extent a 
matter of meTe conjecture. It was not till a comparatively late 
period that the well known legend of Romulus and Remus was 
framed, and the year B. C. 753 fixed as the date of the foundation. 
In all probability, however , Rome may lay claim to far greater an- 
tiquity. We are led to this conclusion, not only by a number of 
ancient traditions, but also by the recent discovery in Latium of 
relics of the flint-period , an epoch far removed from any written 
records. The Palatine was regarded by the ancients as the nucleus 
of the city, around which new quarters grouped themselves by slow 
degrees ; and it was here that Romulus is said to have founded his 
city, the RomaQuadrata, of which Tacitus (Ann. 12, 241 states the 
supposed extent. Modern excavations have brought to light portions 
of the wall , gateways , and streets which belonged to the most an- 
cient settlement (see pp. 242, 243). After the town of Romulus had 
sprung up on the Palatine, a second, inhabited by Sabines, was built 
on the Quirinal, and the two were subsequently united into one 
community. Whilst each retained its peculiar temples and sanctu- 
aries, the Forum , situated between them , and commanded by the 
castle and the temple of Jupiter on the Capitol , formed the com- 
mon focus and place of assembly of the entire state, and the Forum 
and Capitol maintained this importance down to the latest period of 
ancient Rome. The rapid growth of the city is mainly to be attri- 
buted to its situation , the most central in the peninsula , alike 
adapted for a great commercial town , and for the capital of a vast 
empire. The advantages of its position were thoroughly appreciated 
by the ancients themselves , and are thus enumerated by Livy 
(5, 54): 'flumen opportunum , quo ex mediterraneis locis fruges 

122 History. ROME. The Kings. 

devehantur , quo rnaritimi commeatus accipiantur, mare vicinum 
ad oommoditates nee expositum nimia propinquitate ad pericula 
classinm externarum , regionum Itali<e medium, ad incrementum 
urbis natum unice locum'. The Tiber was navigable for sea-going 
ships as far as Rome, whilst its tributaries, such as the Anio, Nera, 
Chiana, and Topino, contained sufficient water for the river vessels 
which maintained a busy traffic between Rome and the interior of 
the peninsula. The state of these rivers has, however, in the course 
of ages undergone a complete revolution, chiefly owing to the grad- 
ual levelling of the forests on the mountains , and at the present 
day the lower part only of the Tiber, below Orte, is navigable. 

Whilst the origin of the capital of the world is traditionally re- 
ferred to Romulus, its extension is attributed with something more 
of certainty to Servius Tullius. Around the twin settlements on the 
Palatine and Quirinal, extensive suburbs on the Esquiline and 
Caelius , as well as on the lower ground between the hills, had 
sprung up ; for not only were numerous strangers induced to settle 
permanently at Rome on account of its commercial advantages, but 
the inhabitants of conquered Latin towns were frequently trans- 
planted thither. Out of these heterogeneous elements a new civic 
community was organised towards the close of the period of the 
kings , and its constitution commemorated by the erection of the 
Servian Wall, considerable remains of which are still extant. This 
structure , which was strengthened by a moat externally and a 
rampart within, is of great solidity. It enclosed the Aventine 
(p. 252), the Caelius, Esquiline, Viminal, Quirinal (p. 161), and 
Capitol (p. 209) , and is computed to have been about 7 M. in cir- 
cumference. Whilst care was taken thus to protect the city ex- 
ternally, the kings were not less solicitous to embellish the interior 
with handsome buildings. To this period belongs the Circus in the 
valley between the Palatine and the Aventine (p. 252), and above 
all the Cloaca Maxima (p. 250), destined to drain the swampy site 
of the Forum, and still admired for its massive construction. This 
energetic and brilliant development of the city under the kings of 
the Tarquinian family in the 6th cent. B.C. came to a close with 
the expulsion of the last king Tarquinius Superbus (509). 

During the first century of the Republic the united efforts of 
the citizens were directed to the task of establishing themselves 
more securely in the enjoyment of their new acquisitions; and in 
this they succeeded, although not without serious difficulty. It 
was a hard and bitter period of probation that the nation had to 
undergo in the first period of its new liberty, and it was not till the 
decline of the Etruscan power that Rome began to breathe freely 
again. After protracted struggles she succeeded in conquering and 
destroying her formidable rival Veii (396), a victory by which the 
Roman supremacy was established over the south of Etruria as far 
as the Ciminian Forest. Shortly afterwards (390) the city, with the 

The Republic. ROME. History. 123 

exception of the Capitol, was taken and entirely destroyed by the 
Gauls. Although this catastrophe occasioned only a transient loss 
of the prestige of Rome, it produced a marked effect on the external 
features of the city. The work of re-erection was undertaken with 
great precipitation ; the new streets were narrow and crooked, the 
houses poor and unattractive , and down to the time of Augustus, 
Rome was far from being a handsome city. Her steadily increasing 
power, however, could not fail in some degree to influence her ar- 
chitecture. During the contests for the supremacy over Italy, the 
first aqueduct and the first high road were constructed at Rome by 
Appius Claudius in 312 [Aqua and Via Appia , p. 348) ; in 272 a 
second aqueduct (Anio Veins) was erected. Down to the period of 
the Punic wars Rome had not extended beyond the walls of Servius 
Tullius ; but, after the overthrow of Carthage had constituted her 
mistress of the world, the city rapidly increased. The wall was al- 
most everywhere demolished to make room for new buildings , so 
that even in the time of Augustus it was no longer an easy matter 
to determine its former position , and new quarters now sprang up 
on all sides. Speculation in houses was extensively carried on, and 
it was by this means that the Triumvir Crassus, among others, 
amassed his fortune ; for rents were high, and the houses of a slight 
and inexpensive construction. These insulae, or blocks of houses 
erected for hire, contrasted strikingly with the domus, or palaces of 
the wealthy, which were fitted up with the utmost magnificence 
and luxury. Thus, for example, the tribune Clodius, the well- 
known opponent of Cicero , purchased his house for the sum of 
14,800,600 sesterces («'. e. about 130,5254.). During the last cen- 
tury B.C. the city began to assume an aspect more worthy of its 
proud dignity as capital of the civilised world. The streets, hitherto 
unpaved , were now converted into the massive lava-causeways 
which are still visible on many of the ancient roads [e. g. Via 
Appia). The highest ambition of the opulent nobles was to per- 
petuate their names by the erection of imposing public buildings. 
Thus in 184 M. Fortius Cato erected the first court of judicature 
(Basilica Portia) in the Forum , and others followed his example. 
Pompey was the founder of the first theatre in stone (p. 205). Gen- 
erally, however, the structures of the republic were far inferior to 
those of the imperial epoch, and owing to this circumstance but few 
of the former have been preserved (Tabularium of B. C. 78, p. 223; 
tombs of Bibulus, p. 159, and Caecilia Metella, p. 350). 

The transformation of the republic into a Military Di;sroTiSM 
involved the introduction of a new architectural period also. Usurp- 
ers are generally wont to direct their energies to the construction 
of new buildings , with a view to obscure the lustre of the older 
edifices, and to obliterate the associations connected with them. 
Caesar himself had formed the most extensive plans of this nature, 
but their execution was reserved for his more fortunate nephew. Of 

124 History. ROME. The Emperors. 

all the ruins of ancient Rome those of the buildings of Augustus 
occupy by far the highest rank , both in number and importance. 
The points especially worthy of note are the Campus Martins with 
the Pantheon (p. 194) and the Thermae of Agrippa (p. 195) , the 
Theatre of Marcellus (p. 208) and the Mausoleum of Augustus (p. 
185), the Basilica Julia (p. 229), and the Forum of Augustus with 
the Temple of Mars (p. 240). No fewer than 82 temples were re- 
stored by Augustus ( 'templorum omnium conditorem ac restitutorem' 
as he is termed by Livy), who might well boast of having trans- 
formed Rome from a town of brick into a city of marble. During the 
republican period the ordinary volcanic stone of the neighbourhood 
was the usual building material, but the marble from the quarries 
of Carrara (discovered about 100 B. 0., but not extensively worked 
till the time of Augustus) and the beautiful travertine from the vi- 
cinity of Tivoli were now employed. The administration and po- 
lice-system of the city were also re-organised by Augustus , who 
divided Rome into 14 quarters (regiones) , adapted to its increased 
extentfp. 125). A corpsof watchmen fvigiles), who also served as fire- 
men, was appointed to guard the city by night. These and other wise 
institutions, as well as the magnificence attained by the city under 
Augustus, are depicted in glowing terms by his contemporaries. 
His successors followed his example in the erection of public edi- 
fices , each striving to surpass his predecessors. In this respect 
Nero (54-68) displayed the most unbridled ambition. The con- 
flagration of the year 54 , which reduced the greater part of Rome 
to ashes , having been ignited , it is said , at the emperor's in- 
stigation, afforded him an opportunity of rebuilding the whole city 
in a modern style and according to a regular plan. For his own use 
he erected the 'Golden House\ a sumptuous palace with gardens, 
lakes, and pleasure-grounds of every description, covering an enor- 
mous area, extending from the Palatine across the valley of the Co- 
losseum, and far up the Esquiline (p. 176). These and other works 
were destroyed by his successors, and well merited their fate; the frag- 
ments which still bear the name of Nero at Rome are insignificant. 
The Flavian Dynasty, which followed the Julian, has on the 
other hand perpetuated its memory by a number of most imposing 
works, above all the Colosseum (p. 235), which has ever been re- 
garded as the symbol of the power and greatness of Rome, the Baths 
of Titus on the Esquiline (p. 238) , and the Triumphal Arch 
(p. 234) erected after the destruction of Jerusalem. Under Trajan, 
architecture received a new impetus , and indeed attained the 
highest development of which the art was capable at Rome. To 
this the Forum of Trajan (p. 240), with the column, and the 
reliefs afterwards employed to decorate Constantine's a ch, bear the 
most eloquent testimony. Under Trajan, indeed, the culminating 
point both of art and of political greatness was attained. Thence- 
forward the greatness of the empire began gradually, but steadily to 

The Emperors. ROME. History. 125 

decline. Although under the next emperor Hadrian this down- 
ward tendency was apparently arrested, yet the monuments of his 
reign, such as the Temple of Venus and Roma (p. 234) and his 
Mausoleum (p. 278), begin to exhibit traces of degeneracy. The same 
remark applies also to the time of the Antonines. These monarchs 
were remarkable for their excellent qualities as sovereigns, and 
their peaceful sway has frequently been regarded as the period 
during which mankind in general enjoyed the greatest prosperity. 
There is even a tradition that 'the good old times' will return when 
the equestrian statue of the worthy Marcus Aurelius, the gilding of 
which has almost entirely disappeared, shall resume its costly cover- 
ing. This, however, was but the lull preceding a storm. The great 
plague under the latter emperor was the first of a series of fearful 
calamities which devastated the empire. Throughout an entire cen- 
tury civil wars , incursions of barbarians , famine , and pestilence 
succeeded each other without intermission. Although Rome was 
less affected by these horrors than the provinces , it is computed 
that the population of the city , which at the beginning of the 2nd 
cent, was about l'/2 million, had dwindled to one-half by the time 
of Diocletian. A constant decline in architectural taste is traceable; 
but , as building always formed an important feature in the policy 
of the emperors, the number and extent of the ruins of this period is 
considerable. To this epoch belong the Column of Marcus Aurelius 
(p. 147), the Triumphal Arch of Septimius Severus (p. 228) , the 
magnificent Baths of Caracalla (p. 259), the Temple of the Sun of 
Aurelian (p. 157), and the huge Thermae of Diocletian (p. 173). 

After the Punic War the walls of the city had been suffered to 
fall to decay, and during nearly five centuries Rome was destitute 
of fortification. Under the emperor Aurelian, however, danger 
became so imminent that it was deemed necessary again to protect 
the city by a wall against the attacks of the barbarians. This 
structure is to a great extent identical with that which is still 
standing. The latest important ruins of antiquity bear the name of 
Constantinb the Great , viz. the Basilica (p. 233) , Baths (pp. 
157, 169), and Triumphal Arch (p. 237). The two former were, 
however, erected by his rival Maxentius. Constantine manifested 
little partiality for Rome and ancient traditions, and the transference 
of the seat of empire to Byzantium (in 330) marks a decided turn- 
ing-point in the history of the city, as well as in that of the whole 
empire. Rome indeed was still great on account of its glorious past 
and its magnificent monuments , but in many respects it had sunk 
to the level of a mere provincial town. No new works were thence- 
forth undertaken, and the old gradually fell to decay. 

The city was still divided, in accordance with the Augustean System, 
into fourteen regions, in enumerating which we shall name the principal 
ruins belonging to each: — 1. Porta Gapena, Via Appia , within the city 
(p. 258); 2. Caelimontium , Cselius (p. 262); 3. Isis et Serapis, Colosseum 
(p. 235). Baths of Titus (p. 238) ; 4. Templum Pads, Venus et Roma (p. 234), 

126 History. ROME. Rise of Christianity. 

Basilica of Constantine tp. 233), Temple of Faustina (p. 232) ; 5. Exquiliae, 
ruins near S. Croce (p. 183) ; 6. Alta Semita, Baths of Constantine (p. 169) and 
Diocletian (p. 173), gardens of Sallust (p. 164) ; 7. Via Lata, the modern 
Corso (p. 145) ; 8. Forum Romanian , the republican and imperial Fora 
(pp. 223, 238) and the Capitol (p. 209); 9. Circus Flaminius, Theatres of Mar- 
cellus (p. 208) and Pompey (p. 205) , portico of Octavia (p. 207), Pan- 
theon (p. 194), column of Marcus Aurelius (p. 147); 10. Palatium, Pala- 
tine (p. 241); 11. Circus Max imus, temple in the Forum Boarium (p. 250) ; 
12. Piscina Publica, Baths of Caracalla (p. 259); 13. Aventinus, Pyramid 
of Cestius (p. 253) ; 14. Transliberim, Trastevere and the Borgo. Accord- 
ing to the statistics of this period, Rome possessed 37 gates, from which 
28 high roads diverged, and 19 aqueducts; and although four only of these 
last are now in use , there is probably no city in the world which can 
boast of such an excellent supply of water as Rome. The banks of the 
Tiber were connected by 8 bridges. There were 423 streets, 1790 palaces, 
and 46,602 dwelling-houses. Among the public structures are mentioned 
11 Thermse, 856 baths, 1352 fountains in the streets, 423 temples, 36 trium- 
phal arches, 10 basilicas, etc. When the grandeur and magnificence suggested 
by these numbers is considered, it may occasion surprise that compara- 
tively so few relics now remain ; but it must be borne in mind that the 
work of destruction progressed steadily during nearly a thousand years, and 
was not arrested till the era of the Renaissance , but for which even the 
monuments still extant would ere now have been consigned to oblivion. 

The Catacombs , the earliest burial-places of the Christians, 
illustrate the gradual progress of this interesting community, in 
spite of every persecution, from the 1st century downwards. At 
the beginning of the year 313 Constantine issued his celebrated 
decree from Milan, according to Christianity equal rights with all 
other religions. This was the decisive step which led to the union 
of the church with the state. In 324 the first oecumenical council 
was held at Nicaea , and in 337 the emperor caused himself to be 
baptised when on his deathbed. Tradition attributes the earliest 
ecclesiastical division of Home into seven diaconates to St. Clement, 
the fourth bishop , and St. Peter is said to have founded the first 
place of worship in the house of the senator Pudens, now the 
church of 8. Pudenziana (p. 176). To Callistus J. (217-22) is 
ascribed the foundation of the church of 8. Maria in Trastevere 
(p. 334), and to Urban, his successor, that of S. Cecilia (p. 335). 
About the beginning of the fourth century S. Alessio and 8. Prisca 
on the Aventine are supposed to have been founded. Of these 
churches, however, and also of the edifices erected by Constantine, 
no trustworthy record has been handed down to us. To that 
monarch tradition attributes the foundation of the following 
churches — the Lateran, St. Peters, S. Paolo Fuori, S. Croce in 
Gerusalemme, S. Agnese Fuori, 8. Lorenzo Fuori and 8. Pietro e 
Marcellino at Torre Pignattara (p. 354), — but probably errone- 
ously , with the exception of the first , which was styled 'omnium 
urbis et orbis ecclesiarum mater et caput'. It is, however, note- 
worthy that the oldest and most important churches were generally 
outside the gates, or at least in their immediate vicinity ; and this 
is accounted for by the fact that the Roman aristocracy at first clung 
tenaciously to the old traditions, and for a long period the city pre- 
served its heathen character. The state at length overcame this 

Early Middle Apes. ROME. History. 127 

antagonism. In 382 the altar of Victoria was removed from the 
senate-hall, and in 408 the ancient religion was at length deprived 
by a law of Honorius of all its temporal possessions , and thus in- 
directly of its spiritual authority also. The destruction of the an- 
cient temples, or their transformation into Christian places of wor- 
ship now began, and the churches rapidly increased in number. At 
this early period Rome possessed 28 parish churches (tituli) , be- 
sides numerous chapels, and among them arose the five Patriarchal 
Churches, presided over by the pope, and forming a community to 
which the whole body of believers throughout the world was con- 
sidered to belong. These five were 8. Oiovanni in Laterano, S. 
Pietro, S. Paolo, S. Lorenzo, and the church of S. Maria Maggiore 
founded by Liberius. Besides these, S. Croce in Oerusalemme and 
S. Sebastiano, erected over the catacombs of the Via Appia, enjoyed 
special veneration. These formed the 'Seven Churches of Rome' to 
which pilgrims flocked from every part of western Christendom. 
The number of monasteries now steadily increased, and at the same 
time the inroads of poverty made rapid strides. 

In the 4th Century the cultivation of the Roman Campagna 
began to be seriously neglected, and in an official document of the 
year 395 it is stated that upwards of 500 square miles of arable land 
had been abandoned and converted into morass. The malaria at the 
same time extended its baneful sway from the coast into the in- 
terior of the country. The storms of the barbarian irruptions greatly 
aggravated the misery. Although the Vandals and Goths are often 
erroneously held responsible for the destruction of all the great 
monuments of antiquity , which , on the contrary, Theodoric the 
Great did his utmost to protect , Rome doubtless suffered terribly 
from having been the scene of their battles and pillagings. In 410 
the city was plundered by Alaric, and in 445 by the Vandals , and 
in 537 it sustained its first siege from the Goths under Vitiges. 
They laid waste the Campagna and cut off all the supplies of water 
brought to the city by the aqueducts , but the skill of Belisarius, 
and the strength of the walls , particularly those of the Castle of 
S. Angelo, effectually repelled their attacks on the city. In March 
538 they were at length compelled to abandon their designs, after 
having beleaguered the city for upwards of a year. In December 
546, Totilas, the king of the Goths, entered Rome, and is said to 
have found not more than 500 persons within the walls of the 
devastated city. Belisarius then repaired the walls which had been 
partially destroyed, and in 547 he sustained a second siege. In 549 
the city again fell into the hands of Totila, but in 552 it was re- 
captured by Narses and again united with the Byzantine empire. 
About this period the city was reduced by war, pestilence, and 
poverty to a depth of misery which was never again paralleled, ex- 
cept during the absence of the papal court at Avignon. No thorough 
restoration was possible, for the Byzantine emperors cared nothing 

1 28 History. ROME. The Middle Ages. 

for Home, and in the Lombards arose new enemies to their dynasty 
in Italy. In 663 Constants II. visited Rome , an interval of 306 
years having elapsed since it had heen entered by a Byzantine em- 
peror, and availed himself of the opportunity to carry off the last 
remains of the bronze with which the ancient monuments were de- 
corated. In 755 the Lombards under their duke Aistulf besieged 
Rome for two months and ruthlessly devastated the Campagna, 
which during the preceding interval of peace had begun to wear a 
more smiling aspect. A lamentation of that period begins thus : — 

'Nobilibus quondam fueras constructa patronis, 
Subdita nunc servis, heu male Roma ruis; 

Deseruere tui tanto te tempore reges, 

Cessit et ad Grsecos nomen honosque tuus\ 
and terminates with the words : — 

'Nam nisi te Petri meritum Paulique foveret, 
Tempore jam longo Roma misella fores'. 

It was in fact the tradition , indelibly attaching to Rome, of the 
great struggles and victories of Christianity which preserved the 
city from total destruction. The transformation of heathen into 
Christian Rome was accompanied by the gradual development of 
Papacy as the supreme ecclesiastical power in the West. Leo the 
Great (440-461) and Gregory the Great (590-604) may be regarded 
as the chief originators of this scheme of aggrandisement. These 
prelates and their successors were indefatigable in their efforts to 
realise their project, and under their auspices, notwithstanding the 
poverty and misery into which Rome had sunk , new churches and 
monasteries were constantly springing up among the ruins of the 
monuments of antiquity , and the last feeble spark of artistic taste 
which still survived was devoted to the decoration of these build- 
ings. The objects at which they chiefly aimed were independence 
of Byzantium, the subjection of the Eastern church to the court of 
Rome, and the conversion of the heathen Germans, the accomplish- 
ment of which would materially pave the way for their ulterior am- 
bitious schemes. In 727 the Lombard king Luitprand presented 
Sutri, which had been captured by him, to the pope, this being the 
first instance of a town being presented to the church, and this gift 
constituted a basis for the subsequent formation of the States of the 
Church. In 755, on the invitation of the pope, the Frankish king 
Pepin proceeded to Italy and practically put an end to the Byzan- 
tine supremacy. It is not known whether that monarch absolutely 
made over the Exarchate of Ravenna and the other towns to the re- 
presentative of St. Peter, or whether he granted them to him as a 
fief; but it is certain that the temporal power of the popes and their 
supremacy over Rome dates from the grants made by Pepin to the 
church. On Christmas Day , in the year 800, Charlemagne was 
crowned by Leo III., and from that period dates the career of the 
'Holy Roman Empire' and the Mediaeval History of the Roman 
Catholic Church. 

The Middle Ages. ROME. History. 129 

A characteristic of this period is to be found in the numerous, 
many-storied towers of red brick which contrast so strongly with 
the monuments of ancient Rome. This style of architecture was 
developed in the Carlovingian epoch, although most of these towers 
now extant were not erected before the 12th or 13th century. In 
still greater numbers sprang up towers of a defensive character, a 
few only of which, such as the so-called Torre di Nerone (p. 170), 
are still preserved. The forest of towers , belonging to numerous 
different owners , which reared themselves over the ruins of the 
mistress of the world , affords at the same time a clue to the 
character of the whole epoch ; for , in spite of the nominal sway 
exercised over the greater part of Europe by the pope and the em- 
peror, continual feuds raged both at Rome and elsewhere between 
the temporal and spiritual powers , and between the nobility and 
the populace. The great monuments of antiquity were now doomed 
to utter destruction, and their fate is thus described by the historian 
Gregovorius (iii , 565) : — 'Charlemagne had already set the ex- 
ample of carrying off ancient columns and sculptures to adorn his 
cathedral at Aix-la-Chapelle , and the popes , who regarded the 
greatest monuments of Rome as the property of the state, possessed 
neither taste, nor time , nor ability to take measures for their pre- 
servation. The plundering of ancient buildings became the order 
of the day. The priests were indefatigable in transferring antique 
columns and marbles to their churches ; the nobles, and even the 
abbots , took possession of magnificent ancient edifices which they 
disfigured by the addition of modern towers ; and the citizens estab- 
lished their workshops, rope- walks, and smithies in the towers 
and circuses of imperial Rome. The fisherman selling his fish near 
the bridges over the Tiber, the butcher displaying his meat at the 
theatre of Marcellus, and the baker exposing his bread for sale, de- 
posited their wares on the magnificent slabs of marble which had 
once been used as seats by the senators in the theatre or circus and 
perhaps by Csesar, Mark Antony, Augustus , and other masters of 
the world. The elaborately sculptured sarcophagi of Roman heroes 
were scattered in every direction and converted into cisterns, wash- 
ing-vats, and troughs for swine ; and the table of the tailor and the 
shoemaker was perhaps formed of the cippus of some illustrious 
Roman, or of a slab of alabaster once used by some noble Roman 
matron for the display of her jewellery. For several centuries Rome 
may be said to have resembled a vast lime-kiln , into which the 
costliest marbles were recklessly cast for the purpose of burning 
lime ; and thus did the Romans incessantly pillage, burn, dismantle, 
and utterly destroy their glorious old city'. 

Leo IV. encircled the 'Leonine City' with a wall , and erected 
other useful structures , which indicate a renewed period of pros- 
perity ; but the ravages of the Saracens in the city and its en- 
virons soon prevented farther progress. When at length these bar- 

Baeueker. Italy II. 8th Edition. 9 

130 History. ROME. The Middle Ages. 

barians were finally subdued by John X., the city was repeatedly 
besieged and captured by German armies during the contest for the 
imperial supremacy ; and subsequently, in consequence of incessant 
civic feuds , the whole city was converted into a number of distinct 
fortified quarters, with castellated houses, in the construction of 
which numerous monuments of antiquity were ruthlessly destroyed 
for the sake of the building materials they afforded. Every tem- 
porary re-establishment of peace was invariably followed by new 
scenes of devastation, as when the senator Brancaleone dismantled 
no fewer than 150 of the strongholds of the warlike nobles. 

The constantly increasing civic and national dissensions at 
length compelled Clement V. in 1309 to transfer the seat of the 
pontifical government to Avignon, where it remained till 1377, 
whilst Rome was successively governed by Guelphs andGhibellines, 
Neapolitans and Germans , Orsini's and Colonna's, and for a brief 
period (1347) Cola di Rienzi even succeeded in restoring the an- 
cient republican form of government. This was an epoch of the ut- 
most misery, when poverty, war, and disease had reduced the popu- 
lation to less than 20,000 souls. 

A happier era was inaugurated by the return of Gregory XI. to the 
city (1377). After the termination of the papal schism(1378-1417), 
the new development of the city progressed rapidly, aided by the 
vast sums of money which flowed into the papal coffers, and by the 
revival of taste for art and science promoted by Nicholas V., Ju- 
lius II., Leo X., and others. In 1527 the city was fearfully devas- 
tated by the troops of Charles of Bourbon ; but it gradually re- 
covered from the blow , its population again increased, and many 
churches and palaces were restored or re-erected by the popes, their 
cardinals , and favourites, especially during the pontificate of Six- 
tus V. (1585-90), to whom modern Rome is chiefly indebted for its 
characteristic features. Comp. p. lvii. 

In 1798 a republic was established for a short period at Rome, 
and from 1809 to 1814 the city was under the supremacy of France. 
A republican form of government was again declared in 1849, in 
consequence of the events of the previous year, but on 12th April, 
1850, Pius IX. was restored by the French. The city was then 
garrisoned by 15,000 French troops, who were withdrawn in De- 
cember 1866, in accordance with the convention of 15th Sept., 
1864; but they were recalled after the Garibaldian hostilities of 
1867, and were quartered in the environs until the breaking out of 
the Franco-Prussian war of 1870. On 20th Sept. of that year the 
Italian troops marched into the city, after a bombardment of five 
hours. The States of the Church are now incorporated with the 
kingdom of Italy, of which Rome is once more the capital. 

Chronolog. Table of ROME. Emperors and Popes. 131 



Bom. Emp. 

Popes ». 


Rom. Emp. 



Julius Csesar 


Gordian III. 



Philip the 


Csesar Octa- 


vianus Au- 






Gallus and 











St. Peter, 42-67. 



Luciusl., 252-253. 




Stephen I., 


Martyrdom of 
St. Peter. 


Sixtus II., 



Linus, 67-79. 









Claudius II. 






Felix I., 269-274. 



Anaeletus, 79-91. 





Clement, 91-100 














Carinus and 


Alexander I. 






Sixtus I. 














Chlorus and 


Pius I. 






Marcus Au- 


the Great 



(sole Emp. 







Maximin II. 


Victor I., 190-202. 



Didius Ju- 
















Sylvester I. 





(Geta d. 212.) 


Constantine II. 

Julius I. 



Cons tans. 



Callistus I., 







Felix II. 


Urbanus I., 









Cm qj 






° .£ 


Anterus, 235-236. 

nian I. 

Is a 


Gordian I. & II. 



Pupienus and 



fe e 


* 3 

(») The dates of the popes down to Constantine are uncertain, having 
been handed down by vague tradition only. 


Chronolog. Table of ROME. 

Emperors and Popes. 


Rom. Emp. 



Rom. Emp. 



Damasus I. 




Gratia n. 


Boniface V. 


Valentinian II. 


Honorius I. 


Emp. 392-395) 


John IV. 




Theodoras I. 




St. Martin I. 


Honorius «-. 


St. Eugene I. 


Anastasius I. 


St. Vitalianus. 


Innocent I. 






Donus I. 


Boniface I. 


St. Agathus. 


Ccelestinus I. 


St. Leo II. 


Valentinian III 


St. Benedict II. 


Sixtus III. 


John V. 


Leo I., the Great. 






St. Sergius I. 



John VI. 




John VII. 


Lib. Severus. 


Constantine I. 



St. Gregory II. 


Hilarius 461-468. 


St. Gregory III. 




St. Zacharias. 

Julius Nepos. 



Stephen II. 


Romulus Au- 

Stephen III. 



St. Paul I. 


End of the W. 


Constantine II. 





Felix III. 

Stephen IV. 


Gelasius I. 


Hadrian I. 


Anastasius II. 


St. Leo III. 



Rom. Emp. of 



Germ, origin c 


John I. 




Felix IV. 


Louis thePious 


Boniface II. b 


Stephen V. 


John II. 


St. Paschalis I. 


St. Agapetus I. 


Eugene II. 


St. Silverius. 





Gregory IV. 


Pelagius I. 




John III. 


Sergius II. 


Benedict I. 


St. Leo IV. 


Pelagius II. 


Louis II. 

Benedict III. 


St. Gregory I. the 


St. Nicholas I. 



Hadrian II. 




John VIII. 


Boniface III. 

875 Charles the 


S. Boniface IV. 


( a ) From 395, the year of the death of Theodosius, the division of the 
Empire became permanent ; in the above table the Emperors of the W. 
Roman Empire only are enumerated. 

(t>) Thus far all the popes have been canonised. 

(<=) The names of a few English sovereigns, especially those who appear 
most prominently in papal history, have been added to this column to 
facilitate realisation of contemporary history. 

Chronolog. Table of ROME. Emperors and Popes. 133 


Rom. Emp. 



Rom. Emp. 



Charles the 




Victor III. 


Marinus I. 


Urban II. 


Hadrian III. 


Paschalis II. 


Stephen VI. 


Henry V. 




Gelasius II. 




Calixtus II. 


[Alfred the 

Boniface VI. 


Honorius II. 

Great ofEng- 

Stephen VII. 


Lothaire of 



Romanus I. 


Theodorus II. 


Innocent II. 


John IX. 


Louis the 

Benedict IV. 


Conrad III. 
of Hohen- 


Leo V. 




Coelestine 1). 


Sergius III. 


Lucius II. 


Conrad I. 

Anastasius III. 


Eugene III. 




Frederick I. 


John X. 



Henry I. 


Anastasius IV. 


Leo VI. 


[Henry II. of 

Hadrian IV. 


Stephen VIII. 


England, 1154 

Alexander III. 


John XI. 



Lucius III. 


Otho I. 

Leo VII. 


Urban III. 


Stephen IX. 


Gregory VIII. 


Marinus II. 


Clement III. 


Agapetus II. 


Henry VI. 


John XII. 


Coelestine III. 


Leo VIII. 


Philip of Swa- 

Innocent III. 


Benedict V. 

bia and 


John XIII. 

Otho IV. 


Otho 11. 

Benedict VI. 

[Richard Coeur 


Benedict VII. 
Boniface VII. 

de Lion, 1189 


Otho III. 

John XIV. 


Frederick II. 


John XV. 


Honorius III. 


Gregory V. 


Gregory IX. 


Sylvester II. 


Coelestine IV. 


Henry II. 


Innocent IV. 


John XVII. 


Conrad IV. 

John XVIII. 



Alexander IV. 


Sergius IV. 


Urban IV. 


Benedict VIII. 


Clement IV. 


Conrad 11. 

John XIX. 


Gregory X. 


Benedict IX. 


Rudolph of 


Henry III. 



Gregory VI. 


Innocent V. 

Clement II. 

[Edward I. oi 

Hadrian V. 


Damasus II. 

England, 1272 

John XX. 


St. Leo IX. 


or XXI. 


Victor II. 


Nicholas III. 


Henry IV. 


Martin IV. 


Stephen X. 


Honorius IV. 


Benedict X. 


Nicholas IV. 


[William the 

Nicholas II. 


Adolph of 



Alexander II. 


St. Coelestine V. 



Gregory VII. 


Boniface VIII. 

134 Chronolog. Table of ROME. Emperors and Popes. 


Rom. Emp. 



Rom. Emp. 



Albert I. 


England, 1553 

Julius III. (Joan. 


Benedict XI. 


Maria deMonte). 


Clement V. 


Marcellus II. 


Henry VII. of 

Paul IV. (Gian 
Pietro Caraffa 


Louis of Ba- 


Ferdinand I. 

of Naples). 

varia and 


[Elizabeth of 

Pius IV. (Joan. 

Frederick of 

England, 1558 

Angelus Medici 



of Milan). 


[Edward III. of 

John XXII. 


Maximilian II. 


England, 1327 

Benedict XII. 


St. Pius V. 



Clement VI. 

(Ghislieri of 


Charles IV. of 




Gregory XIII. 


Innocent VI. 

(Ugo Buon- 


Urban V. 

compagni of 


Gregory XI. 




Urban VI. 


Rudolph II. 


Boniface IX. 


Sixtus V. (Felix 


Rupert of the 




Urban VII. 


Innocent VII. 



Gregory XII. 

Castagna of 


Alexander V. 




John XXIII. 


Gregory XIV. 


[Henry V. of 
England, 1413 

Martin V. 

(Nic. Sfondrati 
of Milan). 



Eugene IV. 


Innocent IX. 


Albert II. 



Frederick III. 

Facchinetti of 


Nicholas V. 



[Henry VI. of 

Calixtus III. 


Clement VIII. 


England, 1422 

Pius II. (jEneas 

(Hippolyt. Aldo- 


Sylvius, Siena). 

brandini of 


Paul II. 

[James I. of 



Sixtus IV. 


England, 1603 

Leo XI. (Alexan- 

(Francis della 


der Medici). 

Rovere of 

Paul V. (Camillo 




[Henry VII. of 

Innocent VIII. 



England, 1485 

(Joann. B. Cibo 


Ferdinand II. 


of Genoa). 


[Charles I. of 

Gregory XV. 


Alexander VI. 

England, 1625 

(Alexander Lu- 

(Roder. Borgia). 




Maximilian I. 


UrbanVIII. (Maf- 


[Henry VIII. of 

Pius III. (Fran- 

feo Barberini). 


cis Piccolomini 


Ferdinand III. 


of Siena). 



Innocent X. 


Julius II. (Julian 

wealth and 


della Rovere). 




Leo X. (John de' 




Alexander VII. 


Charles V. 

(Fabio Chigi of 


Hadrian VI. 


(of Utrecht). 


Leopold I. 


Clement VII. 


[Charles II. of 

Clement IX. 

(Julius Medici). 


(Giul. Rospig- 


[Mary I. of 

Paul III. (Alex- 
ander Farnese). 





Topography. 1 35 


Rom. Emp. 



Rom. Emp. 



Clement X. 


Joseph II. 



Clement XIV. 


Innocent XI. 

(Giov. Ant. Gan- 
ganelli of Ri- 


Alexander XIII. 


Pius VI. (Giov. 

[William III. 

(Pietro Otto- 

Ang. Braschi). 

and Mary II. 



Leopold II. 

of England, 


Francis II. 



Pius VII. (Gre- 


Innocent XII. 
(Ant. Pigna- 

gorio Barnaba 
Chiaramonti of 


[George IV. of 



Clement XI. 


England, 1820 


(Giov. Franc. 


della Genga of 


Joseph I. 




Charles VI. 


Pius VIII. 


Innocent XIII. 
(Mich. Ang. de 

(Franc. Xav. 
Castiglione of 

[George II. of 




England, 1727 

Benedict XIII. 


Gregory XVI. 


(Vine. Maria 

(Mauro Capellari 
of Belluno). 


Clement XII. 
(Lorenzo Cor- 


Pius IX. (Gio- 
vanni Maria 
Mastai - Feretti 


Benedict XIV. 

of Sinigaglia). 

(Prosp. Lam- 


Leo XIII. 


(Joachim Pecci 


Charles VII. 
of Bavaria. 

of Carpineto, b, 
2. March 1810, 


Francis I. 

Cardinal 1853. 


[George III. ol 

Clement XIII. 

Pope 20. Feb. 

England, 1760 

(Carlo Rezzo- 



nico of Venice). 

Rome is situated (41° 53' 54" N. lat., 12° 29" E. long., meri- 
dian of Greenwich) in an undulating volcanic plain, which extends 
from Capo Linaro, S. of Civita Vecchia, to the Promontorio Circeo, 
a distance of about 85 M., and between the Apennines and the sea, 
a width of 25 M. The city is built on both banks of the Tiber, the 
largest river in the Italian peninsula, 14 M. from its influx into the 
Mediterranean. The prospect from one of the hills of Rome — and 
no city is more replete with ever-varying and delightful views — 
is bounded towards the E. by the unbroken chain of the Apennines, 
which rise at a distance of 10 to 20 M. In the extreme N. towers 
the indented ridge of Soracte (2260 ft."), occupying an isolated po- 
sition in the plain, and separated by the Tiber from the principal 
range of the Apennines. Farther E., and still more distant, is the 
Leonessa group (7257 ft. J, which approaches the Central Apennines. 
Considerably nearer lies the range of the Sabine Mts. The summit 
at the angle which they form by their abutment on the Campagna 

136 Topography. ROME. Wall. 

is M. Gennaro (4163 ft.), the Lucretilis of Horace; the village at 
the base is Monticelli (1295 ft.). Farther off, on the slope of the 
hill, lies Tivoli, recognisable by its villas and olive-gardens. More 
towards the S., on the last visible spur of the Sabine Mts. (2513 ft.), 
is situated Palestrina, the Prseneste of antiquity. A depression 
4 M. in width only, separates the Apennines from the volcanic Al- 
ban Mts., above which a few peaks of the distant Volscian Mts. 
appear. On the E. spur of the Alban Mts. lies the village of Co- 
lonna (1180 ft.). The following villages are Rocca Priora (2352 ft.) 
and Monte Porzio (1529 ft.); then the town of Frascati (2218 ft.), 
below the ancient Tusculum. The highest peak of the Alban Mts. is 
M. Cavo (3130 ft.), once surmounted by a temple of the Alban Ju- 
piter, now by a Passionist monastery. On its slope lies the village 
of Rocca di Papa (2647 ft.), loftily and picturesquely situated, be- 
low which, towards the plain, is the town of Marino (1322 ft.). 
The village , with the castle farther to the W. on the hill, is Castel 
Gandolfo ; the mountain then gradually sinks to the level of the 
plain. Towards the W. the sea is visible from a few of the highest 
points only. On the N. the eye rests on the Janiculus (282 ft.), a 
volcanic chain of hills approaching close to the river, beyond which 
the horizon is bounded by mountains also of volcanic formation : 
towards the sea, to the left, the mountains of Tolfa (2040 ft.), then 
the heights around the lake of Bracciano with the peak of Rocca 
Romana (2018 ft.), the Ciminian Forest (now generally called the 
mountains of Viterbo, 3464 ft.) ; the nearest point to the right is 
the crater of Baccano, with the wooded hill of M. Musino (1319 ft.). 
The plain enclosed by this spacious amphitheatre of mountains, and 
intersected by the Tiber and the Anio, which descends from Tivoli 
and falls into the former 1.1/2 M. above Rome, contains a sprinkling 
of farms and villages, but is far more replete with witnesses of its 
former greatness and present desolation in the innumerable and ex- 
tensive ruins which cover it in every direction. 

The Wall by which modern Rome is surrounded is 14 M. in 
length, constructed of brick, and on the outside about 55 ft. high. 
The greater part of it dates from 271 to 276. It was begun by the 
Emp. Aurelian , completed by Probus, and restored by Honorius, 
Theodoric, Belisarius , and several popes. The city is entered by 
Twelve Gates (several of earlier date being now walled up). Of 
these the most important is the Porta del Popolo, whence the grand 
route to N. and E. Italy issues, afterwards crossing the Tiber by the 
Ponte Molle, Pfe M. from the city. Receding from the river, follow: 
Porta Salara , Porta Pia , Porta S. Lorenzo (road to Tivoli), Porta 
Maggiore (to Palestrina), Porta S. Giovanni (to Frascati and Albano), 
Porta S. Sebastiano (Via Appia), Porta S. Paolo (to Ostia). Then, 
on the right bank of the Tiber: Porta Portese (to Porto), Porta 
S. Pancrazio, Porta Cavaleggieri, and Porta Angelica. 

The Italian government has recently begun to fortify Rome by 

The Tiber. ROME. Topography. 137 

a series of detached forts forming a circle of about 30 M. in circum- 
ference round the city. 

The Tiber reaches Romes after a course of about 216 M., and 
intersects the city from N. to S. The water is turbid (the 'flavus 
Tiberis' of Horace), and rises to a considerable height after con- 
tinued rain. The average width of the river is about 65 yds. and 
its depth 20 ft. , but it sometimes rises as much as 30-35 ft. , as 
was the case during the great inundation of 1871. The con- 
struction of an artificial channel for the river is projected. The 
navigation of the river, by means of which the commerce of im- 
perial Rome was carried on in both directions , with transmarine 
nations as well as with the Italian provinces, is now comparatively 
insignificant. The Tiber enters the city near the base of M. Pin- 
cio, and describes three curves within its precincts : the first towards 
the S.W., skirting the Vatican, the second to the S.E., bounding 
the Campus Martius and ending at the island and the Capitol, and 
the third to the S.W., quitting the city by the Aventine. 

On the Right Bank of the Tiber lies the more modern and 
smaller part of the city, divided into two halves : on the N. the Borgo 
around the Vatican and St. Peter's, encircled with a wall by Leo IV. 
in 851 and erected into a separate town; and to the S., on the river 
and the slopes of the Janiculus, Trastevere, which from ancient times 
has formed a tete-de-pont of Rome against Etruria, and was a densely 
peopled suburb in the reign of Augustus. These two portions are 
connected by the long Via delta Longara, constructed by Sixtus V. 
— The banks of the Tiber are connected by Six Bridges: the new 
Ripetta Bridge , the highest ; the Ponte S. Angela near the castle of 
that name , below which the Ponte Leonino , a suspension bridge, 
crosses from the Longara; then from Trastevere the Ponte Sisto; an- 
other traverses the island , the portion from Trastevere to the island 
being called Ponte S. Bartolommeo, and thence to the left bank the 
Ponte de' Quattro Capi ; finally, below the island, is the Ponte Botto. 

The more ancient portion of the city, properly so called , lies on 
the Left Bank, partly in the ancient Campus Martius, a plain ad- 
joining the river, and partly on the surrounding hills. Modern Rome 
is principally confined to the plain, while the Heights on which the 
ancient city stood are now to a great extent uninhabited, but have 
recently again begun to be occupied by houses. These are the far- 
famed Seven Hills of Rome. The least extensive, but historically 
most important , is the Capitoline (161 ft.), which rises near the 
Tiber and the island, and now forms to some extent the barrier bet- 
ween ancient and modern Rome. It consists of a narrow ridge ex- 
tending from S.W. to N.E., culminating in two summits, separated 
by a depression: on the S.W. point, towards the river, stands the 
Palazzo Caffarelli, and on that to the N.E., towards the Quirinal, the 
church of S. Maria in Aracceli. Contiguous to the Capitoline, in a 
N.E. direction, and separated from it by a depression which the 

138 Topography. ROME. Population. 

structures of Trajan considerably widened, extends the long Quiri- 
nal (170 ft.). On the N. a valley, in which the Piazza Barberini is 
situated, separates the Quirinal from the Pincio (164 ft.), which, as 
its ancient name 'collis hortorum' indicates, was occupied by gardens, 
and not regarded as part of the city. To the E. of the Quirinal, but 
considerably less extensive, rises the Viminal (177 ft.). Both of 
these may be regarded as spurs of the third and more important 
height, the Esquiline (246 ft.), which, forming the common basis 
of these two, extends from the Pincio on the N. to the Cselius. Its 
present distinguishing feature is the conspicuous church of S. Maria 
Maggiore ; while S. Pietro in Vincoli and the niins of the Thermae 
of Titus mark the ancient quarters which stood on the hill where it 
approaches the Viminal, Palatine, and Caelius. To the S. E. of the 
Capitoline, in the form of an irregular quadrangle, rises the isolated 
Palatine (165 ft.), with the ruins of the palaces of the emperors, 
and on the low ground between these hills lies the ancient Forum. 
Farther S., close to the river, separated from the Palatine by the de- 
pression in which the Circus Maximus lay, is the Aventine (151 ft.), 
with the churches of S. Sabina, S. Balbina, etc. Lastly, to the E. 
of the latter, the long Caelius (161 ft.), with S. Gregorio and S. 
Stefano Rotondo ; in the low ground between the Caelius, Palatine, 
and Esquiline is situated the Colosseum; and farther E., by the 
city-wall, between the Caelius and Esquiline, is the Lateran. 

By far the greater portion of the walled area, which was inhabit- 
ed during the imperial epoch by l'/2"2 million souls, is now unten- 
anted. On the Palatine, Aventine, Caelius, Esquiline, and the whole 
region immediately within the walls , streets once densely peopled 
are now replaced by the bleak walls of vineyards. The Modern 
City is divided into two by the Corso , or principal street , which 
runs from N. to S., from the Porta del Popolo to the Piazza di Ven- 
ezia near the Capitoline. The E. half, at the base and on the ridge of 
the Pincio and Quirinal, presents a modern aspect, and is the chief 
resort of strangers. The W. half, on the bank of the Tiber, con- 
sists of narrow and dirty streets, occupied by the poorer classes. 

Population. At the date of the last census, 1st Dec, 1881, Rome 
contained 300,467 inhabitants. At the close of the papal re'gime 
the population was about 216,000 only. Considerably more than 
100,000 of the inhabitants can neither read nor write; but there are 
now about 160 parish-schools with 531 teachers and 23,000 pupils. 
The monasteries formerly possessed about one- seventh of the 
buildings in Rome and one-eighth of the uncultivated area. 

The following description of Rome is arranged in accordance 
with a division of the city into five districts , the extent of which is 
marked on the clue-map at the end of the Handbook. Each of these 
districts possesses monuments which in many respects impart to it 
a distinctive character, though of course numerous monuments of 
all periods are scattered throughout the city. 

Piazza del Popolo. ROME. /. Strangers' Quarter. 139 

J. Strangers' 1 Quarter and Corso, which constitute modern Rome, 
and are the chief centre of business. 

//. The Quirinal, Viminal, and Esquiline Hills, to the E., 
anciently covered with houses, but now almost deserted. 

///. Rome on the Tiber, the closely packed and tortuous city of 
the middle ages, the abode of the poorer classes. 

IV. Ancient Rome, to the S., mostly uninhabited, but containing 
the chief monuments of antiquity. 

V. The Right Bank of the Tiber, including the "Vatican, St. Pe- 
ter's, the Longara, and Trastevere. 

Lastly, we add a description of the Catacombs. 

I. Strangers' Quarter and Corso. 

The N. entrance to Rome is formed by the Porta del Popolo 
(PI. I, 18), not far from the Tiber, through which, before the con- 
struction of the railroad, most visitors approached the Eternal 
City. The gate was constructed in 1561 by Vignola , and the side 
towards the town by Bernini in 1655, on the occasion of the entry 
of Queen Christina of Sweden. In 1878 it was enlarged by the addi- 
tion of two side-portals. The gate is named after the adjoining 
church of S. Maria del Popolo, opposite which are the Barracks of 
the Carabinieri. Adjoining the barracks is a permanent Exhibition 
of Art, a collection of little value. — Outside the gate, on the right, 
is the Villa Borghese, see p. 160. 

Within the gate lies the handsome *Piazza del Popolo (PI. I, 
18), adorned with an Obelisk between four water-spouting lionesses, 
which was brought by order of Augustus from Heliopolis after the 
defeat of Antony, placed in the Circus Maximus, and, according to 
the inscription, dedicated to the Sun. It was removed to its pre- 
sent position by order of Sixtus V. in 1589. The shaft is 78 ft. in 
height, and the whole monument with the pedestal and cross 118 ft. 
— Towards the W. the Piazza is bounded by an arched wall with 
figures of Neptune and Tritons, opposite which is a similar structure 
adorned with Roma between the Tiber and the Anio. On each side 
of the latter is an approach to the Pincio (p. 141). 

Three streets diverge from the piazza on the S. : to the right 
the Via di Ripetta (p. 185), parallel with the river; in the centre 
the Corso (p. 145); and to the left the Via del Babuino, leading to 
the Piazza di Spagna (p. 143). — Between the two latter streets 
stands the church of S. Maria in Monte Santo, adjacent to which, 
on the right, is that of S. Maria de' Miracoli, both dating from the 
latter half of the 17th cent., with domes and vestibules, designed 
by Rinaldi, and completed by Bernini and Fontana. 

*S. Maria del Popolo (PI. I, 18), said to have been founded by 
Paschalis II. in 1099 on the site of the tombs of the Domitii, the 
burial-place of Nero , which was haunted by evil spirits, was en- 

140 1. Strunyers' Quarter. ROME. S. Maria del Popolo. 

tirely re-erected by Baccio Pintelli ('? or Meo del Caprina) under 
Sixtus IV. in 1477. The interior was afterwards decorated by Ber- 
nini in the rococo style. It consists of nave, aisles, transept, and 
octagonal dome, and contains handsome monuments of the 15th cent, 
(comp. p. xix) and other works of art. (The sacristan shows the 
ohoir and chapels; fee Y2 f r 

Eight Aisle. The 1st Chapel , formerly della Rovere, now Venuti, was 
painted by Pinluricchio : "Altar-piece, Adoration of the Infant Christ; in the 
lunettes, life of St. Jerome. On the left, the tomb of Cardinal della Rovere, 
right, that of Cardinal di Castro ; on the pillar to the left, a bust of F. Catel, 
the painter (d. 1857) by Troschel. — In the 2nd Chapel: Assumption of Mary, 
altar-piece by C.Maratla. 3rd Chapel, painted by Pinluricchio : above the altar, 
Madonna with four angels ; on the left , Assumption of the Virgin ; in the 
lunettes, scenes from the life of Mary; in the predelle representations of 
martyrs in grisaille; on the right, tomb of Giov. della Eovere (d. 1483); on 
the left, recumbent bronze figure of a bishop. — In the 4th Chapel marble- 
sculptures of the end of the 15th cent, above the altar : St. Catharine be- 
tween St. Antony of Padua and St. Vincent; right, tomb of Marcantonio 
Albertoni (d. 1485) ; left, that of the Cardinal of Lisbon (d. 1508). 

Right Transept. On the right, tomb of Cardinal Podocatharus of Cyprus. 
Near it is a door leading into a passage, at the end of which is the sacristy, 
containing the former 'Canopy of the high-altar of Alexander VI. of the 
year 1492, with an ancient Madonna of the Sienese school and the beautiful 
monuments of (left) Archbishop Rocca (d. 1482), and (right) Bishop Gomiel. 

Left Aisle. 1st Chapel, on the left and right of the altar, two ciboria 
of the 15th cent. ; left, tomb of Card. Ant. Pallavicino (erected 1507). By an 
adjacent pillar the rococo monument of a Princess Chigi, by Posi (1771). — 
The "2nd Chapel was constructed under the direction of Raphael by Agostino 
Chigi in honour of St. Mary of Loreto; on the vaulting of the dome eight 
"Mosaics by Aloisio della Pace (1516) , from Raphael's cartoons : — 'Around 
the central circular scene , which represents the Creator surrounded 
by angels, are grouped seven planet symbols and a genius leaning on a 
globe , separated by ornamental divisions. Each planet is represented 
by an ancient deity : Diana, Luna, Mercury, Venus, Apollo, Mars, Jupiter, 
and Saturn. They are pourtrayed in half-figure with appropriate action, 
and each is enclosed within a segment of the zodiac, on which 'rests an 
angel , either pointing to the Creator above or in the act of adoration. 
This association of gods and angels recalls the prophets and sibyls of 
Michael Angelo, each of whom is also accompanied by a genius. But 
Raphael's composition-is entirely independent, with a distinct significance 
of its own, and one of a kind which shows the master's power in its 
highest manifestation'. — The altar-piece, a Nativity of the Virgin, is by 
Sebastiano del Piombo, the other pictures by Salviati. Bronze relief over 
the altar, Christ and the Samaritan woman, by Lorenzetto; in the niches 
four statues of prophets : over the altars (left) "Jonah, perhaps designed by 
Raphael, and (right) Habakkuk, by Bernini; at the entrance, (left) Daniel, 
by Bernini, and (right) Elijah by Lorenzetto. 

Left Tkansept : Tomb of Cardinal Bernardino Lonati (15th cent.). 

In the Choir "Ceiling-frescoes by Pinluricchio (1479) : Madonna, the Four 
Evangelists, and the Four Fathers of the church, Gregory, Ambrose, Je- 
rome, and Augustine, in excellent preservation, and long deservedly ad- 
mired for the skilful distribution of space. Beneath are the * Tombs of 
the cardinals Girolamo Basso and Ascanio Sforza by Andrea Sansovino, 
erected by order of Julius II. (1505), 'the perfection of sculpture combined 
with decoration'. The same pope is said to have caused the two fine stained- 
glass windows to be executed by Claudius and William of Marseilles. 

The church gives a title to a cardinal. In the adjacent Augustinian 
monastery Luther resided during his visit to Rome (1510). 

If we ascend the Pincio by the approaches above named (gates 

Pincio. ROME. /. Strangers' Quarter. 141 

closed one hour after Ave Maria) , we observe in the first circular 
space two columns (columnae rostratae), adorned with the prows of 
ships, from the temple of Venus and Roma (p. 234); in the niches 
three marble statues, and above them ca, tive Dacians, imitations of 
antiques. Beyond these, a large relief. Halfway up are an antique 
granite basin , with a fountain , and under a loggia an Equestrian 
Statue of Victor Emmanuel II., erected in 1878. 

The *Pincio (PI. I, 18), the collis hortorum, or 'hill of gardens', 
of the ancients, was probably called Mons Pincius from a palace of 
the Pincii situated here in the later period of the empire. Here 
were once the famous gardens of Lucullus , in which Messalina, 
the wife of Claudius, afterwards celebrated her orgies. A vineyard 
belonging to the monastery of S. Maria at the foot of the hill was 
converted by Valadier, during the Napoleonic regime into beau- 
tiful pleasure-grounds, the Passeggiata of Rome. This is a fashion- 
able drive in the evening, when the Italians frequently pay and 
Teceive visits in their carriages, presenting a gay and characteristic 
scene. A military band generally plays here two hours before sunset, 
attracting a large audience of all classes. The walks are shaded by 
plantations and groups of trees , and (as suggested by Mazzini in 
1849) adorned with busts of celebrated Italians, to which recently 
many additions have been made. — The projecting terrace at the 
summit (151 ft.) commands a magnificent *Vib'w of modern Rome. 

Beyond the Piazza del Popolo with the buildings above described , on 
the opposite bank of the Tiber, rises the huge pile of St. Peter's, adjoining 
which is the Vatican to the right , and near it the city-wall. Among the 
hills which bound the horizon, the point planted with cypresses to the right, 
where the yellow Villa Mellini is situated, is Monte Mario. To the left of 
St. Peter's, close to the Tiber, which is not visible, is the round castle of 
S. Angelo, so-called from the bronze angel which crowns it. The pine-grove 
on the height to the left of the castle belongs to the Villa Doria-Pamphilj . 
Farther to the left, on the height, the facade of the Acqua Paola, adorned 
with a cross. Between the spectator and the river is a labyrinth of houses 
and churches. The following points serve as landmarks. Of the two 
nearest churches that with the two towers to the right is S. Giacomo in 
the Corso, that with the dome to the left, S. Carlo in the Corso ; between 
the two appears the flat dome of the Pantheon, beyond which a part of 
the Campagna is visible. To the left of this, on the height in the distance, 
rises the long, undecorated side of the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli, and 
behind it appears the tower of the senatorial palace on the Capitol. On 
the right side of the Capitol lies the Palazzo Caffarelli (German embassy), 
in front of which the upper part of the column of M.Aurelius in the Piazza 
Colonna is visible. Adjacent to the Capitol, on the left, is the bright-look- 
ing Villa Mills, shaded by cypresses , on the Palatine. Farther to the left 
a low brick-built tower on the Quirinal, the so-called Torre di Nerone, 
To the extreme left, and less distant, is the extensive royal palace on the 

The N. side of the Pincio is supported by lofty walls , opposite 
which are the well-planted grounds of the Villa Borghese. On the 
E. side we obtain a view of a large fragment of the city wall. In a 
small round space near the middle of the hill, near a Cafe, rises an 
Obelisk, which Hadrian once erected in Egypt to the memory of An- 
tinous. It was afterwards brought to Rome, and erected here in 1822. 

142 /. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. Villa Medici. 

Leaving the Pinoio by the S. gate , we observe to the left the 
white Villa Medici with its two corner-turrets (see below). In front 
of it is an avenue of evergreen-oaks and a fountain, whence a cele- 
brated view of St. Peter's, most striking towards evening or by 
moonlight, is obtained. 

The Villa Medici (PI. I, 18), erected in 1540 by Annibale Lippi 
for Cardinal Ricci da Montepulciano, came into possession of Car- 
dinal Alessandro de' Medici about 1600, and afterwards belonged to 
the grand-dukes of Tuscany. In 1801 the French academy of art, 
founded by Louis XIV., was transferred hither. The garden is 
open to the public, and is entered by the gate to the left , or by the 
staircase to the right in the house (5-6 soldi). 

Among the ancient reliefs built into the walls of the tastefully deco- 
rated facade of the villa next to the garden is one of the 'Judgment of 
Paris', the subject of a famous engraving by Marc Antonio. The wing 
contains a Collection of Casts (open daily, except Sat., 8-12, and for three 
hours in the afternoon before dusk) , comprising many from statues not 
preserved at Rome, e.g. from the Parthenon of Athens, and the museum 
of the Louvre , which are valuable in the history of art. Adjoining the 
wing is a terrace, the front-wall of which is adorned with casts. — We 
then enter by a side-door, opposite the end of the museum of casts, ascend, 
and traverse the oak-grove to the right. We next ascend 60 steps to the 
"Belvedere, whence a charming panorama is enjoyed. 

On the N. the shady grounds of the Villa Medici are bounded by the 
Pincio. Most of the statues with which they are adorned are modern. 

The street passing the front of the Academy ends in the Piazza 
della Trinita, where to the left rises the church of SS. Trinita 
de' Monti. The Obelisk in front of it, a conspicuous object from 
many points, is an ancient imitation of that in the Piazza del 
Popolo, and once adorned the gardens of Sallust. 

SS. Trinita de' Monti (PI. I, 20), erected by Charles VIII. of 
France in 1495, and plundered during the French Revolution, was 
restored by Magri in 1816 by order of Louis XVIII. It is open on 
Sundays only, before 9 a.m., and in the evening at Vespers (1 hr. 
before Ave Maria) , when the nuns , for whom Mendelssohn com- 
posed several pieces, perform choral service with organ-accompani- 
ment. When the door is closed , visitors ascend a side-staircase on 
the left, and ring at a door under a roof. 

Left, 1st Chapel : Cast of the Descent from the Cross, by Achtermann. 
2nd Chapel : altar-piece al fresco, * Descent from the Cross, by Daniel da 
Volterra, his master-piece (much injured and freely restored) ; the excel- 
lence of the drawing and composition is attributed to the aid of Michael 
Angelo. 3rd Chapel: 'Madonna, altar-piece by Veil. 4th Chapel: "St. Jo- 
seph, by Langlois. 6th Chapel : Christ, the Wise and Foolish Virgins , and 
Return of the Prodigal , an altar-piece by Seitz. — Right , 3rd Chapel : 
Assumption of the Virgin , Dan. da Volterra. 5th Chapel : Presentation 
in the Temple, Adoration of the Magi, Adoration of the Shepherds, of 
the school of Raphael. 6th Chapel: Resurrection, Ascension, Descent of 
the Holy Ghost, school of Perugino. — In the Tbansept, which is supported 
by Gothic arches, paintings by Perino del Vaga and F. Zucearo. 

The convent connected with the church has been occupied by 
the Dames du Sacre" Coeur (teachers of girls) since 1827. 

We quit the piazza to the left by the Via Sistina, which leads in 

Piazza di Spagna. ROME. /. Strangers' Quarter. 143 

5 min. to the Piazza Barberini (p. 162), and in 20 min. more to S. 
Maria Maggiore (p. 176). To the right is the small Via Gregoriana, 
which after 3 min. is intersected by the Via Capo le Case. 

Here, on the right, Via Sistina No. 64, is the Casa Zuccari, 
once the house of the family of the artists of that name (marked by 
a memorial-tablet in 1872; paintings by Federigo Zuccaro on the 
ground-floor). At the beginning of this century it was occupied by 
the Prussian consul Bartholdy (whence it is also named Casa Bar- 
tholdy), who caused one of the rooms to be adorned with *Frescoks 
from the history of Joseph by German artists then at Rome. (The 
hours for seeing the frescoes are frequently changed. Enquiry should 
be made of the porter; fee 1 fr.) 

On the long window-wall : left, Overbeck, Selling of Joseph ; right, Veil, 
Joseph and Potiphar's wife. Short window- wall: Cornelius, Recognition of 
the brethren ; in the lunette above : ^Overbeck, The Seven Lean Years. Second 
long wall: left, Joseph's interpretation of the dreams in prison; right, the 
Brethren bringing Jacob the bloody coat, both by W. Schadow. Second 
short wall : Cornelius , Joseph's interpretation of Pharaoh's dream ; in the 
lunette above, * Veil, The Seven Years of Plenty. The two allegorical scenes 
are among the finest creations of modern German art. 

The long Scala di Spagna (PI. I, 20; 'Gradinata di S. Trinita 
de' Monti'), which descends from S. Trinita to the Piazza di Spagna 
by 125 steps , was constructed by Al. Specchi and de Sanctis in 
1721-25. Models for artists with their picturesque costumes frequent 
its vicinity, especially towards evening. 

The Piazza di Spagna (PI. I, 17; 82ft.), the centre of the 
strangers' quarter, is enclosed by hotels and attractive shops. At 
the foot of the steps is La Barcaccia (barque) , a tasteless fountain 
by Bernini. Towards the N. the Via del Babuino , in which there 
are also many hotels , leads to the Piazza del Popolo (see p. 139). 
In the S. prolongation of the long Piazza di Spagna rises the Co- 
lumn of the Immacolata (PI. I, 20, 1), erected by Pius IX. in 
honour of the 'Immaculate Conception of the Virgin', a dogma pro- 
mulgated in 1854; on the top of the cipolline column stands the 
bronze statue of Mary; beneath are Moses, David, Isaiah, and 

At the S. end of the piazza is the Colleyio di Propaganda Fide 
(PI. I, 19, 16), founded in 1662 by Gregory XV., and extended 
by his successor Urban VIII. (whence ' Collegium Urbanum'), an 
establishment for the propagation of the Roman Catholic faith, where 
pupils of many different nationalities are educated as missionaries. 
The printing-office of the college was formerly celebrated as the 
richest in type for foreign languages. — On the right is the Palazzo 
di Spagna, or palace of the Spanish ambassador, whence the piazza 
derives its name. Opposite lies the small Piazza Mignanelli. 

Opposite the Scala di Spagna is the Via be' Condotti, with its 
numerous shops of jewellery, mosaics, antiquities, and photographs. 
It terminates in the Corso (see p. 145). 

144 /. Strangers 1 Quarter. ROME. Fontana di Trevi. 

To the S.E. from the Piazza di Spagna runs the Via de 1 Due 
Macelli, to the left of the Propaganda, and to the right the Via di 
Propaganda. The latter leads to S. Andrea delle Fratte (PI. I, 19) 
at the corner of the Via di Capo le Case, the next cross-street. 
This church was erected under Leo XI. by La Querra; the tasteless 
dome and campanile are by Borromini; the facade was added in 
1826 by Valadier in accordance with a bequest by Card. Consalvi. 

The pictures in the Interior are poor works of the 17th cent. : the 
two angels by the tribune , by Bernini , were originally destined for the 
bridge of S. Angelo. In the 2nd Chapel on the right is (on the right side) 
the monument of Lady Falconnet by Miss Hossrner; on the last pillar to 
the right, in front of the aisle, the monument of the artist R. Schadow 
(d. 1822), by E. Wolff. In the 3rd Chapel to the left, by the right wall, is 
the tomb of Angelica Kauffmann (d. 1807). The Danish archseologist Zoega 
and a converted prince of Morocco are also interred in this church. 

Following the Via di Capo le Case we reach the church of S. 
Giuseppe a Capo le Case (PI. I, 19), adjoining which is the Musbo 
Artistico-Industriale, a collection of the products of the artistic 
industries of Italy (adm. daily except Wed., 9-3, 50-c). Descriptive 
labels are attached to the articles exhibited. 

The Vestibule and Room J. contain ancient terracottas (of little im- 
portance; the best pieces, from Cervetri, freely restored), Italian majolica, 
and porcelain. — ■ In the other rooms are carvings in wood and ivory, 
keys, bronze shields of the 15-17th cent., plaster casts (of the Iron Crown 
at Monza, the altar-panels of the sacristy in the cathedral of Salerno, etc.), 
glass from Murano, enamels, works in metal, etc. — On the first floor 
carpets, tapestry, etc., are exhibited. 

At the end of the Via di S. Andrea delle Fratte we enter the 
narrow Via del Nazzareno to the left. On the left is the Collegio 
Nazzareno (PI. I, 19 ; ancient statues in the court), founded by Card. 
Tonti in 1622 for the education of poor boys. Opposite is the Pal. 
del Bufalo (PI. I, 19, 6). Then, to the left, the Via dell' Angelo 
Custode (with the small church of 88. Angeli Custodi on the right) 
and the Via del Tritone lead direct to the Piazza Barberini (p. 162). 

We turn to the right into the Via della Stamperia, so called 
from the ex-papal Printing Office situated in it (right). Adjacent 
to the latter are the extensive Engraving Institute (Regia Calcografla, 
p. 109) and the office of the Minister of Commerce. No. 4 is the 
entrance to the German Artists 1 Association. 

We now reach the *Fontana di Trevi (PI. I, 19), which vies in 
magnificence with the Acqua Paola. It is erected against the Palazzo 
Poli, and was completed from a design by Nice. Salvi in 1762; 
in the central niche Neptune, by Pietro Bracci, at the sides Health 
(left) and Fertility (right) ; in front, a large stone basin. 

The ancient Aqua Virgo, now Acqua Vergine, which issues here, was 
conducted by M. Agrippa from the Campagna, chiefly by a subterranean 
channel 14 M. in length, to supply his haths at the Pantheon (p. 195), in 
B.C. 27. It enters the city by the Pincio, not far from the Porta del Po- 
polo. The name originated in the tradition that a girl once pointed out 
the spring to thirsty soldiers. The fountain was restored by Hadrian I., 
Nicholas V., and others. In 1453 the latter pope conducted hither the 
main stream of the aqueduct, and the fountain then exchanged its ancient 
name for its present name of Trevi (a corruption of 'Trivio'), which it 

The Corso. ROME. J. Strangers' Quarter. 145 

derives from its three outlets. This aqueduct yields daily upwards of 
13 million cubic feet of water, perhaps the best in Rome. The fountains 
in the Piazza di Spagna, the Piazza Navona, and the Piazza Farnese are 
supplied from the same source. An ancient arch of this aqueduct, with 
an inscription by its restorer the Emp. Claudius, is to be seen at No. 12, 
Via del Nazzareno , in the court. • — ■ On quitting Rome, the superstitious 
partake of the water of this fountain, and throw a coin into the basin, 
in the pious belief that their return is thus ensured. 

Opposite the fountain is SS. Vincenzo ed Anastasio (PI. I, 19, 3), 
erected in its present form, with a degraded facade, from designs 
by M. Lunghi, Junr., by the well-known Card. Mazzarini. 

The Via di S. Vincenzo terminates in the Via dellaDataria (left), 
which leads to the Quirinal (p. 168). The busy Via delle Muratte 
(p. 148) leads to the right from the Fontana Trevi to the Corso. 

The Corso. 

The *Corso , which corresponds with the ancient Via Flaminia 
leading from the Capitol, extends from the Piazza del Popolo 
(p. 139), between the Via di Ripetta and Via del Babuino, to the 
Piazza di Venezia, and is now the principal street of Rome, with 
numerous shops , and enlivened , especially towards evening , by 
crowds of carriages and foot-passengers. The Carnival is celebrated 
here, and the street is then thickly strewn with puzzolana earth 
for the races, the horses starting from the Piazza del Popolo. From 
the Piazza del Popolo to the Via Condotti is a distance of 750 yds., 
thence to the Piazza Colonna (p. 147) 520, and to the Piazza di 
Venezia 610 yds. more: in all 1880 yds., or upwards of a mile. 
The numerous streets and lanes on the right lead to the crowded 
purlieus on the Tiber, those on the left to the tops of the hills. 

The first part of the street as far as the Piazza S. Carlo is less 
frequented than the other portions. No. 518, to the right, between 
the first two cross-streets, is the Pal. Rondinini (PI. I, 17, 18), the 
court of which contains an unfinished Pietaby Michael Angelo. No. 18, 
the house opposite, was once inhabited by Goethe ; inscription : 'In 
questa casa immagino e scrisse cose immortali Wolfgango Goethe. 
II Comune di Roma a memoria del grande ospite pose 1872'. 

On the right, beyond the third cross-street, is the church of 
£. Oiacomo in Augusta, or degli Incurabili (PI. I, 17, 2), with a 
facade by C. Maderna. It belongs to the adjoining surgical hospital, 
which extends to the Via Ripetta and accommodates 340 patients 
(founded 1338, enlarged 1600). Nearly opposite, on the left, is 
the small Augustinian church of Oesii e Maria, with facade by Ri- 
naldi. — [In the Via de' Pontefici, the third transverse street from 
this point to the right, is the Mausoleum of Augustus (p. 185).] 

The Corso next leads to the Piazza S. Carlo, in which, on the 
right, is S. Carlo al Corso (PI. I, 17), the national church of the 
Lombards, and the resort of the fashionable world, with a tasteless 
facade. It was erected in the 17th cent, by Onorio Lunghi and 
completed by Pietro da Cortona. 

Baedekek. Italy II. 8th Edition. 10 

146 I. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. The Cor so and its 

Ceiling-paintings in the Interior by Giacinto Brandi. Over the high- 
altar is one of the finest works of Carlo Maratta: the Virgin recommending 
S. Carlo Borromeo to Christ. (The heart of S. Carlo is deposited under 
this altar.) Chief festival of the church, 4th Nov. 

To the left the Via de' Condotti diverges to the Piazza di Spagna 
(p. 143}; its prolongation to the right, Via della Fontanella di 
Borghese , leads to the Palazzo Borghese (p. 186) and the Ponte 
S. Angelo (p. 278). 

Farther on in the Corso, on the right, No. 418 A, is the spacious 
Palazzo Ruspoli, built by Aminanati in 1586, and now containing 
the Banca Nazionale. 

To the left the Via Borgognona and Via Frattina diverge to the 
Piazza di Spagna. In a small piazza on the right side of the Corso, 
opposite the Via Frattina, rises S. Lorenzo in Lucina (PI. I, 16), a 
church of ancient origin, but frequently restored. The only old part 
is the campanile, the top of which is modern. The church and ad- 
joining monastery have belonged to the Minorites since 1606. 

The Portico is supported by four columns; at the door are two half- 
immured mediaeval lions. — In the Interior, by the 2nd pillar to the 
right, is the tomb of Nic. Poussin (d. 1665), erected by Chateaubriand; 
above the high-altar a Crucifixion by Ouido Reni. 

A new Protestant Church is also situated in this piazza. — Om- 
nibuses to the Piazza of St. Peter and the rail, station, see Appx. 

Farther on, to the right, a little back from the street and partly 
concealed by other houses , is the unfinished Pal. Fiano (PI. I, 
16, <S). In front of it, in the Corso (see inscription opposite, No. 167, 
recording that Alexander VII. levelled and widened the Corso for 
the horse-races) a triumphal arch of M. Aurelius stood until 1662 
(reliefs in the palace of the Conservatori, p. 214). 

On the right is the Pal. Teodoli (No. 385). Opposite to it the 
Via delle Convertite leads to the Piazza di S. Silvestro, in which 
rises the venerable church of S. Silvestro in Capite (PI. I, 16), 
erected, together with a monastery, by Paul I. (757-67) on the site 
of his own house. The entrance-court has been preserved, but the 
church has been frequently rebuilt. The 'head of John the Baptist' 
has been preserved here since the 13th cent, (festival, 31st Dec). 
Part of the monastery has been converted into the handsome Post 
and Telegraph Office, which has entrances from the piazza and the 
Via della Vite. Another part of the old monastery contains the 
ministerial Offices of Public Works. — Opposite S. Silvestro is the 
English Church of the Trinity (p. Ill), erected in 1874, with a 
handsome facade in the early-Renaissance style. — At No. 11, Via 
di Mercede, which leads to the E. from the Piazza di S. Silvestro, is 
a tablet recording that Sir Walter Scott lived here when at Rome 
in 1832 

On the right is the Pal. Verospi (No. 374), now Torlonia, erected 
by Onorio Lunghi, and restored by Alessandro Specchi. A loggia 
on the first floor is adorned with pleasing mythological frescoes by 
Fr. Albani, distantly recalling the famous Farnesina works (p. 326). 

Side- Streets. ROME. I. Strangers' Quarter. 147 

To the right, farther on, at the corner of the Piazza Colonna, is 
the extensive Pal. Chigi, begun in 1526 by Oiac. della Porta, and 
completed by C. Maderna. It contains a few antiques and a small 
collection of pictures , but is not open to the public. Admission 
to the 'Bibliotheca Chisiana', -with its valuable MSS., must be 
obtained through the traveller's ambassador (comp. p. 108). 

The handsome *Piazza Colonna (PI. I, 16) is bounded on the 
N. by the Pal. Chigi, and on the S. by the Pal. Ferrajuoli (PI. 20). 
In the Corso, to the E., is the Pal. Piombino (PI. 22), and opposite 
the Corso the former Post Office , with a portico of ancient Ionic 
columns from Veii (p. 385). 

The *Column of Marcus Aurelius , rising in the centre of the 
piazza named after it, is embellished like that of Trajan with reliefs 
from the emperor's wars against the Marcomanni and other German 
tribes on the Danube. 

The column consists of 28 blocks, besides the basement and capital, 
in all 95 ft. in height, and is approached by steps. In 1589 Sixtus V. 
caused it to he restored and crowned with a statue of St. Paul. At that period 
it was ascribed to Antoninus Pius, after whom it is still frequently named. 

The four large Candelabra are of recent date. The piazza is 
much frequented in the evening. Military music here in the height 
of summer (p. 118). — From the Piazza Colonna to the Ponte S. 
Angelo, see p. 192. 

Adjoining .the Piazza Colonna (beyond the old post-office) is 
the Piazza di Monte Citorio, on the right side of which is the 
spacious Camera de' Deputati (PL I, 16, 24), formerly the po- 
lice-office. The design of the building by Bernini was afterwards 
modified by C. Fontana. 

The court in the interior was roofed over in 1871, and fitted up for 
the use of the Italian parliament. The sittings usually take place in the 
afternoon. Entrance to the public seats at the back, No. 10. The door- 
keeper will sometimes provide visitors with better places (fee 1 fr.). 

The rising of the piazza towards the N. is due to the buried 
ruins of the vast amphitheatre of Statilius Taurus, erected B.C. 31, 
and the only one at Rome before the construction of the Colosseum. 
Rows of seats have been discovered here at a depth of 88 ft. below 
the present level of the piazza. 

The Obelisk in the centre of the piazza, like that in the Piazza 
del Popolo (p. 139), was brought to Rome by Augustus, and used 
as the indicator of a sun-dial. It stood till the 9th cent., was after- 
wards damaged, but was restored and erected here in 1789 under 
Pius VI. It was originally erected in the 7th cent. B.C. by Psam- 
metichus I. Height, including the globe and pedestal, 84 ft. 

The Pantheon (see p. 194) may be reached hence by turning to 
the right at the foot of Monte Citorio (S.W.), and crossing the small 
Piazza Capranica (p. 196). "We turn to the left and proceed to the 
Piazza di Pietra, in which is the *Dogana di Terra (PI. I, 16, 18), 
formerly a custom-house, now the exchange. Imbedded in the fa- 


148 J. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. The Cor so and its 

cade are eleven Corinthian columns, 41 ft. high, of a temple, which 
once possessed fifteen in its length and eight in its breadth. The 
style is mediocre, and not earlier than the 2nd century. The edi- 
fice is generally, but without authority, called the Temple of An- 
toninus Pius. 

The Via de' Pastini leads hence to the Pantheon (p. 194), while 
the Corso is regained by the Via di Pietra to the left. 

In the church of S. Maria in Campo Marzo (PL I, 16, 2), to the 
W. of the Piazza di Monte Citorio , are the new State Archives, 
containing charters and deeds of the ex-papal authorities, suppress- 
ed monasteries, etc. • — Pal. di Firenze, Pal. Borghese, see p. 186. 

Continuing to follow the Corso from the Piazza Colonna, we ob- 
serve, to the left, opposite the above-named Via di Pietra, the Via 
delle Muratte (p. 145), leading to the Fontana Trevi. 

Farther on, also on the left, where the Corso expands into the 
'Piazza Sciarra', we reach the -Palazzo Sciarra-Colonna (No. 239 ; 
PI. I, 16), the handsomest palace in the whole street, erected in the 
17th cent, by Flaminio Ponzio, with a portal of later date. 

The Pictuke Gallery in this palace has long been supposed to have 
been partly sold , while the rest was expected to share the same fate. 
Visitors are not admitted without a recommendation from high quarters, 
and then usually to part of the gallery only. Principal works : Raphael, 
Violin-player, dated 1518 (differing from Raphael's other portraits in the 
treatment of the fur and in other particulars ; name of the person represented 
unknown); Palma Vecchio, Female portrait, signed 'Tambend', usually 
known as the 'Bella di Tiziano'; Hern. Luini, 'Vanity and Modesty', half- 
figures , the heads resembling those of Leonardo in type ; Garavaggio, 
Players; Perugino, St. Sebastian; Quido Reni, Magdalene, a work which 
it is difficult, to appreciate after 'Titian's Bella", but a good specimen of 
the master's female heads. 

The Via del Caravita, the first side-street on the right, leads 
to the Piazza di S. Ignazio (PI. II, 16), in which is the Jesuit 
church of S. Ignazio, designed by the Padre Orassi, with a facade 
by Algardi. The building was begun by Card. Ludovisi in 1626, 
after the canonisation of the saint, but not completed till 1675. 

Interior. The impression is marred by the bad taste of the decora- 
tions, which, however, are less obtrusive than in most Jesuit churches. 
The paintings on the vaulting, dome, and tribune, and the picture over 
the high-altar are by the Padre Pozzi, an able master of perspective , by 
whom the chapel of St. Lod. Gonzaga, in the aisle to the right, was also 
designed. The perspective of the paintings on the ceiling and dome is 
correctly seen from a circular stone in the centre of the nave. 

On the S. the choir of the church adjoins the Jesuit Collegio 
Romano (PI. II, 16), formerly well attended, where the higher 
branches of classics, mathematics, philosophy, etc., were taught, and 
degrees conlerred. The extensive building was erected at the end 
of the 16th cent. , under Gregory XIII. and Sixtus V. , by B. Ammanati. 
The massive principal facade looks towards the Piazza del Collegio 
Romano. A number of the rooms contain the new Biblioteca Vittorio 
Emanuele, consisting of the old Library of the Jesuits (63,000 vols. 

Side-Streets. ROME. I. Strangers' Quarter. 149 

and 2000 MSS.), augmented by the libraries of many suppressed 
monasteries (in all about 450,000 vols, and several thousand MSS.). 
The library (adm., see p. 108) has a well-arranged reading-room, 
and is connected by a bridge with the Biblioteca Casanatensis (p. 
197). — The building also contains the Liceo Ennio Quirino Visconti 
and several collections, the chief of which is the — 

Museo Kireheriano, founded by the learned Athanasius Kircher, 
born in 1601, a Jesuit and teacher at Wiirzburg in 1618, afterwards 
professor of mathematics at the Coll. Romano, and celebrated for his 
mathematical and scientific researches (d. 1680). The museum was 
acquired by government in 1870, and has been from time to time 
enlarged by objects found in the Columbaria at the Porta Maggiore 
and in other recent excavations. It has now been determined to 
transfer all objects not included in the original Jesuit collection to 
the new Museum in the Thermae of Diocletian ; and as the work of 
removal has already begun , the following description can only be 
temporarily accurate. The museum is open daily, 9-3 ; adm. 1 fr., 
Sun. free. The director is Commendatore Pigorini. 

The collections are exhibited in four corridors, surrounding a rectan- 
gular court. We first turn to the left, and enter the — 

I. Room, with a modern mosaic pavement designed in an ancient style. 
Numerous fragments of ancient terracottas are built into the walls. The 
Cabinets contain terracotta figures (chiefly votive), lamps, clay vessels, and 
small objects in glass and ivory. 1st Cab. to the left: Silver goblets found 
in the mineral spring at Vicarello (p. 3S7), among which are three in the 
form of milestones and inscribed with the names of the chief stations on 
the route from Cadiz in Spain to Rome. 2nd Cab. to the right: Large 
bronze tablet with a dedicatory inscription to Minerva in the Faliscan 
dialect; above, an iron ring with a bronze label bearing the inscription 
'I have run away, catch me, and restore me to my master, who will re- 
ward you with a solidus', generally supposed to have been intended for a 
slave, but more probably a dog-collar. 2nd Cab. to the left: Book consist- 
ing of seven leaden leaves inscribed with mystic formulae (dating from 
the end of the 2nd cent. A.D.). 3rd Cab. to the right: Water-pipes and 
catapult missiles of lead. The statuettes and busts scattered throughout 
the room are of little value. — We now turn to the left into the — 

II. Room, containing early -Christian tombstones and sarcophagus- 
reliefs. In the centre is a piece of ancient wall, in a black frame, with a 
caricature of the Christians scratched upon it: a man with the head of an 
ass, affixed to a cross, with a man at the side, and the words 'AXs$au.:vo; 
aif-JtTe &iov (Alexamenos worships God), found in the Peedagogium on the 
Palatine (comp. p. 249). — The Cabinets contain medireval and Oriental 
curiosities forming part of the original Kircher collection. — We now re- 
trace our steps, pass through a small ante-room, with unimportant marble 
heads, reliefs, and statuettes, and enter the — 

III. Coreidok of the Bronzes. Cabinets 1-3, to the left: Egyptian 
statuettes in wood and bronze, Etruscan idols, etc. The Table Cases on 
the right and left contain a valuable collection of ancient Roman and 
Italian copper money (aes grave). On the walls are fragments of mural paint- 
ings; the figure in the centre (No. 8) is the goddess Fortuna. Cab. 4-6, 
to the left: Small statuettes in bronze. To the right, by the 3rd window, 
two larger bronzes : Bacchus, Youth bearing a burden. — By the 4th win- 
dow is the most valuable object in the museum, the so-called "Ficoronian 
Cista, named after its first owner, dating from the 3rd cent. B.C., and 
found near Palestrina in 1744. It is a toilet-casket of cylindrical form, 
adorned with admirably-engraved designs, representing the arrival of the 
Argonauts in Bithynia, and the victory of Polydeuces over king Amycus. 

150 I. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. The Corso and its 

The feet and the figures on the lid are of inferior workmanship-, on the 
latter the inscriptions: 'Novios Plautios med Romai (me RomEe) fecid', 
and 'Dindia Macolnia iileai dedit 1 (comp. Introd.)- Between the windows 
hangs a copy. — Table Cases 23, 24, to the left: Gems and glass-pastes. 
Case 25 : 'Tabula Patronatus 1 , or diploma conferring the freedom of the town 
of Mididi in Africa on the consul Valerius Proculus, A.D. 321 (in bronze). 
Case 26: 'Strigiles', or scrapers, for use in the paltestra. Between the 4th 
and 5th windows, a large arm in bronze. By the 5th window, an ancient 
bronze "Vessel, inlaid with silver. Cab. 7, to the left: Small bronzes, in- 
cluding a curious Etruscan group of ploughers ; caricature statuettes. 
Cases 27, 28: Surgical instrument^, spoons. Case 29: Locks and keys. 
Case 30: Rings. Case 31: Scales and weights. Case 32: Bells. Above 
hang the "Mural Paintings found in a columbarium at the Porta Maggiore 
(p. 182) in 1875, representing scenes from the mythical period of Roman 
history. They are unfortunately seriously damaged, and are rapidly fad- 
ing. Above them are the copies made immediately after their discovery. 
The following are in the best preservation : Romulus and Remus as shep- 
herds ; Exposure of the twins; Rhea Silvia surprised by Mars; Amulius 
pronouncing judgment upon the guilty Rhea Silvia. — The Case below the 
7th window, to the right, contains bronze chains, weapons, and nails (worn 
as amulets, some with mystic characters), and also iron weapons and ves- 
sels. Cab. 11, 12, to the left: Raised figures in sheet bronze, and bronze 
handles from cists. To the right, below the 8th window, Case 45, Water- 
cocks ; 46, Harness, two 'Fibulae', or brooches, with line glass enamel; 
47, Articles in lead. To the left, Cases 33-35, Bracelets; 36-38, Handles, 
some very tasteful. Above, continuation of the Mural Paintings; Scene 
with sitting female figures, of unknown import ; Building of Alba Longa ; 
Battle on the Numicus between the Latins and the Rutuli ; tineas crowned 
by Victory after the defeat of Turnus, who lies dead on the ground ; Battle, 
and Building of Lavinium. — Cabs. 13-16 , to the left: Etruscan bronze 
mirrors, some with fine engraved scenes. — The following room (badly 
lighted) contains numerous bronze vessels, candelabra, lamps, helmets, 
greaves, and weapons. Above, to the right, is a beam from the ship of 
Tiberius found in the Lake of Nemi (see p. 368). 

The extensive Ethnographical Collections are arranged in three cor- 
ridors parallel with the Via del Caravita. That next the court contains 
objects from Australia; the central one contains the American collection, 
in which the wooden masks with mosaic incrustations from Mexico (in 
the glass-case by the entrance) should be noticed; while that adjoining 
the street is devoted to Asiatic and African curiosities. Full information 
given on the labels attached. 

We now turn to the right into the long corridor on the side next the 
Via del Collegio Romano, which contains the Palaeontological Collections. 
In the first five sections are objects of the stone period, in the next three 
objects from lake-dwellings, and in the next three objects of the bronze 
period. The 12th section contains a model of a Sardinian Nurago, or 
conical tower supposed to have been erected by the aboriginal inhabi- 
tants of Sardinia as a refuge in case of hostile attack. 

We again turn to the right and enter the room containing the ""Trea- 
sure of Praeneste, found at Palestrina about the year 1877 and purchased 
by Government. The chief objects are exhibited in the Cabinet in the 
centre: No. 1. Breast (or head) decoration, with 131 lions, horses, and 
various fantastic animals attached to it in rows, the details of which 
are most elaborately executed in granulated work ; at the ends are two 
cylinders terminating in heads of animals, and enriched with the Grecian 
pattern in a similar style. Of the three adjacent golden cylinders, the 
finest is No. 4, embellished with two rows of figures of animals and 
exquisite arabesques. The small rod found in the cylinder lies alongside 
of it. No. 2. Golden fibula ; to the right, 4549. Fragments of an ivory re- 
lief with delicately-executed figures. Behind, on a pedestal, 26. Fragments 
of a silver bowl , with representations of four boats , Egyptian symbols 
and figures, and a battle-scene (in the centre), and inscribed with a Phoe- 
nician name in small characters (above the wing of a hawk) ; 25. Elegant 

Side-Streets. ROME. /. Strangers' 1 Quarter. 151 

silver bowl, the Interior adorned with a central figure and two rows of 
gilded reliefs (royal hunting-scenes, horses, and birds), and terminating in 
a snake. 23. Large round silver-gilt goblet, with six snakes forming the 
handles; the bowl is decorated with rows of figures of armed men, wild 
beasts, and birds. 24. Silver-gilt bowl, the interior of which is enriched 
with two rows of horses, oxen, birds, and trees; it was found adhering 
to an oxydised iron axe (No. 89, in Cab. V), which has taken the im- 
pression of part of it. 20. Golden vessel of graceful form, with two 
sphinxes on each handle. Below, 27. Silver dagger, with a handle of elec- 
trum (alloy of gold and silver) inlaid with amber fastened with electrum 
wire ; adjacent, the fragments of the silver sheath. 28. Large iron dagger, 
with a silver sheath richly ornamented with figures of animals ; the end 
of the sheath, now broken off, consists of an open lotus-flower in silver, 
adorned with gold globules. 51. Two ivory wings with lacunars, bearing 
traces of colouring. — The two Cabinets below the windows contain frag- 
ments of silver and bronze vessels. In Case V. are the largest objects of 
the treasure of Prseneste : 75. Fragments of a large caldron with griffins' 
heads as handles; 72. Iron tripod, with bronze bowl, the margin of which 
is embellished with three human figures and three animals , in a very 
primitive style. Opposite the door is a large ancient vessel with fantas- 
tic figures of animals (much damaged). 

One of the following rooms (adm. by special permission) contains the 
records of the Arvales, enumerating the festivals of the brotherhood and 
other details (comp. pp. 346, 347). 

The Observatory, which acquired a European reputation under Padre 
Secchi (d. 1878), is shown in the forenoon to visitors with an introduc- 
tion. A signal is given here daily when the sun attains the meridian, 
which is announced by a cannon from the castle of S. Angelo. 

In the Corso, beyond the Piazza Sciarra, on the right, is the 
Palazzo Simonetti (No. 308). Opposite is S. Marcello (PI. II, 16), in 
the small piazza of that name, a church mentioned as early as 499, 
re-erected by Giacomo Sansovino in 1519, and recently entirely 
modernised. The poor facade is by Carlo Fontana. 

The 4th Chapel on the right contains paintings by Pernio del Vaga, 
completed after his death by Dan. da Volterra and Pellegrino da Modena, 
and the monument of the celebrated Card. Consalvi (d. 1824) , minister of 
Pius VII., by Rinaldi. Paintings in the Tribune by Giov. Battista da JVovara; 
those of the 2nd Chapel to the left by Fed. Zuccaro. 

On the right is the small church of S. Maria in Via Lata, men- 
tioned as early as the 7th cent., but in its present form dating from 
the 17th; facade by Pietro da Cortona; from the vestibule a stair- 
case ascends to an oratory in which St. Paul and St. Luke are said 
to have taught. The Via Lata (called Via Flaminia outside the 
town ; p. 357) was the ancient main street of the city, nearly cor- 
responding with the present Corso. Below this church and the Pa- 
lazzo Doria lie extensive ancient walls, which once belonged to the 
Septa Julia, an edifice begun by Caesar and completed by Agrippa, 
used for taking the votes of the national assembly, but converted into 
a market-place in the reign of Tiberius, when this practice had 
fallen into disuse. 

Adjoining S. Maria in Via Lata is the *Palazzo Doria, formerly 
Pamphilj (PI. II, 16), an extensive pile of buildings, and one of the 
most magnificent palaces in Rome ; facade towards the Corso by Val- 

1 52 J. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. The Corso and its 

vasori, that towards the Coll. Romano by P. da Cortona, and another 
towards the Piazza di Venezia by P. Amati, The handsome court, 
surrounded by arcades, is entered from the Corso (No. 305). To 
the left is the approach to the staircase ascending to the *Galleria 
Doria on the 1st floor (Tues. and Frid., 10-2; during the Easter 
fortnight, daily ; catalogues in each room ; fee ] / 2 f r 0- — T ne Doria 
Gallery resembles the other Roman collections in being devoted to 
no particular school, and in possessing examples of every different 
style, but the founders have perhaps shown a preference for works 
of the 17th century. The ante-chambers are badly lighted, so that 
the pictures are not seen to advantage, but most of the works here 
are hardly above mediocrity. The visitor should, however, note the 
predella of a now lost altar-piece by Peselli (II. Room, 29, 39), a 
good specimen of early-Florentine painting, and the Madonnas of 
Niccolb Bondinello (II. Room) , a little known master , who has 
happily imitated the golden colouring of the old Venetians , and is 
one of Giov. Bellini's ablest followers. 

The gems of the collection are in the three galleries and in the 
corner-cabinet. Raphael, the prince of cinquecentists, is represented 
by the portraits of two Venetian scholars , Andrea Navagero and 
Agostino Beazzano (in the corner-cabinet) ; but their authenticity 
has been questioned, and the touch is certainly somewhat different 
from Raphael's usual style, although the vigorous tone and breadth 
of colouring may be accounted for by his habit of fresco painting. 
Johanna of Arragon is a copy only (II. Gallery, 53), and so too 
is Titian's Periods of Life (I. Gall. 20). Pordenone's Herodias 
(II. Gall. 40), and Lor. Lotto's portrait of himself (II. Gall. 34), 
on the other hand, are admirable Venetian works. The portrait of 
Andrea Doria by Sebastian delPiombo is not Venetian in character, 
but is interesting from the faculty displayed by the master of im- 
parting an air of grandeur to a repulsive subject (corner-cabinet). 
With this work the visitor should compare the portrait of Pope In- 
nocent X., by Velazquez, in the same room, and the coldly aristo- 
cratic portrait of Gianettino Doria by A. Bronzino (II. Gall. 31). 
The colouring of the former is strikingly rich, completely eclipsing 
Piombo's massiveness of style. The skilful manner in which the 
three shades of red are blended should be particularly noticed. 

Garofalo, though not a master of the highest rank, has produced 
an admirable work in his Nativity of Christ (II. Gall. 61). The 
landscape-painters of the 17th cent, are also well represented. In 
the landscapes of Annibale Carracci (III. Gallery) we observe a con- 
flict between historic and scenic imagination, and the obtrusion of 
the former at the expense of harmony of effect. The pictures by 
Salvator Rosa (VII. Room) are not among his best works, but Claude 
Lorrain's landscapes (III. Gall. 5, 13, 24) are justly admired. 
His 'mill' , and the landscape with the temple of Apollo, may be 
regarded as models of ideal landscape; the effect is produced by 

Side-Streets. ROME. /. Strangers' Quarter. 153 

the skilful gradations of distance : the foreground is inclosed by 
trees on both sides, the middle distance gently softened off , and 
the background formed by mountain outlines. — The Netherlands 
School is scantily represented, but some of the pictures, as Memling's 
Descent from the Cross (corner-cabinet), and Lievins 1 Sacrifice of 
Isaac (II. Gall. 26) , are worthy rivals of their Italian neighbours. 

I. Room : also copying-room, to which the finest pictures in the 
collection are frequently brought. Antiquities: four Sarcophagi with 
(No. 1) the hunt of Meleager, (3) history ofMarsyas, (6) Diana and 
Endymion, and (no number) procession of Bacchus. Two fine cir- 
cular altars ; 2. Duplicate of the so-called Diana of Gabii in the 
Louvre ; 4. Archaic statue of the bearded Dionysus ; 9. Ulysses 
with the ram ; and a number of statuettes , some of fine quality. 
Pictures: 21, 22, 24, 25, 27, 29, 30, 34. Landscapes by 6. Poussin 
and his followers ; on the entrance-wall, Perino del Vaga, Madonna. 
To the left we enter the — 

II. Room. Antique portrait-busts, a Centaur in pietra dura and 
rosso antico (freely restored). — *24. Rondinello, Madonna; 45. 
Holbein^!), Portrait of a woman; 55. School of Mantegna, St. An- 
thony; 28. Piscmello, Sposalizio; 29. Peselli, St. Silvester in pre- 
sence of Maximin II. ; 10. Franc. Francia, Madonna; *34. Fit. 
Lippi, Annunciation; 39. Peselli, Leo IV. appeasing a dragon; 38. 
Pisanello, Nativity of Mary ; 20. After Titian , Mary Magdalene, 
early copy of the work in the Pitti Gallery at Florence ; 42. floZ- 
bein(f), Portrait of himself in his 40th year; *41. Rondinello, Ma- 
donna and Child; 44. Murillo, Magdalene; 47. Oiov. Bellini (?), 
Presentation in the Temple (by Bissolo , according to C. & C.) ; 
96. Marco Basaiti (ace. to C. & C. not Perugino), St. Sebastian. 

III. Room (closed). 

IV. Room (very dark). To the right on entering : 33. Cara- 
vaggio, St. John; *17, 31. P. Bril, Landscapes. Over the door: 
1. Paris Bordone, Mars, Venus, and Cupid. In the centre a 
recumbent river-god in pietra dura. On the left wall in two frames, 
antique bronzes and other objects. By the window a bronze vessel 
with graffiti in a peculiar style, of late origin. 

V. Room: 22. Holy Family and St. Catharine (not by Titian); 
25. Guercino, St. Joseph ; 27. Domenichino, Landscape; 31. Pous- 
sin, Landscape. In the centre : Jacob wrestling with the angel, a 
group in marble, of the School of Bernini. 

VI. Room. Over the door : 5. Sandro Botticelli (?), Holy Fa- 
mily"?^. Maratta, Madonna; *9. Spanish School, Portrait of a 
boy. To the right of the exit, 39. School of Oiov. Bellini, Mar- 
riage of St. Catharine. - — The raised passage-room contains several 
small Netherlandish works, and a female portrait-bust by Algardi. 

VII. Room: 3, 8. Salv. Rosa, Landscapes; 19. Mazzolini, 
Massacre of the Innocents. 

VIII. Room : *17. Lod. Carracci, St. Sebastian ; opposite, 22. 

154 J. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. The Corso and its 

Lod. Carracci, Holy Family. In the corner a *Head of Serapis in 

IX. Room : Several interesting ancient portrait-heads. 

X. Room : Subjects from still-life. 

We now enter the galleries. To the left is the — 

I. Gallery : 2. Qarofalo , Holy Family ; 3. Ann. Carracci, 
Magdalene; 5. School of Mantegna, Christ bearing the Cross (by 
the last window) ; 8. Quinten Massys, Two male heads ; 9. Sasso- 
ferrato, Holy Family; 14. Titian, Portrait; 15. A. del Sarto(?), Holy 
Family; 16. Brueghel, Creation of the animals; 20. Titian, The 
three Periods of Life, a copy of the original in London; *25. CI. 
Lorrain, Landscape with the flight to Egypt ; *26. Qarofalo, Visi- 
tation ; 32. Saraceni, Repose during the flight into Egypt; 37. 
Poussin, Copy of the Aldobrandine Nuptials (p. 324) ; 49. P. Vero- 
nese^), Angel; 50. 6. Romano, Holy Family, after Raphael. 

II. Gallery (chiefly remarkable for its admirable portraits) : 
30. Rembrandt, Faun; *6. Fr. Francia (Qarofalo?), Madonna; 

13. Mazzolini, Christ in the Temple; 15. Lor. Lotto, St. Jerome; 

14. (not Titian), 11. Pordenone, 19. Rubens, 22. Van Dyck(J), 
Portraits; 65. After Qiorgione, Concert (in the Pitti Gallery); 3. 
Giov. Bellini (Rondinello?), Madonna; 26. Jan Lievens, Sacrifice 
of Isaac; *31. AngeloBronzino, Gianettino Doria ; *34. Lor. Lotto, 
Portrait of a bearded man; *40. Qiov. Ant. Licinio da Porde- 
none, Herodias with the head of the Baptist, a model of female 
vigour and dignity ; 49. Rubens , Portrait of a monk (an early 
work) ; 52. Titian, Portrait ; 53. After Raphael, Johanna of Arra- 
gon, Netherlandish copy; 54. Portrait of a poet (not Titian); *61. 
Qarofalo, Nativity ; *69. Correggio , Allegorical representation of 
Virtue, unfinished dead-colouring in tempera; 78. Morone, Por- 
trait; 77. Titian and his wife (according to C. & C, by Sofonisba 
Anguissola). — The adjacent room (generally closed) contains works 
of the 17th century. 

III. Gallery: 3, 8, 30, 35. An. Carracci, Landscapes with 
historical accessories ; 5. Claude Lorrain, Landscape with Mercury's 
theft of the cattle; *il. Bronzino, Portrait of Macchiavelli ; *13. 
CI. Lorrain, Mill; *24. CI. Lorrain, Landscape with temple of 
Apollo (two most admirable landscapes of this master); 18, 22. 
Two small pictures of the old Dutch school; 26. Mazzola, Portrait; 
27. Qiorgione, Portrait; 31. Fra Bartolommeo(y), Holy Family; 
34. CI. Lorrain, Landscape with Diana hunting. 

Adjacent is a small Corner-Cabinet which contains the gems 
of the collection (well lighted) : *Raphael, the two Venetian scholars 
Navagero and Beazzano, probably only a copy; *Seb. del Piombo, 
Portrait of Andrea Doria, unquestionably the grandest existing 
portrait of this master; Quinten Massys, Money-changers disputing; 
*Memling, Entombment; *Velazquez, Innocent X., perhaps the most 
striking of the 17th cent, portraits of popes. 

Side-Streets. ROME. J. Strangers' 1 Quarter. 155 

IV. Gallery : Late - Roman and other works of little impor- 

The side-street adjoining the Pal. Salviali, on the left side of 
the Corso, opposite the Pal. Doria, and also the preceding and the 
following, lead to the Piazza di SS. Apostoli (PL II, 19). This 
piazza is bounded on the E. by the church of that name and the Pal. 
Colonna. At one end is the Pal. Valentini, containing a few antiqui- 
ties. On the other side are the Pal. Ruffo (No. 308) and the Pal. 
Odescalchi (No. 314), which has a facade by Bernini. 

*SS. Apostoli, founded by Pelagius I. in honour of SS. Philip 
and James, and re-erected under Clement XL in 1702, has been 
restored since a fire in 1871. The vestibule by Baccio Pintelli{T), 
the only part of the building earlier than 1702, contains (on the 
left) the monument of the engraver Giov. Volpato by Canova (1807), 
and (on the right) an ancient *Eagle with chaplet of oak-leaves, from 
the Trajan's Forum. Chief festival on 1st May. 

Interior. Right Aisle, 3rd Chapel: St. Antony by Luti. In the Left 
Aisle , 2nd Chapel : Descent from the Cross by Franc. Manno. At the end, 
to the left, over the entrance into the sacristy : "Monument of Clement XIV. 
by Canova, on the pedestal Charity and Temperance. In the tribune, with 
altar-piece by Muratori (said to be the largest in Rome), are the monu 
ments erected by Sixtus IV. to his two nephews, the Cardinals Riario, 
that of Pietro (d. 1474) on the left, and that of Alexander behind the 
altar , and partly concealed by the organ. On the vaulted ceiling of the 
tribune, Fall of the Angels, a fresco by Oiov. Odassi, in the rococo style, 
but of striking effect. The older church was decorated by Melozzo da Forli, 
a line fragment of whose frescoes is now in the Quirinal (p. 169) , and 
others are in the sacristy of St. Peter's (p. 287). 

The adjoining monastery is now the War Office. The passage 
adjacent to the church contains a monument to Mioh. Angelo, who 
lived and died in the parish of SS. Apostoli, and the tomb of Card. 
Bessarion (d. 1472). 

The Palazzo Colonna (PI. II, 19), begun by Martin V., and 
afterwards much extended and altered, is now in great part occupied 
by the French ambassador, and a number of rooms on the ground- 
floor, with interesting frescoes, are therefore closed. The *Galleria 
Colonna on the first floor (Tues. and Sat. 11-3), is entered from the 
Piazza SS. Apostoli by the gate No. 53. We turn to the left in the 
court, and ascend the broad staircase. At the top, opposite the en- 
trance to the saloons, is the painted cast of a colossal Medusa head. 
Traversing a large hall with family-portraits, we turn to the right 
into three ante-rooms adorned with Gobelins , in the second of 
which are four ancient draped statues ; in the third a small ancient 
statue , belonging to a group of playing girls. We then ring at 
the entrance to the Gallery (fee of l /% fr. on leaving). — All the 
pictures bear the names of the masters. 

I. Room. Wall of the entrance: Fra Fil. Lippi (?), Madonna; 
same by Luca Longhi and S. Botticelli. On the left wall : Luini, 
Madonna (much damaged); Giov. Santi (father of Raphael), Por- 

156 /. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. Pal. Colonna. 

trait; Jacopo d'Avanzo, Crucifixion; Fr. Albano, Two Landscapes; 
*Qiulio Romano , Madonna (comp. p. Mi); Qentile da Fabriano 
(or, according to C. & C. , Stefano da Zevio), Madonna. "Wall of 
the egress : Parmeggianino , Holy Family; Innoc. da Imola, same 
subject ; two *Madonnas surrounded by smaller circular pictures, 
erroneously attributed to Van Eyck , but by a later Dutch master, 
interesting on account of their elaborate miniature-like execution. 

II. Room. Throne-room, with handsome old carpet. 

III. Room. Ceiling-painting by Battoni and Luti (in honour of 
Martin V.). Entrance-wall: Oiov. Bellini, St. Bernhard; *Titian, 
Onuphrius Panvinius, an admirable study of the master's best pe- 
riod, the name being arbitrary ; Bronzino, Holy Family ; *Girolamo 
Trevisani, Poggio Bracciolini. Left wall: Albano, Rape of Europa ; 
*Spagna, St. Jerome; Domenico Puligo, Madonna; Ann. Carracci, 
Bean-eater; Paris Bordone , Madonna with saints. Exit-wall: 
Holbein (?), Lor. Colonna; P. Veronese, Portrait of a man ; Bor- 
done (not Bonifazio~), Holy Family. Window-wall : F. Mola, Cain 
and Abel ; Sassoferrato, Madonna ; Guido Rent, St. Agnes. 

IV. Room. The great attraction here consists of *Eleven water- 
colour landscapes by Gaspard Poussin, which are among his finest 
works and the most valuable in this gallery. Some of them are un- 
favourably hung, but every one of them will repay careful inspection. 
They represent a mountain-road close to a profound ravine, a bleak 
plain lashed by a storm, a calm lake enclosed by majestic trees, 
a riven rocky landscape with waterfall, and various other subjects. 
Notwithstanding the simplicity and uniformity of the materials 
used, these works will not fail to interest by the excellence of the 
composition and drawing. — Entrance- wall : Canaletto , Architec- 
tural piece ; Crescenzo d'Onofrio, Landscape. Opposite: Berchem, 
Huntsman; Claude Lorrain (?), Landscape; Wouwerman (?), Chase 
and cavalry - skirmish ; N. Poussin, Metamorphosis of Daphne ; a 
large cabinet with ivory carving by Franc, and Bom. Steinhard (in 
the centre , the Last Judgment, after Michael Angelo). 

V. Gallery, with ceiling - paintings by Coli and Gherardi 
(Battle of Lepanto, 8th Oct. 1571, which Marcantonio Colonna at 
the head of the papal fleet assisted in gaining). On the walls 
mirrors painted with flowers (by Mario de Fiori) and genii (by C. 
Maratta). Statues here of no great value, most of them modernised. 
Reliefs built into the wall under the windows (right) : Head of 
Pallas ; Wounded man , borne away by his friends ; Selene in the 
chariot (archaic style). Left wall: *Rubens , Assumption of the 
Virgin; *Sustermans, Fed. Colonna; Crist. Allori, Christ in hell; 
Salviati, Adam and Eve; *Van Dyck, Don Carlo Colonna, eques- 
trian portrait ; Guercino, Martyrdom of Emmerentia ; 5. Gaetano, 
Family-portrait of the Colonnas (1581). Right wall : Tintoretto, 
Double portrait; N. Poussin, Pastoral scene; Niccolb Alunno, 
Madonna rescuing a child from a demon. 

Pal. di Venezia. EOME. /. Strangers' Quarter. 157 

A staircase , on which is placed a cannon-ball fired into the 
city during the bombardment of 1849, leads to Room VI. From 
left to right : Lor. Lotto , Card. Pompeo Colonna (?) , a genuine, 
but much damaged work ; Muziano (an imitator of Michael Angelo, 
of Brescia), Vittoria Colonna, the friend of Michael Angelo ; *Pietro 
Novelli (a Sicilian master of the 17th cent.), Marcantonio Colonna; 
Moroni, Portrait; Tintoretto, Narcissus; *PalmaVecchio, Madonna 
with St. Peter and the donor , the effect of the group being taste- 
fully enhanced by a background of bushes; Dom. Ohirlandajo (or, 
according to C. & C. , Cosimo Rosselli), Rape of the Sabine women, 
and opposite to it the Reconciliation; *Pietro Novelli, Isabella Co- 
lonna and her infant son Lorenzo Onofrio, a good work, deserving 
notice apart from the rarity of the master; *Bonifazio (not Titian], 
Madonna with saints; Van Dych, Lucrezia Colonna; Hieron. Bosch 
(not CranacK), Temptation of St. Anthony ; Tintoretto, Angels in 
glory, with four busts ; Moretto da Brescia (?), Portrait; Ag. Car- 
racci, Pompeo Colonna; Oiorgione (?), Giac. Sciarra Colonna; 
Pourbus, Franc. Colonna. In the centre a Renaissance column of 
red marble with scenes from a campaign in relief. 

The beautiful Garden (entered through the palace , or by Via 
del Quirinale 12) contains several antiquities, fragments of a colossal 
architrave, said to have belonged to Aurelian's temple of the sun, 
and considerable portions of the brick- walls of the Thermae of Con- 
stantine (p. 169) which once extended over the entire Piazza di 
Monte Cavallo. The terrace commands a good survey of the city. 

Towards the S. the Corso is terminated by the Piazza di Ve- 
nezia (PI. II, 16, 19; 48 ft. above the sea-level), to the right in 
which , at the corner, rises the Pal. Bonaparte, formerly Rinuccini, 
erected by De Rossi, where Madame Laetitia, mother of Napoleon I., 
died on 2nd Feb., 1836. The piazza is named after the imposing 
*Palazzo di Venezia, which consists of the large palace, and a smaller 
one of later date, in the Florentine style. The building was formerly 
attributed to Qiuliano da Majano , but existing documents record 
that it was erected by Francesco del Borgo di S. Sepolcro for Pope 
Paul II. (1455). To what extent Bernardo di Lorenzo participated 
in the work is uncertain. The palace was presented in 1560 by 
Pius IV. to the Republic of Venice, with which it subsequently came 
into the possession of Austria, and it is still the residence of the 
Austrian ambassador, as before the cession of Venetia. The large 
court with arcades is little more than begun ; and so also is a second 
and smaller court to the left of the other. Many of the stones of 
this building are said to have been obtained from the Colosseum. 

Opposite the side-entrance of the Pal. di Venezia is the Palazzo 
Torlonia (PI. II, 19, 2), formerly Bolognetti, erected about 1650 by 
C. Fontana, occupying the block as far as the Piazza SS. Apostoli, 
and the property of the banker Prince Torlonia, Duke of Bracciano. 

158 /. Strangers Quarter. ROME. S. Marco. 

It is lavishly decorated, and contains numerous works of art, but is 
not shown to the public. Permessi for the Villa Albani are procured 
on the ground-floor, to the left. — The N. corner of the palace has 
been removed to make way for the new Via Nazionale , which be- 
gins here and connects the centre of the old town with the railway 
(see p. 175). 

From the Piazza Venezia we proceed straight through the narrow 
Ripresa dbi Barberi, so named because the 'Barbary' horses used 
in the races of the Carnival were stopped here. On the left (No. 174) 
is the Pal. Nipoti. The first cross-street to the left leads to Tra- 
jan's Forum (p. 240). To the right the Via 8. Marco, passing under 
an arch of the passage which leads from the Pal. di Venezia to S. 
Maria in Aracoeli , brings us to the Piazza di San Marco (PI. II, 
16), laid out in promenades. Here, on the right, lies — 

S. Marco, incorporated with the Pal. di Venezia. This church is 
very ancient, beiug supposed to date from the time of Constantine. 
It was re-erected in 833 by Gregory IV., and adorned in 1455 by 
Oiuliano da Majano (? Domenico di Francesco) with a fine vestibule 
and probably with the coffered ceiling of the nave. The interior, 
dating from the 17th cent., was modernised by Card. Quirini in 
1744. Festival on 25th April. 

Vestibule. Roman and ancient Christian inscriptions, built into the 
walls. St. Mark in relief, above the handsome inner principal portal. The 
Interior is approached by a descent of several steps. With the exception 
of the tribune and the beautiful ceiling , all the older parts have been 
disfigured by restorations. The Tribune, with its handsome pavement 
(opus Alexandrinum), lies a few steps higher than the rest of the church. 
The mosaics (in the centre Christ; left, the saints Mark, Agapetus, and Agnes; 
right, Felicianus and Mark escorting Gregory IV.) date from the most de- 
graded period of this art (about 833) and have been justly described as 
'utter caricatures'. In the Right Aisle, 1st Chapel : altar-piece by Palma 
Giovine, the Resurrection. 3rd Chap. : Adoration of the Magi, Maratta. At 
the end, adjoining the tribune: '"Pope Mark, an admirable old picture, per- 
haps by Carlo Crivelli. In the Left Aisle , 2nd Chap. : altar-relief, Greg. 
Barbadigo distributing alms, by Ant. (TEste. ith Chap.: St. Michael, Mola. 

In the Piazza, in front of the church, is the so-called Madonna 
Lucrezia , the mutilated marble bust of a colossal female statue 
(priestess of Isis) which carried on conversations with the Abbate 
Luigi near the Pal. Vidoni (p. 200; no longer extant), similar to 
those of Pasquin with the Marforio (comp. p. 201). 

The Via di >S. Marco terminates in the Via Aracoeli, which to 
the left leads to the Piazza Aracoeli (p. 210) and the Capitol, and 
to the right to the Piazza del Gesu (see below). 

From the Piazza Venezia the Ripresa de' Barberi and its con- 
tinuation the Via Macel de'' Corvi (in which No. 88, on the right, 
bears a tablet recording that Giulio Romano was born here), and 
beyond it the Via di Marforio, lead by the N.E. slope of the Capi- 
toline to the Forum and the Arch of Severus (p. 228). The name 
is derived from Forum Martis (or Forum of Augustus). The famous 

Gesii. ROME. J. Strangers' Quarter. 159 

statue of Marforio which once stood in this street, opposite the Car- 
eer Mamertinus, is now in the Capitoline Museum (p. 217). 

Beyond the second. cross-street (the Via delta Pedacchia, now 
Oiulio Romano, which connects the Piazza Aracceli with the Forum 
of Trajan) , on the left , is the Tombstone of C. Publicius Bibulus 
(now entirely built over), to whom the ground was granted by the 
senate as a burial-place for himself and his family in recognition of 
his merits ('honoris virtutisque causa', as the inscription records) 
towards the end of the republic. This point must therefore have 
lain outside the walls of Servius, which ran immediately below the 
Capitol, interments within their precincts having been prohibited. 

From the Piazza Venezia the broad Via del Plebiscito, form- 
erly del Oesu (PI. II, 16), leads to the right, past the Pal. di Vene- 
zia. On the right rise the palazzi Bonaparte (p. 157), Doria (p. 151), 
and Qrazioli. We next Teach the Pal. Altieri , with its extensive 
facade, erected in 1670, bounding the N. side of the small Piazza 
del Gesu (PI. II, 16) which is called after the church of that name. 

*Gesu , the principal church of the Jesuits, is one of the most 
gorgeous in Borne. It was built by Vignola and Oiac. della Porta 
by order of Card. Alessandro Farnese, in 1568-77. Comp. p. lviii. 

In the Nave is a "Ceiling-painting by Baciccio, by whom the dome and 
tribune were also painted, one of the best and most life-like of the rococo 
works of that period. The walls were covered with valuable marble at 
the cost of the Principe Aless. Torlonia in 1860. On the high - altar, with 
its four columns of giallo antico: Christ in the Temple, by Capalti; on the 
left the monument of Card. Bellarmino with figures of Religion and Faith, 
in relief; on the right the monument of P. Pignatelli, with Love and Hope. 

— In the Teansept , to the left : 'Altar of St. Ignatius with a picture by 
Pozzi , under which a silver-plated relief, representing St. Ignatius sur- 
rounded by angels, is said to be concealed. The original silver statue of the 
saint, by Le Oros, which was formerly here, is said to have been removed 
on the suppression of the order in the previous century. The columns are 
of lapis lazuli and gilded bronze ; on the architrave above are two statues : 
God the Father, by B. Ludovisi, and Christ, by L. Ottoni, behind which, 
encircled by a halo of rays , is the emblematic Dove. Between these the 
globe of the earth , consisting of a single block of lapis lazuli (said to be 
the largest in existence). Beneath the altar, in a sarcophagus of gilded 
bronze, repose the remains of the saint. On the right and left are groups 
in marble; on the right the Christian Religion, at the sight of which 
heretics shrink, by Le Gros ; on the left Faith with the Cup and Host, which 
a heathen king is in the act of adoring, by Thiodon. Opposite, in the tran- 
sept, on the right, the altar of St. Francis Xavier. 

The church presents a most imposing sight on 31st Dec. , on the 
festival of St. Ignatius, on 31st July, and during the Quarant'ore (two last 
days of the Carnival) , on which occasions it is brilliantly illuminated in 
the evening. During Advent and Lent, and generally at other seasons also, 
sermons are preached here at 11 a. m., often by priests of great ability. 

Adjoining the church is the former Casa Professa of the Jesuits, 
now a barrack, adjacent to which, Via di Aracoeli 1 A, is the en- 
trance to the rooms of St. Ignatius (Mon., "Wed., Frid., 9-11). On 
the opposite side of the street is the Palazzo Bolognetti(Pl. I, 16, 3). 

— Passing the monastery, and following the Via di Aracceli, we reach 
(5 min.) the Piazza di Aracceli , at the foot of the Capitol (p. 210). 

160 /. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. Villa Borghese. 

From the opposite angle of the Piazza del Gesil, the Via del 
Oesit leads to the right in 5 min. to the Piazza della Minerva (p. 
196); while the busy Via de' Cesarini (p. 200) to the left leads to 
S. Andrea della Valle (p. 200), and the Via del Governo Vecchio 
(p. 202) thence to the bridge of S. Angelo, forming the shortest 
and mot frequented route to the Vatican , and sometimes called 
'Via Papale'. From Gesil to the Ponte S. Angelo (p. 278) 18 min. ; 
omnibus from the Piazza di Venezia, see Appx. 

On the right, just outside the Porta del Popolo, lies the — 

*Villa Borghese (PI. I, 18, 21), founded by Card. Scipio Bor- 
ghese, nephew of Pius V., and afterwards enlarged by the addition 
of the Giustiniani gardens and the so-called villa of Raphael, which, 
with a great part of the plantations, was destroyed during the siege 
of 1849. The beautiful and extensive grounds (open four times 
weekly; carriages admitted; comp. p. 114) from a favourite pro- 
menade. The gardens contain several ancient statues and inscriptions. 

On entering, we follow a footpath which skirts the carriage-road 
on the right, and leads through an Egyptian Gateway (8 min.). Farther 
on we pass a grotto with antique fragments (left). After 4 min. the 
road divides. Following the left branch (as to the other, see below), 
which leads through an artificial ruin with two Doric columns, we 
observe on the left the private gardens of the prince, and farther on 
reach an imitation of a Ruined Temple. Turning to the right here, 
we come in 10 min. to a circular space with a Fountain. (Or this 
spot may be reached by the first broad path to the right beyond the 
Doric columns , leading through an avenue of evergreen oaks to a 
small temple, and thence to the left, through another avenue.) 
From this point the road leads in 5 min. to the Casino, to which 
also beautiful, shady footpaths lead from the left of the fountain. 

If we proceed straight from the above-mentioned bifurcation of 
the path, we observe on the left, after 3 min., the remains of Ra- 
phael's Villa, and in 3 min. more an arch with a Statue of Apollo, 
whence the road turns to the left and leads to the Casino. 

The Casino, which was handsomely restored by M. Ant. Bor- 
ghese in 1872, formerly contained one of the most valuable private 
collections in existence, which was purchased by Napoleon I. and 
sent to the Louvre. In consequence, however, of recent excavations, 
chiefly near Monte Calvi in the Sabina, Prince Borghese has found- 
ed a new Museum here, which contains several objects of great in- 
terest. The custodians provide visitors with catalogues ('/ 2 fr.). 

Ground-Floor. I. Vestibdle : Two candelabra; on the narrow walls 
two reliefs , probably from the triumphal arch of Claudius which once 
stood in the Corso near the Pal. Sciarra. Several sarcophagi ; one of them, 
to the left by the wall of the egress, with a harbour, lighthouse, and ships. 

II. Saloon ('Salone'), with ceiling-painting by Mario Rossi. On the floor, 
mosaics, discovered in 1835 near the Tenuta di Torre Nuova, with gladiator 
;ind wild beast combats. Left wall : 3. Colossal head of Isis ; 4. Dancing 

Villa Borghese. ROME. I. Strangers' Quarter. 161 

Faun, under it a Bacchic relief; 5. Colossal head of a Muse (?). Long wall,: 

7. Tiberius; 8. Meleager; 9. Augustus; above, a raised relief of a galloping 
rider (M. Curtius?); -10. Priestess ; 11. Bacchus and Ampelus. Right wall: 
14. Hadrian ; 16. Antoninus Pius (colossal busts) ; under No. 15 a Bacchic 
relief. Entrance-wall : 18. Diana. 

III. Room (1st to the right). In the centre: -Juno Pronuba, found near 
Monte Calvi. Left wall : 4. Ceres ; 5. Venus Genetrix. Opposite the entrance : 

8. Relief, Sacrificial prayer (of Hesiod?) to Cupid; '11. Relief, Rape of Cas- 
sandra. Right wall: 16. Draped statue. Entrance-wall: 20. Greek tomb- 

IV. Room. In the centre: Amazon on horseback contending with two 
warriors. Entrance-wall :• 2. Pan ; 4. (and 17, opp.) Sarcophagus with the 
achievements of Hercules ; on the cover , Reception of the Amazons by 
Priam ; 6. Head of Hercules ; 7. Pygmsea. On the left wall : 9. Statue of 
Hercules. Wall of the egress : 15. Hercules in female attire. Window-wall : 
21. Venus ; 23. Three-sided ara with Mercury, Venus, and Bacchus. 

V. Room . In the centre : Apollo. Left wall : 3. Scipio Africanus ; 4. 
Daphne metamorphosed into a laurel. Following wall : 7. Head of a 
Mamas or Bacchante; 8. Melpomene; 9. Genre-group; 10. Clio. Right wall: 
'13. Statue of Anacreon in a sitting posture , perhaps a copy from a ce- 
lebrated work of Cresilas at Athens; 14. Lucilla, wife of L. Verus. En- 
trance-wall: 16. Terpsichore; 18. Polyhymnia. 

VI. Room: 'Gallery 1 with modern busts of emperors in porphyry. In 
the centre a porphyry bath, said to have been found in the mausoleum of 
Hadrian; 3. Diana, restored as a Muse; 8. Diana; 22. Bacchus; *29. Statue 
of a Satyr in basalt ; 32. Bronze statue of a boy. (The second door of the 
entrance-wall leads to the upper story.) 

VII. Room , with columns of giallo antico and porphyry , on the floor 
ancient mosaics. Left wall : '2. Boy with bird ; 3. Bacchus ; *4. Captive boy. 
Wall of the egress : 7. Recumbent Hermaphrodite ; 9. Sappho (doubtful) ; 
10. Tiberius. Entrance-wall : * 13. Roman portrait-bust (said to be Do- 
mitius Corbulo) ; ' 14. Head of a youth, perhaps Meleager ; 15. Boy with a 
pitcher, a fountain-figure; "16. Female bust. 

VIII. Room. In the centre : * Portrait-statue of a Greek poet, perhaps Al- 
cseus. Left wall: 2. Athene; 4. Apollo (archaic style). Following wall: 
6. Figure from a tomb ; 7. Candelabrum with Hecate. Right wall : 8. Nymph ; 
10. Leda. Entrance-wall : 15. iEscufapius and Telesphorus. 

IX. Room. In the centre: 'Satyr on a dolphin, a fountain-figure, the mo- 
del of the Jonah in S. Maria del Popolo attributed to Raphael (p. 140); 
3. Isis ; 4. Paris ; 8. Female statue, inaccurately restored as Ceres ; 10. Gipsy- 
woman (17th cent.) ; 13. Venus ; 14. Female figure (archaic) ; ' 16. Bac- 
chante ; 18. Satyr ; 19. Hadrian ; 20. Satyr. 

X. Room. ~1. Dancing Satyr, wrongly restored (he originally played on 
a flute); 2. Ceres; 3. Mercury with a lyre; 4. Dancing Satyr; 8. Satyr, after 
Praxiteles; 9. Pluto with Cerberus; 14. Periander; 19. Bacchus enthroned. 
Fine ceiling-paintings by Conca. 

Upper Floor. A large saloon (fee l fe fr.) contains three early works 
of Bernini: ./Eneas carrying Anchises; Apollo and Daphne; David with the 
sling. The ceiling-paintings are by Lanfranco, the five 'Landscapes on the 
left wall by Phil. Hackert. In one of the following rooms the recumbent 
'Statue of Pauline Borghese, sister of Napoleon I., as Venus, by Canova. 
Other apartments contain modern sculptures and numerous pictures, which 
with a few exceptions (e.g. Portrait of Paul V. by Caravaggio in the 1st 
room) are of little value. The balcony commands a fine View of the gardens. 

II. The Hills of Rome. 
Quirinal. Viminal. Esquiline. 

The following description embraces the E. part of Rome, extend- 
ing over the three long, parallel hills of the Quirinal, Viminal, and 
Baedeker. Italy II. 8th Edition. H 

162 II. Hills of Rome. ROME. Piazza Burberini. 

Esquiline , and adjoining the Corso and Strangers' Quarter. The 
greater part of this quarter is still occupied by vineyards and gar- 
dens, especially towards the walls. Since the Italian occupation, 
however, buildings are springing up here in every direction. 

On the Quirinal at a very early period lay a Sabine town, the union 
of which with that on the Palatine formed the city of Rome. The Ser- 
vian wall ran from the Capitol along the N.W. side of the Quirinal, and 
then to the E. behind the Baths of Diocletian and the church of S. Maria 
Maggiore, enclosing the Quirinal, Viminal, and part of the Esquiline. Ac- 
cording to the new division of the city by Augustus , this quarter com- 
prised two districts, the Alia Semita (Quirinal) and the Exquiliae (Esqui- 
line). The building of Aurelian's wall shows that this quarter was after- 
wards extended. According to the medigeval division these districts formed 
a single region only, named the Rione Monti, the most spacious of the 
fourteen quarters of the city, as it extended from the Porta Pia to the 
now closed Porta Metronia, below the Lateran , and to the Forum Ro- 
manum. Its inhabitants, called Monligiani, differ, like those of Traste- 
vere, in some of their characteristics from the other Romans. Sixtus V. 
provided the hill with water, and constructed the long main street from 
the Pincio to S. JIaria Maggiore. Intersecting this street, and next in im- 
portance to it, is one leading from the Piazza del Quirinale to the Porta 
Pia (Via del Quirinale and Via Venti Settembre), constructed by Pius IV. 

From the Piazza della Trinita on the Pincio (p. 142), crossing 
the Quiiinal and Viminal, a street 1 M. in length intersects this 
quarter of the town in a S. E. direction as far as the church of 
S. Maria Maggiore on the Esquiline. The first part of it is called 
Via Sistina, and the rest the Via delle Quattro Fontane. This street 
with its offshoots is at first well peopled, both with citizens and 
visitors, but beyond the Quirinal it is comparatively deserted. 

The Via Sistina (PI. I, 20) descends from the Pincio to the 
Piazza Barberini (5 min.). The first cross-street descending to the 
right is called Via di Capo It Case (p. 144) ; its prolongation to the 
left is the Via di Porta Pinciana, ascending to the gate of that name 
(closed in 1808), and containing (left) the Villa Malta, once the 
property of Lewis I. of Bavaria, but now occupied by German artists. 

Passing S. Francesca on the left, and S. Ildefonso on the right, 
we reach the Piazza Barberini (PL I, 19, 22). In the centre the 
*Fontana del Tritone, by Bernini, a Triton blowing on a conch. On 
the upper (N.E.) side is the Hotel Bristol. On the right, one side of 
the Palazzo Barberini (p. 167) is visible. Ascending the Piazza, we 
come to the Via di S. Nicola di Tolentino, with several new hotels, 
which leads to the church of that name, and then, under the name of 
Via di S. Susanna, turns to the right to the Fontanone dell' Acqua 
Felice and the Piazza delle Terme (p. 173). — The second street to 
the left, on the N. side of the Piazza Barberini, is the Via di S. 
Basilio, which leads to the Villa Ludovisi (see below), and through 
the Porta Salara to the Villa Albani (p. 164; 1 M.). 

To the left of the Piazza Barberini rises the Piazza de' Cappuc- 
cini, in which is situated the church of S. Maria della Concezione 
(PI. I, 23), or dei Cappuccini, founded in 1624 by Card. Barberini. 

In the Interior, over the door, a copy of Giotto's Navicella (in the ves- 
tibule of St. Peter's, p. 284), by Beretta. 1st Chapel on the right: -St. Michael, 

Villa Ludovisi. ROME. II. The Hills. 163 

a famous work by Ouido Reni; in the 3rd, remains of frescoes by Domen- 
ichino. Over the high -altar a copy o-f an Ascension by Lanfranco , now 
destroyed. Beneath a stone in front of the steps to the choir lies the 
founder of the church, Card. Barberini ('hicjacet pulvis cinis et nihil'); on 
the left the tomb of Alex. Sobiesky (d. 1714), son of John III. of Poland. 
Last chapel on the left: Altar-piece by Sacchi; in the first, one by Pietro 
da Cortona. 

Beneath the church are four Burial Vaults (shown by one of the 
monks), decorated in a ghastly manner with the bones of about 4000 
departed Capuchins. Each vault contains a tomb with earth from Jeru- 
salem. In the case of a new interment, the bones which have been long- 
est undisturbed are used in the manner indicated. The vaults are illu- 
minated on 2nd Nov. (All Souls Day), after Ave Maria. 

A little to the N.W. is 8. Isidoro (PI. I, 20), founded in 1622. 

Leaving the Piazza Baiberini, and following the Via di S. Ba- 
silio, the first part of which only is inhabited, we reach (5 miu.) 
a corner from which the street to the right leads to the gate, and 
that to the left to the entrance of the Villa Ludovisi. 

The **Villa Ludovisi (PI. I, 23) was erected in the first half 
of the 17th cent, by Card. Ludovisi, nephew of Gregory XV., and 
afterwards inherited by the princes of Piombino. (Admission, see 
p. 115.) The grounds were laid out by Le Notre. From the gateway 
(Y2 fr- on leaving) we proceed to the right to the — 

I. Casino, containing a *Collection of valuable ancient sculp- 
tures. Catalogues sold by the custodian C/2 f r 0- Vestibule: 1, 3, 
7, 42, 46, 48. Statues ; by the entrance-wall, to the right, 20. Head 
of Juno, very ancient; 18. Candelabrum in the form of a twisted 
tree; 15. Sitting statue of a Roman , by Zenon. To the left of the 
entrance: 25. Female draped figure ; 31. Tragic mask, mouth of a 
fountain in rosso antico. — Saloon : *28. Group of a barbarian, 
who, having killed his wife, plunges the sword into his own breast 
(right arm improperly restored) , a work of the Pergamenian school 
(the 'Dying Gaul' in the Capitol also belongs to this gToup ; see 
Introd. p. xxxiii). To the right of the entrance : *55. Warrior repos- 
ing (Mars ?), probably destined originally to adorn the approach to 
a door; 51. Statue of Athene from Antioch ; 47. Cast of the statue 
of ^Eschines atNaples; 46. Bust, name unknown; above it, *45. Head 
of a Medusa, of the noblest type ; 43. Rape of Proserpine, by Ber- 
nini; above it, 42. Judgment of Paris, a relief, the right side 
restored according to Raphael's design; **41. The so-called 'Juno 
Ludovisi', the most celebrated, and one of the most beautiful heads 
of Juno ; 30. Mercury , in the same position as the so-called Ger- 
manicus in Paris. Left of the entrance: *1. Mars reposing, of the 
school of Lysippus ; *7. Theseus and JEthra (or Telemachus and 
Penelope, commonly called Orestes and Electra), by Menelaos, pupil 
of Stephanus (p. xxxvi) ; *9. Youthful Satyr; 14. Dionysus with a 
satyr; 15. Head of Juno; 21. Bronze head of Marcus Aurelius. 

To the left of the gateway a path leads by a wall with hedges, 
and then past a pavilion, in 4 min. to the — 


164 //. The Hills. ROMP;. Villa Albani. 

II. Casino (dell' Aurora; fee l/ 2 fr 0> which on the ground-floor 
contains a vigorous ceiling-fresco of *Aurora by Ouercino, and on 
the first floor a *Fama by the same. We next ascend (on the stair- 
case a pleasing ancient relief of two Cupids with a quiver) to the 
upper balconies, which afford a grand 'H'ie'w op Rome and the hills. 

The garden with its beautiful avenues of cypresses and other 
evergreens extends to the city-wall. Ancient sculptures are scat- 
tered throughout the grounds; e. g. by the city-wall a large sarco- 
phagus with representation of a battle, possibly that of Alex. Severus 
against Artaxerxes, A. D. 232. 

The prolongation of the Via S. Basilio mentioned at p. 163 is 
the Via di Porta Salara, which leads in 8 min. from the Villa 
Ludovisi to the Porta Salara. Here in ancient times, on the site 
of the present Villa Massimi (closed), lay the magnificent Gardens 
of Sallust , the historian , which afterwards became the property of 
the emperors. They included a circus, in the hollow between the 
Pincio and Quirinal, which are united farther up near the gate. 
Where the view is unintercepted to the right, considerable remains 
of the enclosing walls are observed on the Quirinal opposite. 

The Porta Salara (PI. I, 27), which was seriously injured by 
the bombardment of 20th Sept., 1870, is now restored. The remo- 
val of its two towers brought to light a well-preserved ancient 
monument in 'peperino', resembling that of Bibulus (p. 159). 

On the Via Salara, */$ M. from the gate (see map , p. 346) , is 
the — 

*Villa Albani (shown on Tues., in winter from 10, and in spring 
and autumn from 11, till dusk, except in wet weather and in June, 
July, and August; by permesso, see pp. 114, 158), founded in 1760 
by Card. Aless. Albani, built by C. Marchionne, and embellished with 
admirable works of art. Napoleon I. sent 294 of the finest statues to 
Paris , which on their restitution in 1815 were sold there by Card. 
Giuseppe Albani , with the exception of the relief of Antinous, in 
order to avoid the cost of transport. In 1834 the Counts of Castel- 
barco became proprietors of the villa, and altered the arrangement 
of the statues. The villa was purchased in 1866 by Prince Torlonia, 
who has removed several of the best antiques to his museum in the 
Borgo (p. 328). Some of them have been replaced by casts. 

Three paths bordered with hedges diverge from the entrance; 
that in the centre leads to a Circular Space with a column in the 
middle, and then to a Terrace with a fountain whence a compre- 
hensive survey is obtained : to the left is the Casino with the galle- 
ries on each side ; opposite is the so-called Bigliardo, a small build- 
ing flanked with cypresses ; on the right in the crescent is the 
' Caffh'. The finest *View from the terrace is obtained near the side- 
steps, farther to the right: to the right of the cypresses appear S. 
Agnese and S. Costanza, above which rises Monte Gennaro, with 
Monticelli at its base. (Best light towards evening.) 

Villa Albani. ROME. II. The Hills. 165 

I. CASINO. Ground Floor. Vestibule. In the six niches : 54. Tiberius 
(?); 59. L. Verus; 64. Trajan. Further on, on the other side of the stair- 
case in the vestibule mentioned below : 72. M. Aurelius, 77. Antoninus 
Pius, 82. Hadrian. In the centre, 61. Female portrait-figure sitting (Faustina) ; 
66. Circular Ara with Bacchus, Ceres, Proserpine, and three Horse; 74. An- 
other with female torch-bearer and the Seasons ; 79. Sitting female figure 
(perhaps the elder Agrippina). By the pillars on the left and right are 
statues : by the first on the right , 52. Hermes ; by the 5th on the left, 68. 
Female, and on the right, 67. Male double statue ; by the 7th on the right, 
80. Euripides. — We now return to the beginning of the Vestibule and 
enter the Atbio della Cakiatide, to the left : 16. 24. Two canephor8e, found 
between Frascati and Monte Porzio (baskets new). In the centre, 19. Carya- 
tide , by the Athenians Criton and Nicolaus (the names engraved on the 
back of the vessel), found in 1766 near the Csecilia Metella ; on the pedestal, 20. 
so-called "Capaneus struck by lightning. In the Gallery adjacent, on the left: 
statues; the third to the right, 45. Scipio Africanus; to the left, 29. Epicurus. 

From the vestibule we pass through a small ante-room on the left to 
the Staircase. In front of the staircase (left), 9. Roma sitting on trophies 
(relief). Adjacent, 11. Relief of a butcher's shop. On the staircase, reliefs : 
on the first landing, (r.) 885. Death of Niobe's Children ; (1.) 889. Philoctetes 
in Lemnos (?) ; third landing, above, 898, 899. Dancing Bacchantes. 

Upper Floor (when closed, visitors ring; '/a fr.). 

I. Sala Ovale. In the centre, 905. Apollo on the tripod , with his feet 
on the omphalos. To the left of the door , 906. Statue of a youth by Ste- 
phanos, a pupil of Pasiteles. Opposite : "915. Cupid bending his bow, prob- 
ably a copy from Lysippus. — On the right — 

II. Galleria Grande, the principal saloon (on the ceiling Apollo, 
Mnemosyne, and the Muses, painted by Raph. Mengs). In the niches of 
the entrance-wall: "1012. Pallas, and 1010. Zeus. Reliefs (over the door): 

1004. Apollo, Diana, Leto in front of the temple of Delphi (archaic victory 
relief). Then to the right, 1013. A youth with his horse, from a tomb near 
Tivoli ; left, 1018. Antoninus Pius with Pax and Roma. The eight fragments 
of mosaic at the sides of this door and that of the balcony, and in the four 
corners, are for the most part antique. — By the left wall : 1020. Two women 
sacrificing; to the right, 1007. Dancing Bacchantes. By the window-wall: 

1005. Hercules and the Hesperides; 1009. Dsedalus and Icarus. From the 
balcony a beautiful view of the Alban and Sabine Mts. 

To the Right of the principal saloon : III. First IRoom. Over the 
chimney-piece: "1031. Mercury bringing Eurydice back from the infernal, 
regions, an Attic relief of a period soon after that of Phidias, an exquisite* 
example of the noble simplicity for which ancient art is so justly cele- 
brated. By the entrance- wall, (r.) "1034. Theophrastus ; window-wall, (1.) 
1036. Hippocrates ; wall of the egress , (r.) 1040. Socrates. — IV. Second 
Room. Wall of the entrance, on the right : 35. Pinturicchio (?) , Madonna 
with SS. Laurence and Sebastian on the left, St. James and the donor on 
the right; to the left of the entrance, 45. Lunette by Cotignola: Dead 
Christ with mourning angels. Right wall : 36. Niccolb Alunno, Altar-piece : 
Madonna and Saints ( 1475 ). Wall of the egress : "37. Pietro Perugino, j4 
picture in six sections : Joseph and Mary adoring the Infant Christ, Cruci- 
fixion , Annunciation, Saints (1491). — V. Third Room. Wall of the en- 
trance , (r.) 49. Van der Werff, Descent from the Cross. Right wall : 55. Van 
Dyek, Christ on the Cross. Opposite the entrance , 59. Salaino, Madonna. 

To the Left of the principal saloon: VI. First Room. Over the chim- 
ney-piece, 994. the celebrated "Relief of Antinous, from the Villa of Hadrian, 
the only sculpture brought back from Paris. Entrance-wall : "997. Shepherd-' 
ess playing the flute. — VII. Second Room. To the left of the entrance : 
980. Archaic Greek relief from a tomb. Left wall: "985. Greek relief in the 
best style , a group of combatants, found in 1764 near S. Vito. Below it : 
988. Procession of Hermes, Athene, Apollo, and Artemis (archaic style). By 
the window to the left, 970. Archaic statue of Pallas, found near Orta ; on 
the right, 975. Archaic Venus. Wall of egress, on the left: Greek tomb-relief 
(greatly modernised). — VIII. Third (corner) Room: 21. Holbein, Portrait, 

1 66 II. The Hills. ROME. Villa Albani. 

1527; 20. Raphael, Fornarina, a copy; "18, *17. Giulio Romano, coloured 
designs (in oils, on paper) for the frescoes from the myth of Psyche in the/ 
Pal. del Te at Mantua. The cartoons of Domenichino, and several other 
pictures formerly here , have been removed to a room on the lower floor, 
which is at present closed. — IX. Fourth Room. In front of the window: 
*965. iEsop, perhaps after Lysippus, the head beautifully executed. In the , 
niche in the entrance - wall , 952. Apollo Sauroctonus , after Praxiteles^ 
Opposite, 933. Farnese Hercules, a small copy in bronze. Window-wall on 
the right, (r.) 942. Small statue of Diogenes. Exit-wall, (1.) *957. Small 
relief of the Apotheosis of Hercules ; on the pillars at the sides a record of 
his exploits is inscribed (resembling the Tabula Iliaca in the Capitol, p. 222). 

— X. Room with pictures of inferior value. — XI. Room with tapestry. 

Returning to the oval saloon, we again descend to the — 
Ground -Floor, and inspect the other wing of the vestibule. Here, at 
the extremity to the left, corresponding to the Atrio della Cariatide, is the : 

I. Atkio della Gidnone. 91. 97. two Canephorse ; 93. So-called Juno. — 

II. Gallekt. In the first niche, *103. Bacchante with Nebris; *106. Satyr 
with the young Bacchus. Some of the statues by the pillars are fine, but 
arbitrarily named. — In a straight direction : III. Stanza della Colonna 
(generally closed, fee 25 c). Antique columns of variegated alabaster, 
found in the Marmorata. On the left, ''131. Sarcophagus with the Nuptials 

"ef Peieus and Thetis; above, four sarcophagus-reliefs; on the left, 135. Hip- 
polytus and Phsedra ; over the egress, 139. Rape of Proserpine ; on the right, 
141. Bacchanalian procession ; over the entrance, 140. Death of Alcestis. — 
IV. Passage : Bearded Bacchus (archaic). — V. Stanza delle Terracotte. 
By the left wall, close to the entrance: 146. Greek tomb- relief; 147. Greek 
votive relief. Beyond the door: 157. Love-sick Polyphemus and Cupid ; 161. 
Diogenes and Alexander. Opposite the entrance, 164. Dsedalus and Icarus, 
in rosso antico. Below, 165. Ancient landscape-picture. On the right wall, 
171. Mask of a river-god ; to the left of it, 169. Bacchus pardoning captive 
Indians ; to the right of the mask , and on the entrance - wall , several 
fine reliefs in terracotta. — VI. Room. In the centre, Leda with the swan. 

— VII. Room. Above the entrance-door, Bacchanalian procession of children, 
from Hadrian's Villa , in pavonazzetto , or speckled marble ; left , statue 
of a recumbent river-god ; right, Theseus with the Minotaur , found near 
Genzano in 1740. — VIII. Room. Relief in the first window to the left, 
the God of Sleep. — The exit here is generally closed. 

An avenue of oaks, flanked with cippi (tomb-stones), leads from 
the last-named apaitments of the Casino to the — 

II. BlGLIARDO, containing a few unimportant antiques (25 c). In a 
niche in the vestibule, a cast of a Greek relief: probably Hercules, Theseus, 
and Peirithou<= in the lower regions. 

III. Caffe. In the semicircular Hall, to the left : 1. Alcibiades (a cast); 
(1.) 604. Statue of Mars; 610. Chrysippus; 612. Apollo reposing; 628. Cary- 
atide. Farther on, beyond the entrance to the saloon mentioned below: 
(1.) on a detached column, 721. Homer. Adjacent, 725. Caryat.ide; (r.) by 
the 3rd pillar, 737. Mask of Poseidon. Obliquely opposite, (1.) 744. Ar- 
chaic Greek portrait-head, Pericles (?), or perhaps Pisistratus ; (1.) 749. 
Statue, called Sappho, perhaps Ceres. — We now return to the middle 
of the hall and enter the Ante-Room. Here, in the section to the right, 
711. Iris; (1.) 706. Theseus with iEthra, perhaps a sarcophagus-relief. In 
the section to the left, 641. Marsyas bound to the tree; (1.) 639. Relief of 
Venus and Cupid. Also several statues of comic actors. — In the Saloon 
(25-50 c), in the niche to the left of the door, 639. Libera with a fawn. 
Below, 663. Mosaic with meeting of seven physicians. Corresponding to 
the latter, to the right of the door, 696. Mosaic , liberation of Hesione by 
Hercules. To the right of the balcony-door, 688. Ibis , in rosso antico ; 
684. Atlas , bearer of the universe ; (1.) 678. Boy with comic mask ; 676. 
Colossal head of Serapis, in green basalt. Fine view from the balcony. 

Before the hall of the Cafe" is entered , a flight of steps to the left de- 
scends to a lower part of the garden. Fragments of sculpture are built 

Pal. Barberini. ROME. II. The Hills. 167 

into the walla of the ground-floor of the building, and a few Egyptian sta- 
tues are placed in a hall. In the centre: Ptolemy Philadelphus, in gray 
granite ; (r.) the lion-headed goddess Pasht ; (1.) statue of a king, in black gra- 
nite ; several sphynxes. On a fountain in front of the hall : reclining Am- 
phitrite; on the left and right two colossal 'Tritons. 

The Garden also contains many antique statues , among which 
the colossal busts of Titus on the left, and Trajan on the right, 
below the terrace in front of the Casino, deserve mention. 

We may now return by the avenue of evergreen oaks, which is 
entered by an arch at the end of the left gallery of the Casino. In 
the centre of the avenue is a colossal bust of the German anti- 
quarian Winckelmann , a friend of Card. Albani, the founder of the 
villa, by E. Wolff, erected by order of Lewis I. of Bavaria. 

Ascending the Via dklle Quattko Fontane from the Piazza 
Barberini, we observe on the left the handsome — 

* Palazzo Barberini (PI. I, 22), begun by Maderna under Ur- 
ban VIII., and completed by Bernini (p. lix). The couTt, laid out 
as a garden , contains a statue of Thorvaldsen , by E. Wolff, after 
a work by the master himself, erected here, near his studio, by his 
pupils and friends. — The principal staircase is to the left under 
the arcades; built into it is a Greek *Tomb-relief ; on the landing 
of the first floor, a *Lion in high-relief, from Tivoli. A number 
of mediocre ancient sculptures are distributed throughout the courts 
and other parts of the building. — At the right end of the arcades 
a winding staircase (18 steps , then to the right) ascends to the 
Galleria Barberini (admission, see p. 114; catalogues for the use 
of visitors). This is the gallery of disappointment. In Raphael's 
Fornarina we expect to find a beauty radiant with the charms of 
youth, whereas her features present an almost haggard appearance, 
to which the ill-preserved condition of the picture further con- 
tributes. In Quido Rents Beatrice Cenci we hope to see a 
countenance Judith-like, and characterised by stern resolve, in- 
stead of which we encounter a pale, delicate face. Lastly, when 
we inspect Diirer's Christ among the Scribes, we are almost tempted 
to doubt its authenticity ; the numerous heads are ungrouped, some 
of them resemble caricatures, and it is in the execution of the 
hands alone that the workmanship of the great master is apparent. 

I Room: 9. Caravaggio , Pieta; 15. Pomarancio, Magdalene; 19. Par- 
meggianino, Betrothal of St. Catharine. — II. Room: 30. After Raphael, 
Madonna; 35. Titian (?), A Cardinal; 48. Franria (?), Madonna with St. 
Jerome; 54. Sodoma, Madonna; 49. Innoc. da Imola, Madonna; 58 Giov. 
Bellini (?), Madonna; 63. Mengs, Portrait of his daughter; 64. Pontormo 
(after Morelli), Pygmalion; 66. Francia, Madonna; 67. Masaccio (?), Por- 
trait of himself. — III. Room: 72. Titian (?), 'La Schiava', female portrait; 
76. CI. Lorrain, Castel Gandolfo ; 78. Bronzino, Portrait ; :B 79. Diirer, Christ 
among the doctors, painted at Venice in five days in 1506; *82. Raphael, 
Portrait of the so-called Fornarina, so frequently copied, unfortunately 
marred by restoration ; 83. Oaetani, Lucrezia Cenci, stepmother of Beatrice ; 
84. Spanish School, Anna Colonna; "85. Quido Reni, Beatrice Cenci; 
86. N. Poussin , Death of Germanicus ; 88. Claude Lorrain , Wharf ; 90. And. 
del Sarto, Holy Family. 

168 II. The Hills. ROME. Piazza del Quirinale. 

Ascending the spiral staircase 60 steps farther, we turn to the 
right into the Principal Saloon, with frescoes by Pietro da Cortona. 
A small door to the right leads hence into the Sculpture Saloon, 
containing, among a number of ancient and modern works, an ad- 
mirable *Statue by a Greek master, near the wall opposite the en- 
trance, representing a woman with one arm raised. It was formerly 
supposed to be a nymph, a Dido, or a Laodamia; but it more pro- 
bably represents a supplicant for protection at an altar. A twig 
formerly grasped by the right hand has been broken off. 

On the highest floor is the Biblioteca Barberina (Thurs. 9-2) 
which contains 7000 MSS., including those of numerous Greek and 
Latin authors, of Dante, etc., a number of ancient bronze cistas 
from Palestrina , miniatures by Giulio Clovio (a pupil of Raphael), 
etc. Librarian, the Abbe Pieralisi. 

The Via delle Quattro Fontane now leads to the summit of 
the Quirinal , on which a street 3/ 4 M. in length (to the right, Via 
del Quirinale, see below; to the left, Via Venti Settembre, p. 171) 
extends from the Piazza del Quirinale to the Porta Pia. At the 
four corners formed by the intersection of these two main-streets, 
are Four Fountains (PI. I, 22) erected by Sixtus V., the builder 
of the former street, which derives its name from these fountains. 

We now enter the Via del Quirinale to the right. At the cor- 
ner on the left is the small, unattractive church of S. Carlo, erected 
by Borromini. Farther on, to the left, S. Andrea, by Bernini, with 
the former Noviciate of the Jesuits. To the right are buildings con- 
nected with the royal palace. In a few minutes more we reach the 
*Piazza del Quirinale, formerly di Monte Cavullo (PI. II, 19), re- 
cently extended and levelled, in the centre of which is a Fountain 
with an antique granite basin. Adjacent to the fountain are an 
Obelisk, 48 ft. high, which once stood in front of the mausoleum of 
Augustus and was erected here in 1787 , and the two colossal 
marble **Horse Tamers from which the piazza formerly derived its 
name. These admirable groups once stood in front, probably at the 
entrance, of the Thermae of Constantine (see below) which were 
situated here. They are frequently mentioned in history, and have 
never been buried or concealed from view. The inscriptions on the 
pedestals , Opus Phidiae and Opus Praxiielis are apocryphal , the 
groups being works of the imperial age, copied from originals of 
the school of Lysippus. In the middle ages these were supposed to 
be the names of two philosophers, who, having divined the thoughts 
of Tiberius, were honoured by the erection of these monuments in 
recognition of their wisdom. 

Opposite the Royal Palace, on the left, is the Pal. of the Con- 
sulta, erected under Clement XII. byDelFuga, formerly the seat 
of a tribunal of that name, charged with the internal administration 
of the Papal States. It is now occupied by the offices of the Minister 
of the Exterior. On the S.W. side of the piazza, behind the obelisk, 

Palazzo Reg io. ROME. II. The Hills. 169 

stands the Palazzo delta Dataria, erected by Paul V. Farther on, to 
the left, is the Pal. Rospigliosi (see below). 

The piazza commands a fine *Vie-w of the town, with the 
dome of St. Peter's in the background. During the excavations 
preparatory to the construction of the steps and the road, were found 
extensive fragments of the walls of the Thermae of Constantine 
(p. 157) and below them older walls of solid blocks, belonging ap- 
parently to the walls of Servius Tullius. The new Via della Dataria 
descends straight to the Corso, and the first transverse street to the 
right, the Via di S. Vincenzo, leads to the Fontana Trevi (p. 144). 

The Palazzo Regio, formerly Apostolico al Quirinale (PI. 1, 19), 
begun in 1574 under Gregory XIII. by Flaminio Ponzio, continued 
under Sixtus V. and Clement VIII. by Fontana, and completed 
under Paul V. by Maderna, has frequently been occupied by the 
popes in summer on account of its lofty and healthful situation. 
The conclaves of the cardinals were at one time held here , and the 
name of the newly elected pope was proclaimed from the balcony of 
the facade towards Monte Cavallo. Pius VII. died here in 1823. 
After 20th Sept. 1870, the palace was taken possession of by the 
Italian government, and being now the residence of the king, the 
greater part is seldom shown to the public (p. 115). 

From the principal entrance we pass between the sentinels, and ascend 
the broad staircase to the left at the end of the vestibule. At the top of 
the staircase we write our names in a book, and obtain an escort (1 fr.). 
Adjacent to the Sala Begia, with frescoes by Lanfranco and Saraceni, 
is the Cappella Paolina , erected by Carlo Maderna, and decorated with 
gilded stucco-work and copies in grisaille of Raphael's Apostles in S. Vincenzo 
ed Anastasio alle Tre Fontane (p. 348), and with tapestry of the 18th cen- 
tury. To the right lies a suite of Drawing and Reception Rooms, newly 
fitted up, and . adorned with pictures and tapestry, chiefly modern. The 
reception-room of the ambassadors, beyond the throne-room, contains a 
portrait of the Emperor William, by Karl Arnold, presented in 1874. In 
the 10th room, mosaics on the floor from Hadrian's villa. In the 14th, a 
"Ceiling-painting by F. Overbeck (1859), to commemorate the flight of Pius IX. 
in 1848: Christ eluding the Jews who endeavoured to cast him over a preci- 
pice (Luke iv. 28, 29). In the 15th, views from the Vatican. Towards the 
garden are the Royal Guest-Chambers, once occupied by Napoleon I., 
Francis I. of Austria, and in 1861 by Francis II. of Naples. The frieze 
of the former audience-chamber here is a cast of Thorvaldsetfs "Triumphal 
Procession of Alex, the Great, ordered by Napoleon I. for this saloon. After 
1815 the original became the property of the Marchese Sommariva, and is 
now in the Villa Carlotta near Cadenabbia on the Lake of Como, formerly 
his residence. In the small Chapel dell' Annunziata an "Annunciation, an 
altar-piece by Ouido Reni. — In the Court a staircase ascends to the right 
under the arcades; on the landing, "Christ surrounded by angels, a fresco by 
Melozzo da Forli (p. 82), transferred thither in 1711 from SS. Apostoli. 

The Garden, which is rarely shown, was tastefully laid out by 
C. Maderna. It contains rare plants and several antiques, and com- 
mands a fine view. 

The *Palazzo Rospigliosi (PI. II, 19), erected in 1603 by Card. 
Scipio Borghese, nephew of Paul V., on the ruins of the Thermae 
of Constantine, afterwards became the property of the princes Ros- 
pigliosi, relations of Clement IX., of Pistoja. The palace contains 

1 70 II. The Hills. ROME. S. Silvestro al Quirinale. 

frescoes from the Baths of Constantine, a beautiful CI. Lorrain 
(Temple of Venus), and other treasures of art, but is only shown 
by special permission of the prince. The S.E. corner of the palace 
has been removed to make way for the new Via Nazionale (see be- 
low). Admission to the Casino, see p. 115 (*/2 fr-)- 

We enter the court by a gate in the Piazza del Quirinale, No. 65, 
turn to the left under the arcades of the palace, and then ascend the steps 
to the left. Several small statues in the Garden. 

Along the external wall of the Casino are placed ancient sarcophagus- 
reliefs (Hunt of Jleleager, Rape of Proserpine, etc.). By the door to the 
right we enter the — 

Principal Hall. "-' Ceiling -painting by Outdo Eeni: Aurora strewing 
flowers before the chariot of the god of the sun, who is surrounded by 
dancing Horfe, the master's finest work. The colouring deserves special 
notice. The strongest light is thrown upon the figure of Apollo, whose 
hair and flesh are of golden hue. Of a corresponding tint are the yellowish- 
red robes of the nymphs nearest to Apollo. The colours are then gradually 
shaded off from blue to white, and from green to white, while the dun- 
coloured horses accord with the clouds in the background (p. lix). Op- 
posite the entrance is a mirror, in which the painting may be conveniently 
inspected. — On the frieze , landscapes by Paul Bril , and on the ends of 
the sides , Triumph of Fauna and Cupid (from Petrarch), by Tempesla. 
Right wall : Statue of Athene Tritogeneia with a Triton ; "Van Dyck, Portrait. 

Room on the Right. In the centre a bronze steed from the Thermse 
of Constantine. Opposite the entrance, Domenichino, Fall of man. Left 
wall: "Lorenzo Lotto, Vanita. Right wall: "Dutch School, Portrait; Do- 
menichino, Venus and Cupid; "Luca Signorelli, "Holy Family. Entrance-wall : 
1j. Carracci (?), Samson. — Room to the Left, entrance-wall, over the 
door: Passignani, Pieta; Guido Reni, Andromeda; Portrait of N. Poussin 
(at the age of 56), a copy of the original in the Louvre. Left wall : Dan. 
da Volterra, Bearing the Cross. In the corner a bronze bust of Sept. 
Severus. On these two walls and the following: Christ and the Apostles, 
thirteen pictures, attributed to Rubens, probably only partly by him ; Domen- 
ichino, Triumph of David. 

In the Via del Quirinale, farther on, to the right, is the church 
of S. Silvestro al Quirinale (PI. II, 19), erected at the close of the 
16th cent. , and with the adjacent monastery belonging to the frater- 
nity of St. Vincent of Paola since 1770. 

In the Dome four oval frescoes by Domenichino: David dancing before 
the Ark, Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, Judith, Esther and Ahasuerus. 
In the 2nd Chapel to the left, two landscapes by Polidoro Caravaggio and 
his assistant Maturino: Betrothal of the Infant Christ with St. Catharine, 
and Christ appearing as the gardener to Mary Magdalene. 

At the end of the Via Quirinale, in an oblique direction, runs 
the new Via Nazionale (PI. I, IT, 22), the construction of which has 
caused great changes in this quarter of the town. Opposite to us 
rises the small church of S. Caterina di Siena (PI. II, 19, 7) of the 
17th century. Over the wall to the left peep the pines and palm- 
trees of the Villa Aldobrandini. In front of it, within a railing, is 
a fragment of the Servian wall (p. 175), excavated in 1875. Be- 
hind the church , in the adjoining monastery, rises the Torre delle 
Milizie, erected about 1200 by the sons of Petrus Alexius, commonly 
called Torre di Nerone, because Nero is said to have witnessed the 
conflagration of Rome from this point. A similar and contemporane- 
ous tower is the Torre dei Conti, near the Forum of Augustus (p. 240), 

5. Bernardo. ROME. II. The Hills. 171 

to which the Via del Grillo descends. It was erected undeT Inno- 
cent III. (Conti) hy Marchionne of Arezzo, but was almost entirely 
removed in the 17th century. — The Via Nazionale leads to the 
right, towards the S., in a wide curve, past the Piazza SS. Apostoli 
(p. 155) to the Corso, ending opposite the Palazzo di Venezia (p. 157). 

The street diverging to the left from the Via Nazionale, by the 
above-mentioned Villa Aldobrandini and the church of SS. Domenico 
e Sisto erected in 1640 (on the right), is the Via Magnanapoli. 
The next cross-street to the left is the Via Mazzarina in which, to 
the right, opposite the Villa Aldobrandini, is the church of S. Agata 
in Suburra (PI. II, 22), dating from the 5th cent., but restored in 
1633, and now possessing 12 granite columns only of the original 
edifice. It belongs to the adjacent seminary for Irish priests. 

The left aisle contains the Monument of Daniel 0*Connell (who bequeath- 
ed his heart to this church), with a relief by Benzoni , erected in 1856. 
To the right of the entrance is the Tomb of John Lascaris, author of the 
first modern Greek grammar (d. 1535). 

The Via Magnanapoli retains its name as far as its intersection 
with the Via de' Serpenti, whence it ascends the Viminal under the 
name of Via di S. Lorenzo in Paneperna, affording a distinct view 
of that hill rising between the Quirinal and the Esquiline. On 
the summit of the Viminal to the left stands the church of <S. 
Lorenzo in Paneperna (PI. II, 22), on the spot where St. Lawrence 
is said to have suffered martyrdom, an old edifice, but frequently 
restored. The stTeet then descends, and under the name of Via di 
S. Maria Maggiore ascends the Esquiline, see p. 176. 

From the Quattro Fontane (p. 168) the Via Venti Settembre, 
formerly di Porta Pia, leads N.E. to the Porta Pia ( 3 / 4 M.). The 
corner house on the right is the Palazzo AVbani , erected by Do- 
menico Fontana, and afterwards the property of Card. Aless. Al- 
bani. — In the Via Venti Settembre, on the right, farther on, are 
the two uninteresting churches of 8. Teresa and 8. Cajo. 

In 5 min. more we reach the Piazza S. Bernardo (PI. I, 22), 
in which, to the right, standing a little back, is S. Bernardo, and 
to the left S. Susanna. Opposite to us, at the corner, rises the 
Fontanone dell' Acqua Felice. 

S. Bernardo (PI. I, 22), a circular edifice, originally one of the 
corners of the Thermae of Diocletian (p. 174), was converted by 
Catharine Sforza, Countess of Santa Fiora, into a church. The 
vaulting is ancient, but like the Pantheon was once open. — The 
new Via Torino leads hence to S. Maria Maggiore (p. 176). 

The ancient church of 8. Susanna was altered to its present 
form in 1600 by C. Maderna by order of Card. Rusticucci. Paint- 
ings on the lateral walls from the history of Susanna, by Baldassare 
Croee ; those of the tribune by Cesare Nebbia. 

The Fontanone dell' Acqua Felice, or di Termini, was erected by 
Domenico Fontana under Sixtus V. ; the badly-executed copy of the 

172 //. The Hills. ROME. Porta Pia. 

Moses of Michael Angelo is by Prospero Bresciano, who is said to 
have died of vexation on account of his failure ; at the sides Aaron 
and Gideon by Oiov. Batt. della Porta and Flam. Vacca ; in front four 
modern lions. The Acqua Felice was conducted hither in 1583 from 
Colonna in theAlban Mts., a distance of 13 M., by order of Sixtus 
V. (Felice Peretti); comp. p. 354. 

On the right opens the Piazza delle Terme, see p. 173. To the 
left the Via di S. Susanna descends to the Via di S. Nicola di 
Tolentino, which leads to the Piazza Barberini (p. 162). 

At the N. angle of the Piazza S. Bernardo stands the church of 
S. Maria della Vittoria (PI. I, 23) , so called from an image of 
the Virgin which is said to have been instrumental in gaining the 
victory for the imperial troops at the battle of the 'White HilT near 
Prague, afterwards deposited here, but burned in 1833. The church, 
with the exception of the facade, was erected by C. Maderna. 

In the 2nd Chapel on the right, an altar-piece (Mary giving the Infant 
Christ to St. Francis) and frescoes by Domenichino. In the left transept the 
notorious group of St. Theresa by Bernini (covered ; 5 s.). In the 3rd Chapel on 
the left, the Trinity by Guercino, and a Crucifixion attributed to Guido Reni. 

The imposing new edifice on the right is the Finance Office, built 
by Canevari, Pieroni, and Pierantoni. — A few minutes before the 
gate is reached , a street to the left diverges to the Porta Salara 
(p. 164) ; the Via del Maccao to the right terminates near the rail- 
way-station (p. 175). Farther on, to the left, are the Villa Bona- 
parte, and to the right, the Villa Reinach, formerly Torlonia. 

The Porta Pia (PI. I. 27, 30), famous in the annals of 1870, 
was begun by Pius IV. from designs by Michael Angelo in 1564, and 
restored by Pius IX. in 1861-69. On 20th Sept., 1870, the Italians 
directed their bombardment chiefly against this gate, and soon effected 
a breach at the side of it, through which they entered the city. 
The damage has since been repaired. On the outside, to the left, a 
memorial tablet, bearing the names of 33 soldiers of the Italian 
aTmy who fell on the occasion , marks the place where the breach 
was made. To the right of the gate is the old Porta Nomentana, 
closed since 1564, which led to Nomentum (p. 355). 

Outside the Gate (comp. map, p. 346) an unimpeded view is 
obtained of the Villa Albani and the Sabine Mts. to the left. To the 
right is the entrance to the Villa Patrizi, with pleasant garden and 
beautiful view (finest from the steps of the small summer-house and 
from the meadow). In the grounds are remains of ancient dwelling- 
houses and a catacomb (Catacomba Nicomedi) with well-preserved 
entrance. Permessi obtained by presenting a visiting-card at the 
Pal. Patrizi. Piazza S. Luigi de' Francesi, p. 193. — About l / t M. 
farther , on the right , is the Villa Torlonia , with pleasant gardens 
and artificial ruins (admission, see p. 116). 

On this road, the ancient Via Nomentana, which commands fine 
views from various points, on the left, I1/4 M. from the gate, is — 

* S. Agnese Fuori le Mura, a church founded by Constantine, 

8. Costanza. ROME. //. The Hills. 173 

over the tomb of St. Agnes, and still retaining many characteristics 
of an early-Christian basilica. It was re-erected by Honorius I. in 
625-38, altered by Innocent VIII. in 1490, and restored by Pius IX. 
in 1856. The principal festival, on 21st Jan., is the 'blessing of 
the lambs' from 'whose wool the archiepisoopal robes are woven. 

We enter by a gateway, where, to the right, is the entrance to the 
residence of the canons, with remnants of did frescoes in the corridor of the 
1st floor, dating from 1454, and including an Annunciation. In the Court, 
through a large window to the right, we observe a fresco painted in 
commemoration of an accident which happened to Pius IX. on 15th April, 
1855. The floor of a room adjoining the church, to which his Holiness 
had retired after mass, gave way, and he was precipitated into the cellar 
below, but was extricated unhurt. On the farther side of the court, on 
the right, is the entrance to the church, to which a Staircase with 45 
marble steps descends. On the walls of the staircase are numerous ancient 
Christian inscriptions from the catacombs. 

The Interior is divided into nave and aisles by 16 antique columns 
of breccia, porta santa, and pavonazzetto, which support arches. Above the 
aisles and along the wall of the entrance are galleries with smaller co- 
lumns. The Tabernacle of 1614, borne by four fine columns of porphyry, 
covers a statue of St. Agnes, in alabaster, a restored antique. In the tribune, 
* Mosaics, representing St. Agnes between Popes Honorius I. and Symmachus, 
dating from the 7th cent., and an ancient episcopal chair. 2nd Chapel on 
the right: Head of Christ in marble, a mediocre work of the 16th cent.; 
also a beautiful inlaid altar ; above it a ^Relief of SS. Stephen and Law- 
rence , of 1490. In the left aisle, over the altar of the chapel , a fine old 
fresco, Madonna and Child. — The Catacombs , to which there is an en- 
trance in the left aisle, are shown by the sacristan, from whom lights are 
also obtainable (1 fr. ; see p. 343). 

Leaving the covered flight of steps which descend to S. Agnese, 
and descending to the right, we reach — 

S. Costanza (if closed , apply to the custodian of S. Agnese, 
t/ 2 fr.), originally erected as a monument by Constantine to his 
daughter Constantia, but converted into a church in 1256. The 
dome, 70 ft. in diameter, is borne by 24 clustered columns of gra- 
nite. A few fragments only of the vestibule and the wall of the 
central part of the edifice now exist. In the tunnel-vaulting of the 
aisle are *Mosaics of the 4th cent, with genii gathering grapes, in 
the ancient style, but bearing traces of decline. The porphyry sar- 
cophagus of the saint, formerly in one of the niches (now in the Va- 
tican Museum, Sala a Croce Greca, p. 307), is similarly adorned. In 
the niches, Christ as the ruler of the world with SS. Peter and Paul. 

The Cameterium Ostrianum, >/4 M. from this point, see p. 343. 
Beyond it lies the Campagna, see p. 355. 

Proceeding from the Piazza S. Bernardo and the Acqua Felice 
(p. 171) towards the S.E., we pass (left) a deaf-and-dumb asylum, 
and come to the Piazza delle Terme (PI. I, 25), formerly di Ter- 
mini, named after the Thermae of Diocletian situated here. (Tram- 
way to the Piazza di Venezia, by the Via Nazionale, and to S. Lo- 
renzo Fuori, see Appx.). 

The Thermae of Diocletian, the most extensive in Rome, were 
constructed by Maximian and Diocletian at the beginning of the 4th 

174 //. The Hills. ROME. <S\ Maria degli Angeli. 

century. The principal building was enclosed by a wall, a mas- 
sive round fragment ('exedra') of which, now intersected by two 
streets, is exposed to view on the S.W. side of the piazza. The 
corners on this side were formed by two circular buildings, one of 
which is now the church of S. Bernardo (p. 171), and the other be- 
longs to a prison. The circumference of the baths is said to have 
been about 2000 yds., or half as much as that of the Baths of Cara- 
calla (p. 259), and the number of daily bathers 3000. The front 
faced the E., and the circular part, mentioned above, was at the 
back. Tradition ascribes the execution of the work to condemned 
Christians, in memory of whom a church, no longer existing, was 
erected here as early as the 5th century. A proposal to erect a Car- 
thusian monastery among the ruins, which had been abandoned in 
the 14th cent. , was revived by Pius IV., who entrusted the task 
to Michael Angela. That master accordingly converted a large vault- 
ed hall into the church of — 

*S. Maria degli Angeli (PI. I, 25), which was consecrated in 
1561. The present transept was then the nave, the principal portal 
was in the narrow end on the right, and the high-altar placed on the 
left. In 1749 Vanvitelli entirely disfigured the church by converting 
the nave into the transept, blocking up-the portal , aHdother inju- 
dicious alterations. "*~v 

A small Rotunda is first entered. The first tomb on the right is that of 
the painter Carlo Maratta (d. 1713). In the Chapel, Angels of Peace and 
Justice , by Pettrich. The first tomb on the left is that of Salvator Rosa 
(d. 1673). In the Chapel, Christ appearing to Mary Magdalene, an altar- 
piece by Arrigo Flamingo. 

We next enter the great Transept. The niche on the right in the passage 
contains a colossal statue of St. Bruno, by Ifoudon; in the chapel on the left, 
the "Delivery of the Keys, an altar-piece by Muziano. The transept (formerly 
the nave) is 100 yds. long, 29 yds. wide, and 90 ft. high. Of the 16 columns, 
each 40 ft. in height, eight are antique, of oriental granite, which were 
barbarously painted by Vanvitelli, and the others were disengaged from 
the brick wall when the church was restored. — Most of the large 
pictures here and in the tribune were brought from St. Peter's, where they 
were replaced by copies in mosaic. In the right half (on the pavement the me- 
ridian of Rome, laid down in 1703) : on the right, Crucifixion of St. Peter by 
Ricciolini; Fall of Simon Magus, after F. Vanni (original in St. Peter's); on 
the left, St. Jerome among the hermits, Muziano (landscape by Bril) ; Miracles 
of St. Peter, Baglioni. At the narrow end: chapel of B. Kiccolo Albergati. 
In the left half: on the left, Mass of St. Basil with the Emperor Valens, 
Subleyras; Fall of Simon Magus, Pomp. Batloni; on the right, Immaculate 
Conception, P. Bianchi; Resuscitation of Tabitha, P. Cosianzi. At the nar- 
row end: chapel of St. Bruno. 

In the Tribune (one of the monks acts as guide here, '/s f r 0j right, 
Romanelli, Mary's first visit to the Temple ; "Domenichino, Martyrdom of St. 
Sebastian (fresco) ; left, Pomarancio, Death of Ananias and Sapphira ; Ma- 
ratta, Baptism of Christ. The choir contains two monuments (1. Pius IV., 
r. Ant. Serbelloni), designed by Michael Angela. 

The Certosa, or Carthusian Monastery, adjoining the church, is 
partly used as barracks. The second court (entrance by No. 15, 
opposite the great fountain, where a sentinel stands; then turn to 
the left), embellished with 100 columns, was designed by Michael 
Angelo, who is said to have planted the beautiful cypresses in the 

Wall of Servius. ROME. II. The Hills. 175 

centre. It is now a military depot, and whitewashed, so that it has 
lost much of its former interest. 

Permission to see the interior of the barracks, which are unattractive, 
must be obtained at the commandant's office, Via del Burro 147, 2nd floor. 
The most interesting parts, through which the visitor may ascend to the 
roof of the church for the sake of the view, belong to the monastery, 
and are shown by permission of the prior. 

Opposite the entrance of the church of S. Maria degli Angeli, 
and through the middle of the circular wall of the Thermae , runs 
the Via Nazionale (p. 170), which intersects the Via delle Quattro 
Fontane, and leads to the Via del Quirinale, and thence in a curve to 
the Piazza Venezia (comp. pp. 171, 158). To the right of the en- 
trance to the Piazza delle Terme rises the War Office ; on the left 
is the H6tel du Quirinal ; and , farther on , the new Protestant 
Church of St. Paul, with chimes. At Via Nazionale 354 is the 
Galleria Tenerani (Wed., 1-4; at other times, fee), a complete col- 
lection of the original models of the sculptor P. Tenerani (d. 1869). 
On the same side, farther on, is the small church of S. Vitale, next 
to which is the new Exhibition Building, opened in 1883. 

On the E. side of the Piazza delle Terme is the extensive new 
Railway Station (PI. I, 25), constructed by Miriere and Bianchi. 
In front of it rises an imposing fountain, fed by the Aqua Marcia, 
which has been recently restored. 

On the E. side of the station , owing to the removal of a hill called 
the 'Monte della Giustizia 1 , the largest and best-preserved part of the Wall 
of Servius (PI. I, 25, 28), which protected the city on this undefended 
side, has been exposed to view. The wall, which is supported by a strong 
embankment, with its broad moat and numerous towers, might until 
recently be traced to the arch of Gallienus (p. 179) ; but the only parts 
now extant are a fragment in the Piazza Manfredo Fanti and another by 
-the so-called Auditorium of Maecenas on the Via Merulana (see p. 183). 

To the right (S.W.) runs the new Via del Viminale, which 
farther on intersects the Via delle Quattro Fontane. 

The tramway to S. Lorenzo Fuori passes the railway-station, and 
then leads to the right through the Via di Porta S. Lorenzo to the 
gate of that name (p. 179). — Towards the N.E., passing the new 
buildings now springing up in this quarter, we reach (10 min.) the 
Campo di Maccao, or Campo Militare (PI. I, 29, 32), the camp of 
the Praetorians of imperial Rome, originally established by Tiberius, 
but destroyed by Constantine so far as it lay without the town- wall, 
from which it projects in a quadrangular form. At the end to the 
left, and on the side, traces of gates are still distinguished; the wall 
was skirted by a passage, under which are several small chambers. 
The Campo is again devoted to military purposes, parades and reviews 
being held here, and large barracks have been erected. 

From the Quattro Fontane we next proceed to visit (10 min.) 
S. Maria Maggiore. We descend the Quirinal, cross the new Via 
Nazionale (see above), which leads to the Piazza delle Terme, and 
traverse the Viminal, which is here of insignificant height. To the 

176 II. The Hills. ROME. 8. Pudemiana. 

left diverges the new Via del Viminale (see above) leading to the 
station. In the valley between the Viminal and Esquiline, in the 
first side-street to the right, is situated — 

S. Pudenziana (PI. II, 25; open till 9 a.m.; custodian, Via 
delle Quattro Fontane 81, to be found from 1 to 4), traditionally the 
oldest church in Rome , erected on the spot where St. Pudens and 
his daughters Praxedis and Pudentiana, who entertained St. Peter, 
are said to have lived. The church , the earliest record of which 
dates from 499, has been frequently restored ; it was much altered 
in 1598, and has recently been modernised in very bad taste. In 
the facade, lately adorned with mosaics (St. Peter with SS. Pudens 
and Pudentiana; on the left Pius I., on the right Gregory VII.), is 
an ancient portal borne by columns , which has also been restored. 
Pleasing campanile of the 9th century. Chief festival on 19th May. 

Interior. The nave and aisles are of unequal length. In the pillars 
are still to be seen the ancient marble columns which originally supported 
the wall. The "Mosaics in the Tribune (4th cent.), Christ with S. Praxedis 
and S. Pudentiana and the Apostles, and above them the emblems of 
the Evangelists on each side of the cross, are among the finest in Rome 
(p. xlv; several of those on the right are modern). The Dome above the 
high-altar was painted by Pomarancio. The Aisles contain remains of an 
ancient mosaic pavement. In the left aisle is the Cappella Gaetani, over 
the altar of which is an Adoration of the Magi, a relief in marble by Oli- 
vieri. At the extremity of this aisle is an altar with relics of the table at 
which Peter is said first to have read mass. Above it Christ and Peter, a 
group in marble by O. B. delta Porta. 

Below the church are ancient vaults in a good style of architecture, 
which the custodian shows if desired. 

We now ascend the EsauiLiNB , with the choir of S. Maria 
Maggiore in view all the way. An entirely new quarter of the town 
is springing up here. To the right diverges the Via di S. Maria 
Maggiore, the continuation of the Via Magnanapoli which leads to 
Trajan's Forum (see p. 171). 

In front of the choir of the church, to which a handsome flight 
of steps ascends (two entrances adjoining the tribune) stands one 
of the two Obelisks which formerly rose in front of the mauso- 
leum of Augustus , 48 ft. in height (the other is on the Quirinal, 
p. 168). It was erected here by Sixtus V. in 1587. 

The facade of the church overlooks the Piazza S. Maria Maggio- 
re, which is embellished with a handsome Column from the basilica 
of Constantine, 16 ft. in circumference, and 46 ft. in height, placed 
here and crowned with a bronze figure of the Virgin by Paul V. 

**S. Maria Maggiore (PI. II, 25), also named Basilica Liberiana, 
or S. Maria ad Nives, or S. Maria ad Praesepe, from the manger 
which it contains, derives its usual name from its being the largest 
of the eighty churches in Rome dedicated to the Virgin. It is also 
one of the oldest churches at Rome, and indeed in Christendom. 
This is one of the live patriarchal churches (p. 127), and has a spe- 
cial 'jubilee entrance'. The principal festivals are on Christmas 
Day, 5th Aug., and the Assumption (15th Aug.). According to 

S. Maria Maggiore. ROME. II. The Hills. 177 

a legend which cannot be traced farther back than the 13th cent., 
the Virgin appeared simultaneously to the devout Roman patrician 
Johannes and to Pope Liberius (352-66) in their dreams, com- 
manding them to erect a church to her on the spot where they 
should find a deposit of snow on the following morning (5th Aug.). 
The Basilica Liberiana, which they are said to have built in obe- 
dience to this vision, was re-erected by Sixtus III. (432-40), who 
named the church S. Maria Mater Dei , shortly after the Council of 
Ephesus had sanctioned this appellation of the Virgin (430). Of 
this edifice the nave with its ancient marble columns and mosaics 
is still preserved. In the 12th cent, the church was fartheT altered 
in the mediaeval style. Eugene III. added a newporch, Nicholas IV. 
a new tribune adorned with mosaics , and Gregory XI. gave the 
campanile its present form and its pointed roof. About the end of 
the 15th cent, began a new period in the history of the church, 
when the irregularities of the mediaeval additions were removed, 
and symmetrical lines were formed by the erection of accessory 
buildings and straight walls. The two large side -chapels, with 
domes, were added by Sixtus V. in 1586 and Paul V- in 1611. 
The exterior of the tribune was remodelled by Clement X., and 
the final restoration was entrusted by Benedict XIV. to Fuga. 

The Facade, designed by Fuga in 1743, consists of a porch with 
a loggia above it, opening towards the piazza in three arches. The 
five portals in this porch correspond with four entrances to the 
church (the last of which on the left, the Porta Santa , is now 
built up), and with a niche on the right. To the right is a statue 
of Philip IV. of Spain. The loggia (staircase to the left in the 
vestibule ; one of the vergers opens the door), from which the pope 
formerly pronounced his benediction on 15th Aug., contains mo- 
saics from a facade of the 13th cent., restored in 1825. 

Above, in the centre, Christ; on the left the Virgin, SS. Paul, John, 
and James; on the right SS. Peter, Andrew, Philip, and John the Baptist. 
Below, on the left, the vision of Pope Liberius and the Patrician Jo- 
hannes ; on the right, the meeting of the two, and the tracing of the site 
of the church on the newly-fallen snow. 

The Interior, dating from the pontificate of Sixtus III., 93 yds. long 
and 19 yds. wide, and subsequently enlarged, produces a rich and 
imposing effect. The pavement of the Nave dates from the 12th cent. 
(p. xlvii) and the handsome ceiling was executed from designs by Qiul. da 
Sangallo. The architrave, adorned with mosaic, is supported by 42 Ionic 
columns, 33 in marble and 4 in granite, above which, and on the chancel 
arch, are "Mosaics of the 5th cent., in the ancient style (p. xlvi; good light 
early in the morning). Those on the arch represent events from the Life of 
Mary, Annunciation, Infancy of Christ, Slaughter of the Innocents, etc. ; left 
wall, history of Abraham and Jacob ; right wall, Moses and Joshua (several 
of the pictures were restored in 1825). In front of the chancel arch is 
the High-Altar, consisting of an ancient sarcophagus of porphyry, said to 
have been the tomb of the Patrician Johannes, and containing the remains 
of St. Matthew and other relics; the canopy is borne by four columns of 
porphyry. In the apse of the Tbibune are s Mosaics by Jacobus Torriti 
(1292) : Coronation of the Virgin, with saints, near whom are Pope Nicho- 
las IV. and Card. Jac. Colonna (comp. p. xlviii). 

At the beginning of the nave are the tombs of Nicholas IV. (d. 1292) 

Baedekek. Italy II. 8th Edition. 12 

1 78 IT. The Hills. ROME. 8. Prassede. 

on the left, and Clement IX. (d. 1669) on the right, erected by Sixtus V. and 
Clement X. respectively. Right Aisle: First chapel: Baptistery with fine 
ancient font of porphyry. Farther on is the Cap. del Crocefisso with 10 co- 
lumns of porphyry, containing five boards from the 'Manger of the Infant 
Christ*' (whence termed Cappella del Presepe). — In the Right Tbansept is 
the sumptuous "Sistine Chapel, constructed by Fontana, and of late gor- 
geously restored ; in the niche on the left, an altar-piece (St. Jerome) by 
Ribera; on the right, occupying the whole wall, the monument of Sixtus V., 
with a statue of the Pope by Valsoldo ; on the left, monument of Pius V. 
by Leonardo da Sarzana. Over the altar, a canopy in gilded bronze re- 
presents angels bearing the church ; in the 'Confessio' under the staircase- 
a statue of S. Gaetano, by Bernini, and by the altar a relief of the Holy 
Family, by Cecchino da Pietrasanta (1480). — At the end of the right aisle, 
the Gothic monument of Card. Consalvi (Gunsalvus, d. 1299) by Giov. Cosmas. 

Left Aisle. 1st Chapel (of theCesi): Martyrdom of St. Catharine, altar- 
piece by Qirol. da Sermoneta ; on the right and left two bronze statues to 
the memory of cardinals of the family. 2nd Chapel (of the Pallavicini-Sforza), 
said to have been designed by Mich. Angelo : Assumption of Mary, altar- 
piece by Gir. Sermoneta. — In the Left Transept, opposite the Sistine Chapel, 
is the Bokghese Chapel, constructed by Flaminio Ponzio in 1611, and also 
covered with a dome. Over the altar, which is gorgeously decorated with 
lapis lazuli and agate, is an ancient and miraculous picture of the Virgin, 
painted (almost black) according to tradition by St. Luke , which was car- 
ried by Gregory I. as early as 590 in solemn procession through the city, 
and again by the clergy during the cholera in 1837 and in the war of 
1860. The frescoes in the large arches are by Guido Meni, Lanfranco, 
Cigoli, etc. The monuments of the Popes (1.) Paul V. (Camillo Borghese, 
d. 1621) and (r.) Clement VIII. (Aldobrandini, d. 1605) are by pupils of Ber- 
nini. The crypt contains tombs of the Borghese family. 

To the S.B. of the Piazza S. Maria Maggiore (p. 176) is the church 
of <S. Antonio Abbate, with a portal of the 13th cent. ; interior un- 
interesting. S. Antonio is the tutelary saint of animals, and in 
front of the church from 17th to 23rd Jan., domestic animals of 
every kind were formerly blessed and sprinkled with holy water. 

In the Via S. Prassede, in the right corner of the piazza, is a 
side-entrance to the church of — 

*S. Prassede (PI. II, 25), erected by Paschalis I. in 822, and dedi- 
cated to St. Praxedis, the daughter of St. Pudens with whom Peter 
lodged at Rome, and the sister of S. Pudentiana. It was restored by 
Nicholas V. about 1450, again in 1832, and finally in 1869. The 
church is generally entered by the side-door. 

Interior. The nave is separated from the aisles by 16 granite columns 
(six others, bearing arches, having been replaced by pillars). The * Mosaics 
(9th cent. ; p. xlvi) deserve special notice. On the triumphal arch the new 
Jerusalem guarded by angels, Christ in the centre, towards whom the saved 
are hastening; on the arch of the tribune the Lamb, at the sides the seven 
candlesticks and the symbols of the evangelists; lower down the twenty- 
four elders (interesting as showing the mode in which the art accommo- 
dated itself to the spaces allotted to it ; thus , in order to follow the curve 
of the arch, the arms of the foremost elders in the middle and upper rows 
gradually increase in length) ; in the round part of the apse, Christ sur- 
rounded with saints (on the left Paul, Praxedis, and Pepe Paschalis with 
the church; on the right Peter, Pudentiana, and Zeno). On either side 
of the tribune are galleries. — Right Aisle. The 3rd chapel is the Chapel of 
the Column (ladies admitted on the Sundays of Lent only; the sacristan 
opens the door when desired). At the entrance are two columns of black 
granite with ancient entablature. The interior is entirely covered with 
mosaics on gold ground (about the 10th cent.), whence the chapel is some- 
times called Orto del Paradiso. On the vaulting a medallion with head of 

S. Prassede. ROME. //. The Hills. 179 

Christ, supported by four angels. Above the altar a Madonna between the 
saints Praxedis and Pudentiana. To the right in a niche , the column at 
which Christ is said to have been scourged. The 4th chapel contains the 
tomb of Card. Cetti (d. 1474). At the extremity of the right aisle the Cap. del 
Crocejisso contains the tomb of a French cardinal (d. 1286). — In the Left 
Aislk by the entrance-wall is a stone-slab, on which St. Praxedis is said to 
have slept. The 2nd Cap. di S. Carlo Borromeo contains a chair and table 
once used by the saint. The 3rd Cap. Agiati contains paintings by the Cav. 
d'Arpino. — The marble spout of a fountain in the nave indicates the 
spot where St. Praxedis collected the blood of the martyrs. 

The Confessio (keys kept by the sacristan) contains ancient sarcophagi 
with the bones of the sister saints Praxedis and Pudentiana on the right, 
and those of martyrs on the left. The altar is decorated with fine mosaic 
of the 13th century. Above it an ancient fresco of the Madonna between the 
sisters. — The Sacristy contains a Scourging by Oiulio Romano. 

To the S. and S.E. of the Piazza S. Maria Maggiore run the 
Piazza di S. Antonio Abbate (see above), continued by the Via Carlo 
Alberto, and the Via Merulana(jp. 183), two streets now in course of 
construction. Great alterations have been made here. The level of 
the surface has been lowered by 13-16 ft., where by numerous re- 
mains of ancient walls , fragments of sculptures in marble and 
bronze, sarcophagi, columns, etc., were brought to light. The ruins 
have been partly covered up again, and nothing certain is known of 
their history. 

We follow the Via Carlo Alberto (PI. II, 25, 28), from which, 
immediately to the right, the Via di S. Vito diverges, passing under 
the Arch of Oallienus. This honorary arch, adjoining the church of 
■S. Vito, was erected in 262 in honour of the Emp. Gallienus 'on 
account of his bravery , surpassed only by his piety' by a certain 
M. Aurelius Victor. The architecture is simple, but in the degraded 
style of the age. 

The Via Carlo Alberto leads to the large and still deserted Piazza 
Vittorio Emanuele. Here, on the left, rises the church of S. Eusebio, 
re-erected in the last century, with the exception of the campanile. 
The ceiling-painting, the glory of St. Eusebius, is one of the earliest 
works of Raphael Mengs; the high altar-piece is by Bald. Croce. 
Opposite the church , to the right , are considerable remains of a 
water-tower of the Aqua Julia or Claudia (PI. II , 28) , in the 
niches of which the so-called trophies of Marius , now on the 
balustrade of the Capitol, were formerly placed (p. 212). The ruin, 
called Trofei di Mario, has been partly restored, and is under care 
of a 'guardia degli scavi'. — For the prolongation of the street to 
the Porta Maggiore, see p. 181. 

Following one of the new streets to the left, between S. Eusebio 
and the Trofei di Mario, we reach (Y2 M.) the Porta S. Lorenzo 
(PI. II, 31), constructed by Honorius against an arch, over which, 
according to the inscription, passed the three aqueducts Marcia, 
Tepula, and Julia. The arch stands on its original site, while the 
gateway occupies considerably higher ground. The gate derives 
its name from the church near it, and stands on the site of the an- 
cient Porta Tiburtina, which led to Tivoli. The road (Via Tiburtina) 


180 //. The Hills. ROME. 8. Lorenzo Fuori. 

is bounded by walls, and does not afford views of the Sabine Mts. 
until the church is reached, % M. from the gate. — Tramway from 
the Piazza delle Terme to S. Lorenzo, see Appx. 

*S, Lorenzo Fuori le Mura (see map, p. 346) occupies the spot 
where Constantine founded a church on the burial-place of St. Law- 
rence and St. Cyriaca. In 578 it was rebuilt by Pelagius II. This 
ancient edifice, which was entered from the E. , was entirely re- 
modelled by Honorius III. (1216-27), who added the present 
nave to the apse, and transferred the facade with the porch to the 
W. end. An angle formed by the outer walls shows where the new 
part was added. Under Nicholas V. and Innocent X., and lastly 
under Pius IX. in 1864-70, the church underwent extensive altera- 
tions , and is now at least partly freed from disfiguring patchwork. 
S. Lorenzo is a patriarchal church, and one of the seven pilgrimage- 
churches of Rome (p. 127). Festival, 10th August. 

In the piazza in front of the church is a Column with a bronze 
statue of St. Lawrence. The Facade has been recently embellished 
with paintings resembling mosaic, representing the founders and 
patrons of the church: Pelagius II., the Emp. Constantine, Ho- 
norius III., Pius IX., Sixtus III., and Hadrian I. The vestibule is 
borne by six ancient columns, above which is an architrave with mo- 
saics (St. Lawrence and Honorius III.); it contains retouched frescoes 
of the 13th cent., two tombs in the form of temples, and two rude 
Christian sarcophagi. The door-posts rest on lions. 

The Interior consists of two parts. The anterior Later Church, which 
chiefly dates from Honorius III., consists of nave and two aisles, separated 
by 22 antique columns of granite and cipolline of unequal thickness. On 
the capital of the 8th column on the right are a frog and a lizard, and 
it is therefore supposed , hut without authority, to have been brought 
from the colonnade of Octavia, where two sculptors Batrachus (frog) 
and Saurus (lizard) are said to have adopted this method of perpetuating 
their names. Above the plain entablature rises a wall recently adorned 
with frescoes by Fraccassini (on the right, history of St. Lawrence ; on the 
left, that of St. Stephen), and the gaudily-painted open roof. The pavement, 
in opus Alexandrinum, dates from the 12th cent. (p. xlvii). Under a mediaeval 
canopy to the right of the entrance is an ancient ::: Sarcophagus with a repre- 
sentation of a wedding, in which in 1256 the remains of Card. Fieschi, 
nephew of Innocent IV.,* were placed. In the nave are the two elevated 
ambos, that to the "'right (p. xlv) for the gospel, near which is a wreathed 
candelabrum for the Easter candle , that to the left for the epistle (12th 
cent.). On the triumphal arch are modern paintings (resembling mosaics) 
of the Madonna and saints. At the extremity of the N. aisle a flight of 
12 steps, on the left, descends to a chapel and the catacombs. 

Adjoining this building of Honorius on the B. is the Older Chorch, 
erected by Pelagius, the pavement of which lies 3 ft. lower. The raised 
central space, to which seven steps ascend on each side of the Confessio, 
dates from the time of Honorius, who converted the nave of the older 
church into a choir with a crypt by laying a pavement halfway up the 
columns, and caused the aisles to be filled up. The rubbish has been 
recently removed, and the original level of the aisles exposed to view. 
The church of Pelagius , a basilica with aisles in the style of S. Agnese 
Fuori (the only two examples of churches with galleries at Rome), was 
originally entered at the opposite (E.) end. Twelve magnificent fluted 
columns of pavonazzetto with Corinthian capitals (those of the two first 
are formed of trophies , on the benches in front of them are mediaeval 

S. Bibiani. ROME. II. The Hills. 181 

lions) support the 'Entablature, which consists of antique fragments and 
bears a gallery with graceful smaller columns. On the triumphal arch, 
of which this is the original front, are restored mosaics of the time of 
Pelagius II. : Christ, right SS. Peter, Lawrence, and Pelagius; left SS. Paul, 
Stephen, and Hippolytus. The canopy dates from 1148. The dome is mo- 
dern. By the wall at the back is the handsome episcopal throne. — We 
now descend the flight of steps leading from the prolongation of the aisles 
of the anterior church to the aisles of the church of Pelagius. The nave 
of the old church has now been partly converted into a crypt , as above 
mentioned. In the vestibule is the Tomb of Pius IX. (d. Feb. 7, 1878), 
whose body was transferred hither in 1881 from its temporary resting-place 
in St. Peter's. The monument, which according to the injunctions of the 
deceased pope is of the plainest character , consists of a marble sarco- 
phagus in a niche like those in the catacombs. 

The handsome old "Monastery Codrt (generally closed; apply to one 
of the monks in the church, or to the right in the sacristy) contains num- 
erous fragments of sculptures and inscriptions built into its walls ; in the 
corner to the right of the principal entrance is the lid of a sarcophagus 
adorned with the triumphal procession of Cybele. 

Adjoining the church is the Campo Santo, an extensive church- 
yard, consecrated in 1837, and much enlarged in 1854 ; the upper 
part commands a beautiful view of the mountains and the Campagna. 
By the entrance are colossal figures of Silence, Charity, Hope, and 
Meditation. Among the numerous handsome monuments are one 
commemorating the Battle of Mentana, erected in 1870, and an- 
other (with statue) to the poetess Erminia Fua-Fusinato (d. 1876). 
On the whole, however, the cemetery is less interesting than those 
in several other Italian towns. In the tufa rock of the hill are ob- 
served tomb-niches from the Catacombs of St. Cyriaca, discovered 
when the cemetery was extended in this direction. 

To the S. of the Porta S. Lorenzo, within the city-walls, are 
the church of S. Bibiana and the picturesque ruined 'Temple of 
Minerva Medica', both conveniently reached by the streets lately 
constructed here. As already stated, great alterations are taking place 
here, and fragments of ancient walls are still frequently discovered. 

S. Bibiana (PI. II, 31), consecrated in 470, was rebuilt for the 
last time in 1625 by Bernini. It contains eight antique columns; 
above these are frescoes from the life of the saint , on the right by 
Ciampelli , on the left by Pietro da Cortona (modernised). The 
statue of St. Bibiana on the high-altar is by Bernini. To the left 
by the entrance is the stump of a column, at which the saint is said 
to have been scourged to death. 

The so-called Temple of Minerva Medica (PI. II, 32), the ruin 
of an ancient Nymphaeum in the form of a decagon, 55 yds. in cir- 
cumference, with deep niches in the walls, and originally covered 
with marble below and stucco above, must have belonged to some 
splendid bath-establishment, as many ancient statues have been 
found in the vicinity. One of these, the Minerva Giustiniani of the 
Braccio Nuovo in the Vatican (p. 318), has given rise to the other- 
wise unfounded appellation of 'Temple of Minerva'. In the middle 
ages the ruin was called Le Terme di Oalluccio, a name which has 

182 //. The Hills. ROME. Porta Maggiore. 

been conjectured to be a corruption of 'Gaius and Lucius Caesar'. 
The vaulting existed down to 1828. The building, which is archi- 
tecturally interesting, dates from about the 3rd cent, after Christ. 

The Via di Porta Maggiore leads in 20 min. from the church of 
S. Maria to the *Porta Maggiore (PI. II, 35), formed by a monu- 
ment belonging to the Aqua Claudia, above which the Anio Novus 
flowed through a second conduit. The inscriptions record the con- 
struction of both aqueducts by the Emp. Claudius, A.D. 52, the 
Claudia, 45 M. in length, bringing water from the neighbourhood 
of Subiaco, and the Anio Novus coming from the sources of the river 
of that name, a distance of 62 M. ; and also their restoration by 
Vespasian in 71, and by Titus in 80. Aurelian converted the mon- 
ument into one of the gates of his city-wall ; and the Colonnas used 
it in the middle ages as the nucleus of a fortification. The gate 
derives its name either from its imposing dimensions, or from the 
church of that name. It was purged of the later additions by Gre- 
gory XVI., who closed up the N. archway. Two roads diverged 
hence : to the left, through the now closed arch, the Via Labicana, 
and to the right the Via Praenestina. 

Between the two roads, outside the gate, on the removal of the 
fortifications of Honorius, which have been re-erected by the wall 
to the right, was discovered the * Monument of the Baker Eurysaces, 
dating from the close of the republic ; it is erected in imitation of 
grain-measures laid alternately in vertical and horizontal rows. 

The monument was erected by the baker himself; and the principal 
inscription, repeated several times, is to the effect that — 'This is the 
monument of Marcus Vergilius Eurysaces, a public purveyor of bread and 
an official'. Some of the reliefs represent grinding, baking, and other 
parts of his trade, and others refer to his post of purveyor to the city. 

From this point to the Campagna, see pp. 354, 377. 

From the Porta Maggiore a road leads to (5 min.) S. Croce, 
passing under the arch of the Claudian aqueduct, and skirting the 
wall on the inside. From S. Maria Maggiore to this church by the 
Via di S. Croce is a walk of 20 minutes. 

S. Croce in Gerusalemme (PI. II, 36), one of the seven pil- 
grimage-churches, once named Basilica Sessoriana, because the 
Sessorium, perhaps an ancient court of judicature, once stood here, 
is said to have been erected by St. Helena in honour of the cross 
found by her. As early as 433 a Council met here. The church was 
rebuilt by Lucius II. in 1144, and was modernised under Bene- 
dict XIV. in 1743, by Gregorini, who added the poor facade. 

Interior. The nave was originally borne by 12 antique columns of 
granite, of which 8 only are now visible. An ancient sarcophagus of basalt 
below the high-altar contains the relics of SS. Anastasius and Csesarius. 
In the tribune are modernised '"Frescoes ascribed to Pinturicchio (according 
to C. & C, by Fiurenio di Lorenzo), the Finding of the Cross. The church 
contains numerous relics, including the 'Inscription on the Cross'. 

To the left of the tribune a staircase descends to the Crypt, where on 
the left is an altar with a marble relief (Pieta) ; at the sides are statues 
of Peter and Paul of the 12th century. On the right the chapel of St. Helena 
(to which ladies are admitted on 20th March only). On the vaulting are 

S. Martino ai Monti. ROME. //. The Hills. 183 

"Mosaics, after Bald. Peruzzi , representing the Four Evangelists. In the 
centre, Christ. In the arch over the entrance, on the left St. Helena, right 
St. Sylvester; over the altar, on the left St. Peter, on the right St. Paul. 
The altar-statue of St. Helena is an exact copy of the Barberini Juno in the 
Sala Rotonda of the Vatican (p. 309) , with a cross for the sceptre in the 
right hand, and a nail of the cross for the vase in the left. 

The greater part of the old Cistercian monastery formerly belong- 
ing to the church is now used as a barrack. 

Adjacent to S. Croce, in the direction of the Lateran, is the^4m- 
phitheatrum Castrense (PL II, 36), of which only 16 arches of the 
enclosing wall, incorporated with the old city -fortifications, still 
exist. The building itself and the Corinthian capitals and other de- 
corations are of brick. The date of its erection is uncertain. The 
longer diameter of the amphitheatre is 57 yds., the shorter 44 yds., 
and the arena 41 yds. in length. The outside is best seen in the 
course of a walk from the Porta Maggiore to the Porta S. Giovanni 
(from gate to gate 1 M.). In the interior is a kitchen-garden. 

On the other side of S. Croce is an apse with arched windows 
and the beginning of adjoining walls, which are supposed to have 
belonged to a Temple of Venus and Cupid , or a Nymphaeum of 
Alexander Severus, or to the Sessorium mentioned above. 

From S. Croce to the Lateran is a walk of 5 min. (p. 268). 

From S. Maria Maggiore the Via Mehulana (PL II, 26, 29, 30) 
leads to the right to the Lateran (in !/ 4 hr. ; p. 268). The first 
cross-street to the right is the Via di S. Prassede (with the church 
of that name, p. 178), which, under different names, leads through 
a well-peopled quarter to the Forum. To the left is the Via di S. 
Vito, in which stands S. Alfonso de' Liguori, a Gothic church built 
by Wigley, at the cost of a Mr. Douglas. At the end of the street 
are the church of 8. Vito and the Arch of Oallienus (see p. 179). 

Halfway between S. Maria Maggiore and the Lateran, and beyond the 
beginning of the Via di S. Pietro in Vincoli mentioned below, a building 
in 'opus reticulatum' was discovered in 1874. It is supposed to have been 
an Auditorium, or perhaps a conservatory or winter-garden, belonging to 
the Gardens of Maecenas which lay here. (Permission to see it must be 
obtained from the Commissione Archeologica Comunale, on the Capitol, 
by the side-entrance to Ar;.coeli ) The oblong chamber, now roofed in, 
has a number of steps rising at the N. end, like the seats in an amphi- 
theatre. The walls were richly decorated with paintings, which are now 
rapidly fading. Outside the S. wall are seen fragments of the Servian 
wall (p. 175), conspicuous remains of which, particularly on the E. side, 
flank the Via Leopardi. 

From the Via Merulana diverges the lonely and sometimes unsafe 
Via di S. Pietro in Vincoli to the W. , leading to the church of — 

S. Martino ai Monti (PL II, 26), erected by Symmachus about 
the year 500, adjacent to the Baths of Trajan and an old church of 
Pope Sylvester. It was rebuilt in 844 by Sergius II. and Leo IV., 
and handsomely modernised about 1650. The adjoining Carmelite 
monastery is now used as a barrack. Principal festival, 11th Nov. 

The Interior, a basilica with a roof of straight beams, contains 24 an- 
tique columns. In the S. aisle six *Frescoes by Q. Poussin, from the life of 

184 II. The Hills. ROME. S. Pietro in Vincoli. 

Elijah, the patron of the order (marred by restoration). In the N. aisle 
six smaller "Frescoes. Also two pictures representing the interior of the 
old churches of the Lateran and of St. Peter. — The Presbyterium is eleven 
steps higher; below is the Crypt. From the latter we enter a large vault, 
probably once belonging to Thermae, but at an early period converted into a 
church. The vaulting bears traces of ancient painting. This is supposed to 
he the site of Pope Sylvester's church, of the period of Constantine. 

To the E., neai S. Martino, diverges the Via delle Sette Sale, 
skirting the vineyards of the Esquiline, and terminating near S. Cle- 
mente (p. 264). On this road, immediately to the right, in the Vigna 
No. 10, is the entrance to the so-called Sette Sale (PI. II, 26), con- 
sisting of seven, or rather nine parallel chambers, which appear to 
have been used as reservoirs for the Thermae of Titus. The other 
ruins in the vineyard also belonged to the baths. The celebrated 
group of the Laocoon (p. 312) was found in the vicinity. 

Leaving S. Martino, we next proceed in 5 min. to — 

* S. Pietro in Vincoli (PI. II, 23 ; 151 ft. above the sea-level), 
also named Basilica Eudoxiana after Eudoxia, wife of Valentinian 
III., who founded the church about the year 442, as a receptacle for 
the chains of St. Peter which had been presented by her to Pope 
Leo I. It was restored by Pelagius I. and Hadrian I., the vestibule 
added by Baccio Pintelli (?), and the whole is now modernised. Ad- 
mission befoTe 11 a.m. and after 3 p.m. ; when closed, visitors ring 
at the adjacent door to the left, No. 4 (t/^ fr.). 

Interior. The nave and aisles are separated by 20 antique Doric 
columns. To the left of the entrance is the monument of the Florentine 
painters Pietro and Antonio Pollajuolo (d. 1498). The fresco above it, 
representing the plague of 680, is attributed to the latter master. The 
Left Aisle, on the left contains the monument of the learned Card. Nico- 
laus Cusanus (from Cues on the Moselle, d. 1465). Above it a relief: Peter 
with keys and chains, on the left the donor (Nic. Cusanus), right an angel. 
On the 3rd altar to the left a mosaic of the 7th cent, with St. Sebastian. 
— At the end of the Right Aisle is the monument of Pope Julius II. with the 
"* Statue of Moses by Michael Angelo, one of his most famous works. The 
monument was originally destined for St. Peter's, and intended to be a most 
imposing work, consisting of upwards of 30 statues. Owing to various ad- 
verse circumstances the portion preserved here was alone completed. (Two 
statues destined for this monument are at the Louvre.) The statues of Moses 
(who is represented by mediaeval Christian artists with horns owing to 
an erroneous translation of Exodus xxxiv. 35), Rachel, and Leah (as 
symbols, on the left of meditative, on the right of active life) alone were 
executed by the great master , and even these were not entirely his o\\ n 
workmanship. The grouping only of the remainder was from his design. 
The figure of the pope (who is not interred here) by Maso del Bosco is a 
failure ; the prophet and the sibyl at the side are by Raf. da Montelupo. — 
To the right of the choir is St. Margaret, an altar-piece by Guercino. — 
The Choir contains an ancient marble seat from a bath, converted into 
an episcopal throne. 

Adjacent to the statue of Moses is the entrance to the Sacristy. A 
cabinet here with bronze 'Doors (by the Pollajuoli, 1477) contains the chains 
of St. Peter, which are exhibited to the pious on 1st August. 

The adjacent monastery of the Canonici Regolari is now the seat 
of the physical and mathematical faculty of the university. The 
handsome old monastery-court, by Qiuliano da Sangallo, planted 
with orange trees , is embellished with a fountain by Antonio da 

Mausoleum of Augustus. ROME. 111. Left Bank. 185 

Sangallo. (Entrance by No. 5, to the right of the church.) — Op- 
posite the facade of the church is the Colleyium Maroniticum, with 
an old tower commanding a fine view. 

Proceeding to the left, and then, where the street divides, to the 
left again, we reach the Thermae of Titus (p. 238) in 5 min. — The 
street in a straight direction descends to the Basilica of Constantine 
(p. 233), which is conveniently visited after the church of S. Pietro. 
To the right of S. Pietro in Vincoli is the church of S. Francesco di 
Paola, with a monastery, now the B. Istituto Tecnico. 

III. Home on the Tiber (Left Bank) . 

That part of the city which extends to the W. from the Corso as far 
as the river was uninhabited in the most ancient times (Campus Martins), 
but was gradually covered with buildings as Rome extended her sway, 
and as far back as the Republic, but more particularly in the reign of 
Augustus, it became the site of many palatial edifices, and the new town 
of ancient Rome. This quarter, which is now densely peopled, and is in 
the main mediaeval in character, consists of a network of narrow and 
dirty streets and lanes, enlivened by the busy traffic of the lower classes, 
and rarely intersected by great thoroughfares. Although the topography 
of these purlieus is sometimes puzzling, and their appearance uninviting, 
they contain many highly interesting churches and palaces, and afford the 
traveller an excellent opportunity of becoming acquainted with mediaeval 
Rome, and with the characteristics of its present inhabitants. It is pro- 
posed by the present government to improve this quarter by the construc- 
tion of new and broad streets, but the work has not yet been begun. The 
following description begins with the N. side. 

From the Piazza del Popolo the broad Via di Ripetta (PI. 1, 
15, 14), with its prolongation the Via della Scrofa, leads to the S. 
in 16 min. to S. Luigi de' Francesi and the Piazza Navona. On the 
right, 4 min. from the Piazza del Popolo, is a modern building with 
numerous windows, erected by Gregory XVI., and now containing 
the Direzione Centrale del Lotto, and studios belonging to the Acca- 
demia delle Belle Arti, or di S. Luca (p. 239). The gateway of 
the circular building leads to a quiet quay , planted with trees and 
used by the barges which ascend the river. Pleasing view of the 
opposite bank. 

In the Via de' Ponteflci, a cross-street to the left, is the entrance 
(No. 57; on the right) to the mausoleum of Augustus (PI. I, 17), 
erected by that emperor as a burial-place for himself and his family, 
and in which most of his successors down to Nerva were interred. 
On a huge substructure , which contained the mortuary chambers, 
arose a mound of earth in the form of terraces , embellished with 
cypresses, surmounted by a statue of the emperor, and environed 
with a park. In the middle ages it was converted into a fortress by 
the Colonnas ; and a theatre (Anfiteatro Umberto I.) is now fitted up 
within its precincts. A few of the tomb-chambers are still preserved. 
Fee 1/2 f r. 

To the left in the Via di Ripetta we next reach the church of 
SS. Bocco e Martino (PI. I, 14), erected in 1657 by De Bossi, the 

186 III. Left Bank. ROME. Palazzo Borghese. 

facade with its Corinthian columns having been added in 1834. 
Immediately beyond it , on the right, is the Harbour of the Bipetta, 
constructed by Clement XI. in 1707, from which the new and ugly 
Ponte di Bipetta, crosses to the Prati di Castello, or meadows lying 
beyond the Castle of S. Angelo (toll 5 c. ; Osterie, see p. 106). On 
the left, S. Oirolamo degli Schiavoni (PI. I, 14), a small church. 

A little farther on , the street takes the name of Via dblla 
Sceofa (PI. I, 3 ; II, 3), which it retains as far as the Piazza of 
S. Luigi de' Francesi (see p. 191 et seq.). 

The Via della Scrofa is soon intersected (about 9 min. from 
the Piazza del Popolo) by an important street, which leads from the 
Corso, opposite the Via Condotti, to the Ponte S. Angelo under dif- 
ferent names , and forms the direct route between the strangers' 
quarter (Piazza di Spagna) and the Vatican. The church of S. Tri- 
nita de' Monti (p. 142) is visible the greater part of the way, forming 
the termination of the street. From the Corso to the Piazza Borg- 
hese (PL I, 16; 4 min.) this street is called Via dblla Fontanella 
di Borghese; thence to the Via della Scrofa, Via del Clementino, 
in which are back-buildings of the Palazzo di Firenze, formerly the 
residence of the Tuscan ambassador , now that of the Minister of 
Justice. - — In the Piazza Borghese rises the celebrated — 

*Palazzo Borghese (PL I, 16), begun by order of Card. Dezza 
in 1590 by the architect Mart. Lunghi the Elder, and completed by 
Flaminio Ponzio by order of Paul V., through whom it came into 
the possession of the Borghese family. The principal facade 
(with respect to the construction of the court) towards the street 
bears the inscription : Bonitatem et disciplinam et scientiam doce- 
m(us) ; the more imposing lateral facade is towards the Piazza 
Borghese. On the ground-floor and first floorthe *Court is surrounded 
by arcades resting on clustered granite columns. Below these are 
three ancient colossal statues (a Muse, an Apollo Musagetes, and 
a portrait-statue); and at the end of the right passage a fragment 
of the statue of an Amazon. In the centre of the left side of the 
arcades is the entrance to the **Galleria Borghese (admission, see 
p. 114; catalogues for the use of visitors), the most important in 
Home next to that of the Vatican. It embraces a longer period, 
and contains more master-pieces , than the other private galleries. 
The 15th century is rather poorly represented, as the gallery was 
founded at a time when the works of that period were not generally 
appreciated ; but it possesses some excellent works of the close of 
that century, such as the Madonna with the vase by Lorenzo di Credi 
(I. Room, No. 2), and the Holy Family (I. Room, No. 54), of doubt- 
ful authorship. — The Milanese School op Leonardo is largely 
represented (I. Room), but the authenticity of most of the pictures 
is questionable. The best are the Christ imparting his blessing, a 
small work by Marco d'Oggionno (I. Room, No. 33), and Christ bear- 

Palazzo Borghese. ROME. III. Left Bank. 187 

ing his Cross, by Solario (III. Room, No. 1). — Among the earlier 
masters of the Upper Italian School, Franc. Francia is highly es- 
teemed, and his St. Stephen, a half-figure in the red robe of a dea- 
con (II, 51), affords abundant proof that he has not been overrated. 

Among the works ascribed to Raphael the Entombment (II. 
Room, No. 38) alone is authentic. The picture is not well pre- 
served, and is perhaps not entirely by Raphael's own hand. The 
impression produced by it is disappointing, the composition seems 
too studied, and the colouring cold (p. liii). The predelle belong- 
ing to it are in the Vatican (p. 305). The Fomarina (II. Room, 
No. 65), the Madonna d'Alba (II, 39), Pope Julius II. (II, 18), 
and the Madonna col divino amore (II, 24) are copies; the un- 
known Cardinal (II, 21) is by a somewhat later Florentine master, 
who for the colouring of the gown has used a different kind of red 
from Raphael. It is quite as improbable that the so-called Portrait 
of Cesare Borgia ( II, 26) was executed by Raphael. Cesare Borgia 
died in 1507, whereas the costume of the portrait is in the style 
of the middle of that century. The painter of this unknown per- 
sonage was perhaps Angelo Bronzino. The IX. Room contains 
several Frescoes transferred hither from the Villa of Raphael, and 
ascribed to that master ; but they are unlike his workmanship, both 
in composition and execution. 

The School op Febraba of the 16th cent, is copiously and 
well represented. A fine example of Mazzolini s richness of colour- 
ing is his Adoration of the Magi (II, 59). Dosso Dossi's Circe 
(III, 11) conducts us into a world of fancy, similar to that depicted 
by Ariosto in his Orlando. Lastly there are several excellent works 
by Garofalo, the Raphael of Ferrara (II, 9 : Descent from the Cross). 

The Coloubists of the XVI. Cext. will not fail to attract the 
visitor. To Sodoma the gallery is indebted for a Fieta (I, 7) and 
a Holy Family (II, 44), in which the head of the Madonna is radiant 
with beauty. At a comparatively recent period (1824) an important 
work by Correggio was secured for the gallery. It represents Danae 
with Cupids sharpening their arrows (III, 40). The figure of Danae 
is rather graceful than strictly Beautiful, but the Cupids are very 
charming, and the chiaroscuro masterly. — A whole room is de- 
voted to the Venetian School. Titian's so-called Earthly and 
Heavenly Love (X, 21) is one of those creations which produces 
an indelible impression on the beholder. The picture rivets the 
attention like a poetical dream, and after the eye has feasted on the 
charms of the colouring the composition still captivates the imagi- 
nation. The Arming of Cupid (X, 2) is one of the finest mytho- 
logical works by the same master. Bonifazio is another master who 
supplies us with examples of the richness of colouring of the Ve- 
netian School (XI, 16, being the finest). Giorgione , on the other 
hand, is not fairly represented by the only specimen of his handi- 
work which the gallery possesses (X, 13). 

188 111. Left Bank. ROME. Palazzo Borghese. 

As it is generally the case in the Roman galleries, the painters 
of the later revival of art, the adherents of the Carracci and the 
Naturalists, figure very numerously here. Domenichino' s Diana 
(IV, 15) contains a number of nymphs with life-like heads, and 
an excellent background of landscape; Albani's Seasons are superb 
decorative pictures ; and the half-figures of Guercino are above the 
average of his compositions. On the other hand, the works of 
Caravaggio, the chief of the naturalists (V, 26), are repulsive. The 
pictures by German and Netherlandish masters in the XII. Room 
are unimportant. — The apartments are artistically decorated. 

I. Room. *Decorations in grisaille and gold , by Carlo Villani. 
Left : *1 . Sandro Botticelli , Madonna ; *2. Lorenzo di Credi, Ma- 
donna ; 7. Sodoma, Pieta, unfortunately darkened by age ; 8. Luini 
(a copy), Vanita; *17. Solario (?), EcceHomo; 26. School of Leo- 
nardo, Madonna ; 27, 28. Laura and Petrarch (portraits) ; 30. Peru- 
gino (?), Ecce Homo; 32. Luini (a copy), St. Agatha; *33. Marco 
da Oggionno, Youthful Christ ; 34. Perugino, Madonna (a copy) ; 
*35. Ridolfo Ghirlandajo (according to Passavant, by Timoteo della 
Vite~), Portrait of a boy, erroneously called a portrait of Raphael; 
43. Fr. Francia (?), Madonna; 45. After Raphael , St. Catherine; 
48. Perugino, St. Sebastian; 49, 57. Pinturicchio, Cabinet-pictures 
of the kind which used to be in vogue at Florence for the decoration 
of wedding cabinets, etc. ; *54. Lorenzo di Credi (?), Holy Family, 
a work of the highest rank ; *56. Leonardo, Leda and the swan, an 
excellent copy of the celebrated picture; 61. Fr. Francia (?), St. 
Antony; *65. School of Leonardo, Madonna"5*67. Ortolano. Adora- 
tion of the Child; *69. Pollajuolo, Holy Family. 

II. Room. 4. Portrait, copy from Perugino; 16. Qarofalo, Ma- 
donna with St. Joseph and St. Michael; 7. Fr. Francia, Madonna 
with two saints ; *9. Garofalo, Christ mourned over by his friends ; 
*18. Raphael , Portrait of Julius II. , an admirable copy ; *21 . Ra- 
phael (?), Portrait of a cardinal; *24. Raphael, Madonna with the 
young St. John, St. Joseph and St. Elizabeth (Madonna col divino 
amore, original at Naples) ; *26. Raphael (?), Portrait of Csesar 
Borgia (?); 30. (?) Portrait of a woman; 35. Andrea del Sarto, 
Madonna; *38. Raphael, Entombment (1507), his last work before 
going to Rome , ordered by Atalanta Baglioni for her chapel in S. 
Francesco de' Conventuali at Perugia (p. 51), afterwards purchased 
by Paul V. ; 39. Raphael, Madonna di Casa d'Alba, an old copy ; 
40. Fra Bartolommeo , Holy Family ; 43. Fr. Francia , Madonna ; 
*M. Sodoma, Madonna; *51. Fr. Francia, St. Stephen; 59. Maz- 
zolini, Adoration of the Magi ; *65. Portrait of the so-called Forna- 
rina, a good copy of Raphael's original in the Pal. Barberini (p. 167), 
perhaps by Sassoferrato ; 69. After Raphael, John in the wilderness. 

III. Room. 1. Andrea Solario, Christ bearing the Cross ; *2.Par- 
meggianino , Portrait; 5. Aless. Alori, Christ risen; *11. Dosso 
Dossi, The Sorceress Circe (?); 13. Solario (?), Mater Dolorosa; 

Palatzo Borghese. ROME. III. Left Bank. 189 

14. Sofonisba Anguissola, Portrait of a -woman; 15. Scarsellino, 
Madonna; 19. Angelo Bronzino , CleopatTa; 22. Sch. of Raphael, 
Holy Family ; 21 . Andrea del Sarto , Madonna with angels ; *28. Ma- 
donna with the Child and St. John , by the same ; 35. Andr. del 
Sarto (?), Venus with two Cupids ;»37. Portrait, unknown; *40. Cor- 
reggio , Danae , one of his finest easel-pieces ; 42. Bronzino (?), 
Portrait of Cosimo de' Medici ; 46. Mary Magdalene, after Correggio's 
original at Dresden ; 47. Pomarancio, Holy Family; *48. Sebast. del 
Piombo, Scourging of Christ (the same piece is in S. Pietro in Mon- 
torio as a fresco, p. 330) ; 49. And. del Sarto (?), Mary Magdalene. 

IV. Room. i. Ann. Carraeci, Entombment; *2. Domenichino^ 
Cumsean Sibyl; 4. Lod. Carraeci, Head; 10. Cav. d'Arpino, Rape 
of Europa; 14. Sch. of the Carraeci, Entombment; *15. Ouido Cag- 
nacei, Sibyl; 18. Cigoli, St. Francis; 20. Ouido Reni, St. Joseph; 
29. Ann. Carraeci, St. Dominicus; 33. Luca Giordano, Martyrdom 
of St. Ignatius ; Carlo Dolci, 36. Madonna, 37. Mater Dolorosa ; 38, 

41. Furino , Annunciation; Ribera, 39. Neptune, 40. St. Jerome; 

42. Carlo Dolci , Head of Christ ; 43. Sassoferrato, Madonna. 

V. Room. *11, 12, 13, 14. Francesco Alb ani, the Four Seasons, 
landscapes with mythological accessories; *15. Domenichino, 
Diana and her Nymphs practising with their bows ; 21. Francesco 
Mola, Liberation of Peter ; 22. Psyche borne aloft by Cupids, copy 
from a picture in the Farnesina ; 25. Fed. Zuccaro, Christ bewailed 
by angels; 26. Caravaggio, Madonna with St. Anna and the Child 
Jesus; 27. Varotari (il Padovanino), Venus; 28. Cav. d'Arpino, 
Battle ; 29. School of Poussin, Landscape. 

VI. Room. 1. Ouercino, Mater Dolorosa; 2. Female half-figure, 
by the same; *3. Andrea Sacchi, Orazio Giustiniani; 5. Guercino, 
Return of the Prodigal ; 7. Pietro da Cortona, Giuseppe Ghislieri ; 
10. Ribera, St. Stanislaus with the Child Jesus ; 12. Valentin, Joseph 
interpreting the dreams in prison ; *13. Titian, Three periods of life, 
a copy by Sassoferrato (original in London); 16, 17. Franc. Grim- 
aldi, Landscapes; 18. Sassoferrato, Madonna; 22. Baroccio, Flight 
of iEneas from Troy ; 24 , 25. Landscapes in the style of Poussin. 

VII. Room. The lower part of the wall is adorned with mirrors, 
on which Cupids (by Ciroferri) and garlands (by Mario de' Fiori) 
are painted. Above, in small niches, are 16 ancient portrait-busts, 
some freely restored. In the centTe is a table of irregular mosaic 
composed of stones of every variety, some of them extremely rare. 

VIII. Room, containing a number of small objects of art and 
curiosities. Entrance-wall : 96. Bril (?), Orpheus with the animals 
in a landscape; *90. Female head, a drawing of the School of Leo- 
nardo. By the window-wall and the wall of the egress are twelve 
small antique bronzes. 38. Franc. Viola, Landscape. Wall op- 
posite the window: 86. Marcello Provenzali, Mater Dolorosa; 
4. Giulio Clodio, Madonna; 91. Vanni, The Graces; *88. View of 
the Villa Borghese in the 17th century. The egress affords a view of 

1 90 III. Left Bank. ROME. Palazzo Borghese. 

the banks of the Tiber beyond the fountain below. — To the left a 
passage adorned with landscape-frescoes leads to the — 

IX. Room , where several frescoes removed from their original 
situations are collected. The most important are three *Frescoes 
(under glass) from the so-called Villa of Raphael, which formerly 
stood within the grounds of the Villa Borghese, and was removed 
in 1849 (p. 160): 1. Marriage of Alexander and Roxane, from a 
drawing in the Albertina in Vienna , which bears the name of Ra- 
phael, but shows close resemblance to the composition of Sodoma 
in the Farnesina ; 2. Nuptials of Vertumnus and Pomona, of in- 
ferior value; 3. The so-called 'Bersaglio de' Dei' (shooting contest 
of the gods), from a drawing in the Brera at Milan ascribed by Ra- 
phael to Mich. Angelo ; this obscure composition is perhaps borrow - 
ed from Lucian (Nigrinus, C. 36). These three were probably exe- 
cuted by Raphael's pupils. Some of the other paintings are from 
the Villa Lante. The balcony reached from this room affords a pleas- 
ing view of the Tiber and its banks as far as Monte Mario. — Re- 
turning to the mirror-room , and leaving it by the door to the left 
in the opposite wall, we enter the — 

X. Room. Opposite the entrance : 1. Moroni, Portrait; *2. Ti- 
tian, Cupid equipped by Venus; 4. Sch. of Titian, or Oiorgione, 
Judith, said to have the features of Titian's wife; 6. Sch. of Fer- 
rara, Cupid and Psyche ^i?9. Pordenone (according to Crowe, by 
Lor. Lotto~), Portrait; 13. Oiorgione (or school of Ferrara?), David 
with the head of Goliath; 14. Paolo Veronese, John the Baptist 
preaching repentance; 16. Titian, St. Dominicus; 19. Oiac. Bas- 
sano, Portrait; **21. Titian, 'Amor sagro e profano' (earthly and 
heavenly love), one of his greatest works ; 22. Leonello Spada, 
Concert ; 34. Sch. of Ferrara, SS. Cosmas and Damianus ; 30. Ve- 
netian School, Family scene, probably the Nativity of the Virgin ; 
*36. Bellini (?), Madonna, an early work. 

XI. Room. *1. Lor. Lotto, Madonna with SS. Onophrius and 
Augustine, the St. Onophrius being copied from Diirer, as the vis- 
itor may satisfy himself by comparing it with Diirer' s picture in 
the Palazzo Barberini (1518); 2. Paolo Veronese (f), St. Antony 
about to preach to the fishes ; 3. Titian (?), Madonna ; *9. Moroni (?), 
Portrait; 11. Luc. Cambiaso, Venus and Cupid on dolphins (un- 
finished); 14. Andr. Schiavone, Last Supper; 15. Bonifazio, Christ 
among his disciples and the sons of Zebedee with their mother; 
*16. Bonifazio. Return of the Prodigal; 17. Titian, Samson; 
18. Bonifazio , Christ and the adulteress ; 19. Palma Vecchio (?), 
Madonna; 20. Paolo Veronese, Venus and Cupid; 24. Schidone, 
Madonna; 25. Titian (a copy), Portrait of himself ; *27. Giov. Bel- 
lini (or Antonello da Messina ?), Portrait; 28. Unknown master, 
Head of John the Baptist; 31. Giov. Bellini, Madonna and St. Pe- 
ter; *32. Palma Vecchio, Holy Family; 33. Bernardino Licinio da 
Pordenone, Family-portrait; 39. Giov. Bellini, Portrait. 

Palazzo Lancelotti. ROME. III. Left Bank. 191 

XII. Room. Dutch and German masters. 1. Van Dyck (?), 
Crucifixion ; *7. Entombment, by the same ; 8. D. Teniers, Genre 
picture; 9. A. Brouwer, Genre picture ; 15. Brabant Sch., Mary's 
visit to Elizabeth; 19. Diirer (?), Portrait (said to be of Duke 
Louis VI. of Bavaria); 20. Holbein, Portrait; 21. Wouverman (?), 
Landscape and accessories j|22. Potter (?), Cattle-piece; 23. Back- 
huyzen, Quay; 26. Crossing the ice, in different shades of brown^ 
perhaps by Berchem ; 54. Holbein (?), Portrait; 27. Van Dyck (?), 
Portrait; *35. Perugino (not Holbein), Portrait of himself; 37. Dii- 
rer, Portrait of Pirkheimer(?) ; 41. Oherardo della Notte(Honthorst), 
Lot and his daughters; 44. Lucas Cranach, Venus and Cupid. — In 
a small cabinet (which the custodian opens if desired) are a num- 
ber of unimportant Italian pictures of the 14th and 15th centuries. 

Returning from the Piazza Borghese to the Via della Scrofa, we 
follow the transverse street mentioned at p. 186 towards the E., 
to the Ponte S. Angelo (10 min.). This street, which is separated 
from the river by a single row of houses only, frequently changes 
its name. We first cross the Piazza Nicosia (PI. I, 13), where, in 
the corner to the left, is the new Pal. Oalizin (PI. I, 13, i3), built 
partly on the plan of the Pal. Giraud near St. Peter's (p. 279). 
Farther on, in the Via della Tinta, on the left, is the small church 
of S. Lucia (PL 11~), mentioned as early as the 9th century. In 
the Via di Monte Brianzo there are no buildings worthy of note. 
The side-streets diverging from it, however, contain several inter- 
esting Renaissance palaces. Thus in the Via dell' Orso, the Al- 
bergo delV Orso ; in the Via del Soldato, the Pal. Sacripante (PI. I, 
13, 5), built by B. Ammanati ; opposite to it (PL I, 13, 6) the 
Pal. Altemps (p. 193); on the house Via Maschera d'Oro No. 7, is 
a frieze with paintings from the myth of Niobe by Pol. Caravaggio, 
much damaged. — A few paces beyond the last is the — 

Pal. Lancelotti (PL I, 13, i), erected under Sixtus V. by 
F. da Volterra, and completed by C. Maderna, with a portal by 
Domenichino. The court contains ancient statues and reliefs. 

In the private apartments of Prince Lancelotti, shown by special per- 
mission only, stands the celebrated statue of the ""Discus Thrower, found 
on the Esquiline in 1761, and formerly in the Pal. Massimi (p. 201). It is 
a copy of the bronze statue by Myron (p. xxxi), and is one of the most in- 
teresting antiques in Rome, being almost perfect, and far better executed 
than the inaccurately-restored replica in the Vatican (p. 308). 

The Via di Tordinona , or Torre di Nona , is named after a 
prison-tower once situated here. To the left the Vicolo de' Marche- 
giani diverges to the church of S. Salvatore in Lauro, erected by 
Ursini in 1450, and remodelled by Pius IX. in 1862, with an 
adjacent monastery-court. At the end of the Via Tordinona, on the 
right, is the Teatro Apollo (p. 110), restored by Valadier in 1830. 

The street terminates in the Piazza di Ponte S. Angelo, 
whence three others diverge. The first , the Via in Panico, leads 
with its prolongations to the Piazza Navona (p. 197) ; the Via del 

192 HI. Left Bank. ROME. S. Agostino. 

Banco di S. Spirito in the centre to the Piazza Farnese (p. 203); 
and the ViaPaola to the chain-bridge and to the Via Giulia (p. 205) 
which runs parallel with the Tiber. This was formerly the public 
place of execution, which has been removed to the neighbourhood 
of the Ponte Rotto. — By the Ponte S. Angelo to the Church of St. 
Peter and the Vatican, see p. 278. 

If we follow the Via della Scrofa (p. 186), passing the Pal. 
Galizin on the right, the fourth transverse street on the right (at 
the left corner of which, Via della Scrofa 70, is the palace of the 
general-vicar) leads us to the Piazza di S. Agostino. 

*S. Agostino (PI. I, 13), erected by Baccio PintelliQl') in 1483 
by order of Card. d'Estouteville, the protector of the Augustinians, 
on the site of an old oratorium, was the first Roman church with 
a dome. The facade and the spacious flight of steps are said to have 
been constructed of stones from the Colosseum. The interior, in 
the form of a Latin cross, was restored in 1750 , and again in 
1860, when it was adorned with frescoes by Oagliardi. 

Interior. On the entrance -wall a 'Madonna and Child, in marble, 
by Jacopo Tatti, surnamed Jac. Sansovino after his master Andrea Sanso- 
vino, surrounded by numerous votive offerings. In the 1st Chapel on the 
right, St. Catharine by Venusti; in the 2nd, NuccCs free copy of the lost 
Madonna della Rosa of Raphael; in the 4th, "Christ delivering the keys to 
Peter, a group by Cotignola. By the 5th Chapel is the monument (the second 
to the left) of the learned Onofrio Panvinio (d. 1568). Adjoining the door 
of the sacristy is the monument of the learned Cardinal Noris. — The 
Right Transept contains the chapel of St. Augustine with an altar - piece 
by Guercino: St. Augustine between John the Baptist and Paul the Hermit. 

The High Altar was decorated by Bernini; the image of the Madonna is 
said to have been painted by St. Luke, and brought from the church of St. 
Sophia at Constantinople. In the chapel on the left of this are preserved 
the remains of St. Monica, mother of Augustine ; altar-piece by Oottardi. 

The 2nd Chapel in the Left Aisle contains a "Group in marble (St. Anna, 
Mary, and Jesus) by Andrea Sansovino (1512). In the 4th , St. Apollonia, 
altar-piece by Muziano. In the Nave, on the 3rd pillar to the left, "Raphael's 
Prophet Isaiah, holding a scroll with the words from Is. xxvi, 2, painted 
in 1512, but unfortunately retouched by Dan. da Tolterra, and now much 
injured. In the execution of this work the great master is said to have 
been influenced by that of M. Angelo in the Sistine Chapel. 

The neighbouring monastery, now occupied by the Minister of 
the Marine, contains the Biblioteca Angelica (entrance on the right 
of the church), consisting of 150,000 vols, and 2945 MSS., of which 
complete catalogues have been formed. Admission, see p. 108. 

Proceeding from the Piazza S. Agostino straight through the 
archway, we reach the Piazza S. Apollinare, cross the Piazza Tor 
Sanguigna, and pass through the narrow Via de' Coronari to the 
Via in Panico and the Ponte S. Angelo (8min.). This is the shortest 
way from the Piazza Colonna (p. 147) to the Vatican. 

In the Piazza S. Apollinare (PI. 1 , 13) are situated the 
Seminario Romano, a kind of grammar-school, and S. Apollinare, 
an old church, rebuilt in 1552 and 1750, and owing its present 
form to Fuga. To the left, over the altar in the inner vestibule, is 

S. Luigi de' Francesi. ROME. III. Left Bank. 193 

a Madonna by Perugino (?). — Opposite the church is the Pal. 
Altemps, of the 16th cent. , completed by the elder Lunghi, pos- 
sessing a handsome double court with arcades, the lateral colonnades 
of which are built up, and containing a few ancient statues. 

From the Piazza S. Apollinare the Via Agonale leads to the S. 
to the Piazza Navona (p. 197); and from Tor Sanguigna, S. Maria 
dell' Anima (p. 198) and della Pace (p. 199) are reached to the left. 

In the direction of the Ponte S. Angelo the Pal. Lancelotti 
(p. 191) lies on the right (3 min.); a little farther on is the side- 
entrance to S. Salvatore in Lauro (p. 191). 

The Via della Scrofa leads to the small , but busy Piazza di 
S. Luigi de' Francesi, to the right in which rises S. Luigi de' 
Francesi (PI. II, 13), the national church of the French, con- 
secrated in 1589, having been built on the site of several earlier 
churches. Facade by Oiac. della Porta. It is one of the best build- 
ings of its period, and the interior also is judiciously decorated. 
Some of the pictures are badly lighted. 

Right Aisle. 1st Chapel : St. John, altar-piece by G. B. Naldini. On the 
opposite pillar is a monument to French soldiers who fell at the siege of 
Rome in 1849. 2nd Chapel: "Frescoes from the life of St. Cecilia, one of 
the most admirable works of Bomenichino ; on the right the saint distributes 
clothing to the poor ; in the lunette above, she and her betrothed are crowned 
by an angel ; on the left the saint suffers martyrdom with the blessing of 
the Pope; above, she is urged to participate in a heathen sacrifice; on the 
ceiling, admission of the saint into heaven; altar-piece, a copy of Raphael's 
St. Cecilia (in Bologna) by Guido Reni. 4th Chapel, of St. Remigius : altar- 
piece , the Oath of Clovis , by Giac. del Conte ; frescoes on the right , Cam- 
paign of Clovis, by Girol. Sicciolante (da Sermoneta) ; on the left, Baptism 
of Clovis, by Pellegrino da Bologna. 5th Chapel, del Crocifisso : on the left the 
monument of the painter Guerin, on the right that of Agincourt (d. 1814), 
the writer on art. — Over the high-altar : "Assumption, by Franc. Bassano. 

Left Aisle. 1st Chapel: St. Sebastian, altar-piece by Manei; on the right 
and left modern frescoes ; by the first pillar on the right the monument of 
Claude Lorrain, erected in 1836. 3rd Chapel, of St. Louis: altar-piece by 
Plautilla Bricci, who is said to have designed the architecture also; picture 
on the left by Gimignani. 5th Chapel, of St. Matthew : altar-piece and pic- 
tures on the right and left by Caravaggio , on the left the evangelist's 
vocation to the apostleship, on the right his death. 

Opposite the church is the Palazzo Patrizi (PI. II, 13), where 
permessi for the Villa Patrizi (p. 172) are obtained. Adjoining the 
church is a lateral facade of the Pal. Madama (p. 197). 

Opposite the Pal. Madama is the Palazzo Qiustiniani (PI. II, 13), 
erected by Giov. Fontana, which once contained valuable collections. 
There are now only a few antiques in the court and passages. 

We next reach the small Piazza S. Eustachio; to the right, 
opposite the Pal. Maccarini, which was designed by Giul. Romano, 
is the back of the — 

University della Sapienza (PI. II, 13, 25 ; entrance Via della 
Sapienza71), founded in 1303 by Boniface VIII., and after a rapid 
decline re-established by Eugene IV. It attained its greatest pros- 
perity under Leo X., and under Leo XII. and Gregory XVI. possessed 
five faculties, but there are now four only (law, medicine, physical 

Bakdekek. Italy II. 8th Edition. 13 

194 III. Left Bank. ROME. Pantheon. 

science, and philology). It contains several natural history collec- 
tions and the Biblioteca Alessandrina, a library of 90,000 vols., 
which is open daily (p. 108). The present building was designed 
by Giac. della Porta. The church (S. Ivo), with its grotesque spiral 
tower, was designed by Borromini in the form of a bee, in honour 
of Urban VIII., in whose armorial bearings that insect figures. 

Turning to the left, or following one of the two preceding cross- 
lanes, we reach the Piazza della Rotonda (PI. II, 16). Above the 
large Fountain erected by Lunghi under Gregory XIII. , was placed 
the upper end of a broken obelisk by order of Clement XI. This 
piazza generally presents a busy scene (comp. p. 114). 

On the S. side of the piazza rises the church of 8. Maria Rotonda, 
or the **Pantheon, the only ancient edifice at Rome which is still 
in perfect preservation as regards the walls and the vaulting. 
The original statues and architectural decorations have long since 
been replaced by modern and inferior works, but the huge circular 
structure with its vast colonnade still presents a strikingly imposing 
appearance. The walls , constructed of admirable brickwork, 20 ft. 
in thickness, were originally covered with marble and stucco. The 
ground in the environs has gradually been so much raised that the 
pavement of the temple, to which five steps formerly ascended, now 
lies below the level of the piazza. Excavations recently made in 
front of the edifice , which led to the discovery of the two fine 
marble reliefs now in the vestibule, have been filled up again as 
they interfered with the street traffic. 

The Portico (36 yds. wide, 14 yds. deep) is borne by 16 
Corinthian columns of granite, 13 ft. in circumference, and 39 
ft. in height; the tympanum formerly contained reliefs, and the 
roof was embellished by statues. Eight of the columns are in front ; 
the others form three colonnades, originally vaulted over, termi- 
nating in niches, in which stood the colossal statues of Augustus and 
his son-in-law M. Agrippa. The latter, according to the inscription 
on the frieze (M. Agrippa L. F. Cos. tertium fecit) , caused the edi- 
fice to be erected B.C. 27. — The central colonnade leads to the 
Entrance, with its ancient door strongly secured by bronze plates, 
in order to diminish the weight of which the upper portion is re- 
placed by a railing. 

The Interior, lighted by a single aperture in the centre of the 
dome, produces so beautiful an effect that it was currently believed 
at an early period that the temple derived the name of Pantheon, 
which was applied to it as early as A.D. 59, from its resemblance to 
the vault of heaven (comp. p. xxxvi). The height and diameter of 
the dome are equal, being each 140 ft. The surface of the walls is 
broken by 7 laTge niches, in which stood the statues of the gods, in- 
cluding, as has been ascertained, those of Mars, Venus, and Caesar. 
The architrave is borne by fluted columns of giallo antico or pavon- 
azzetto in couples, the shafts being 26 ft. in height. Above the 

Pantheon. ROME. III. Left Bank. 195 

latter, and corresponding with the niches, formerly rose a series of 
round arches , borne by Caryatides , but they appear to have been 
removed during a very early restoration of the edifice. The coffered 
ceiling of the vault, which consists of concrete, was decorated with 
gold-leaf, and the whole roof was covered with gilded bronze tiles, 
which the Emp. Constans II. caused to be removed to Constantinople 
in 655. Under Gregory III. these tiles were replaced by lead. The 
building has frequently been restored, as, for example, by Domi- 
tian, Trajan, Septimius Severus, and Caracalla. The names of the 
last two are recorded by an inscription on the architrave of the portico. 

In 609 the Pantheon was consecrated by Pope Boniface IV. as a 
Christian church, under the name of S. Maria ad Martyres (p. 338), 
and in commemoration of the event the festival of All Saints was 
instituted (13th May, but afterwards celebrated on 1st Nov.). A 
palace, a cathedral-chapter, and a cardinal's title were afterwards 
attached to the church, which is generally known as <S. Maria 
Rotonda, or La Rotonda. Under Urban VIII. (Barberini) the two 
campanili were erected by Bernini , the 'ass's ears', as they have 
been derisively named. The same pope removed from the portico 
the brazen tubes on which the roof rested, and caused them to be 
converted into columns for the canopy of the high-altar of St. Peter's, 
and cannons for the defence of the castle of S. Angelo. This Van- 
dalism gave rise to the complaint of Pasquin, 'Quod non fecerunt 
barbari, fecerunt Barberint . 

To the right of the high-altar is the burial vault of King Victor 
Emanuel (d. Jan. 9, 1878). In the first Chapel to the left of the high- 
altar stands the simple monument of Card. Consalvi (buried in S. Marcello, 
p. 151) hy Thorvaldsen. 

To the left of the 3rd altar is Raphael's Tomb (b. 6th Apr., 1483; d. 6th 
Apr., 1520). On the wall is the graceful epigram composed by Card. Bembo: — 
Hie hie est Raphael, timuit quo sospite vinei 
Rerum magna parens, et moriente mori. 
The Italian translation runs thus : — 

'Questi e quel Raffaele, cui vivo vinta 
Esser temea Nalura, e morto estinta\ 

A lengthy inscription beside it announces that Raphael's remains were 
placed in a new sarcophagus in 1833. The statue of the Madonna on the 
altar, by Lorenzelto, was executed in accordance with Raphael's last will. 

The Pantheon is also the last resting-place of Ann. Caracci , Tadd . 
Zucchero, Bald. Peruzzi, Perino del Vaga, Giov. da Udine, and other 
celebrated artists. 

A visit to the interior by moonlight is recommended, but the sacristan 
must he informed in good time. For the ascent of the dome a special 
permesso must be obtained. 

At the back of the Pantheon are situated the ruins of the Ther- 
mae of Agrippa , the proximity of which to the Pantheon once gave 
rise to the absuTd conjecture that it originally belonged to the baths, 
and was afterwards converted into a temple. 

In 1881-82 extensive operations were carried on for the purpose of 
extricating the Pantheon from surrounding obstructions , during which 
all the houses in the Via della Palombella and the Via della Minerva 
were pulled down. The ancient monuments brought to light in this 
work have been carefully restored, and laid bare down to the original 


1 96 III. Left Bank. ROME. S. Maria sopra Minerva. 

level of the street. From the Via della Palombella we now see oppo- 
site us the end of a large hall to the S. of the rotunda of the Pantheon, 
which perhaps formed the Laconicum of the Thermse of Agrippa. Little 
more than the posterior wall with the beginning of the side-walls is pre- 
served. The large niche in the centre was probably occupied by a statue 
of Agrippa; to the right and left are several smaller niches. Of four fluted 
marble columns which formerly embellished this wall one has been re- 
stored to its original position , while of the others little more than the 
bases remain. A finely executed frieze and cornice (shells and dolphins) 
ran along the top of the wall; a few fragments have been found and 
placed in position. The glaring contrast between the brick-wall and the 
marble sculptures did not exist in the original state of the building, 
when the wall was lined with marble. The floor was also covered with 
large marble slabs , of which a few are still extant. At a later period, 
probably in the reign of Hadrian , the hall was connected with the ro- 
tunda of the Pantheon by six parallel walls, enclosing five vaulted rooms 
in two stories. On the E. side of the Pantheon was a kind of portico, of 
which traces are still visible. 

From the Piazza of the Pantheon the Via de' Pastini leads towards 
the E. to the Piazza di Pietra (p. 147); or we may turn to the left 
(N.J, cross the Piazza Capranica, with the small theatre of that 
name, and reach Monte Citorio (p. 147); or, lastly, we may follow 
the Via del Seminario, also towards the E., to S. Ignazio (p. 148). 

Leaving the Pantheon, we proceed towards the S.E., through 
the Via della Minerva, to the Piazza della Minerva (PI. II, 16), 
where the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva lies on the left, and 
the Hotel de la Minerve opposite to us. In the centre of the piazza is 
a marble elephant, on the back of which a small Obelisk was placed 
by Bernini in 1667, being one of those which are said once to have 
risen here in front of a temple of Isis. The other obelisk is in the 
Piazza della Rotonda (p. 194). 

*S. Maria sopra Minerva, erected on the ruins of a temple of 
Minerva founded by Domitian, the only Gothic church at Rome, 
was probably begun about 1285 by the builders of S. Maria No- 
vella at Florence (p. xlviii). It was restored and re-decorated with 
painting in 1848-55, and contains several valuable works of art. 

Interior. By the entrance- wall, on the right, the tomb of the Florentine 
knight Diotisalvi (d. 1482). — Left Aisle. On the left, the tomb of the Floren- 
tine Franc. Tornabuoni, by Mino da Fiesole ; above it the monument of Card. 
Giac. Tebaldi (d. 1466). To the right of the altar in the 3rd Chapel , "St. 
Sebastian, by Mino da Fiesole 0). Over the altar: head of Christ, by Pe- 
rugino. In the 5th Chapel is (r.) the monument of the Princess Lante, by 
Tenerani. — Right Aisle. By the pillar between the 3rd and 4th chapels is an 
egress (generally closed) with an ancient Greek sarcophagus (Hercules taming 
the lion). In the 4th Chapel, the 'Annunciation, a picture on a golden ground 
(in the foreground Card. Giov. a Torrecremata recommending three poor girls 
to the Virgin), painted to commemorate the foundation of the charitable in- 
stitution of S. Annunziata, erroneously attributed to Fiesole ; on the left the 
tomb of Urban VII. (d. 1590), by Ambrogio Buonvicino. The 5th Chapel (Al- 
dobrandini) contains paintings by Alberti; over the altar the Last Supper by 
Baroccio ; monuments of the parents of Clement VIII. by Giac. della Porta. 
— Right Transept. A small chapel on the right is first observed, containing 
a wooden crucifix attributed to Giotlo; then the "Caraffa Chapel (recently 
restored), with a handsome balustrade , painted by Filippino Lippi ; on the 
right Thomas Aquinas, surrounded by allegorical figures, defending the 
Catholic religion against heretics ; on the wall at the back, the Assumption 
of the Virgin; altar-fresco, the Annunciation, with a portrait of the donor 

S. Maria sopra Minerva. ROME. III. Left Bank. 197 

Card. Caraffa; sibyls on the vaulting by Rafaellino del Garbo; on the left the 
monument of Paul IV. (d. 1559) , designed by Pirro Ligorio , executed by 
Giac. and Tom. Casignola. By the wall, adjacent to the latter, the *Tomb of 
Bishop Guiliel. Durantus (d. 1296), with a Madonna in mosaic by Johannes 
Cosmas, one of the best works of that period. The first chapel by the choir 
contains an altar-piece by C. Maratta. The second is the Cappella del Rosario ; 
altar-piece groundlessly attributed to Fiesole; on the right the tomb of Card. 
Capranica (about 1470). — The Choir contains the large monuments of the 
two Medicis , (1.) Leo X. and (r.) Clement VII. , designed by Ant. da San 
Gallo; that of Leo executed by Raffuele da Monte Lupo, that of Clement by 
Giov. di Baccio Bigio; on the pavement the tombstone of the celebrated scho- 
lar Pietro Bembo (d. 1547). 

In front of the high-altar, to the left, is Michael Angela's '"'Christ with 
the Cross, which was ordered by Metello Vari and P. Castellari in 1514, 
and erected in 1521. Pietro Urbano, an assistant of the great master, was 
entrusted with the touching up of the work after its erection, but as he 
acquitted himself badly of his task, the finishing strokes were given to 
it by Roderigo Frizzi. The nudity of the figure is justified by the 
master's intention to pourtray the Risen Christ, but it is now marred by 
a bronze drapery ; the right foot also is protected against the kisses of 
the devout by a bronze shoe (comp. p. li). — On the left by the choir is a 
passage to the Via S. Ignazio ; on the wall the tombstone (first on the left) 
of Fra Beato Angelico da Fiesole, who died in the neighbouring monastery 
in 1455, with his portrait and the inscription : Hie jacet Venerabilis pictor 
Frater Joannes de Florenlia Ordinis praedicatorum 14 LV. — In the Left 
Transept is the Chapel of S. Domenico, with 8 black columns, and the 
monument of Benedict XIII. (d. 1730) by P. Bracci. Adjacent, to the right, 
is the entrance to the sacristy. 

The adjoining Dominican monastery, formerly the residence of 
the chief of the order, now contains the offices of the Minister of 
Education and the Bibliotheca Casanatensis (entrance to the left by 
the church, first door to the right beyond the court; adm., see 
p. 108). The library is the largest in Rome after that of the Vatican, 
consisting of 200,000 vols, and 1000 MSS., and is connected by a 
bridge over the Via S. Ignazio with the Biblioteca Vitt. Emanuele 
in the Coll. Romano (p. 148). 

From the Piazza della Minerva, past the S. side of the church, 
the Via del Pie di Marmo leads to the Piazza del Coll. Romano (p. 
148). From the Pie di Marmo the Via del Gesit diverges to the right, 
leading in 3 M. to the Piazza del Gesil (p. 159). 

From the Piazza S. Luigi de' Francesi (p. 193) the short street 
to the right on leaving the church leads to the Piazza Madama, 
where to the left rises the facade of the Palazzo Madama (PI. II, 
13), so called from Margaret of Parma, daughter of Charles V. , by 
whom it was once occupied. Previously and subsequently it belonged 
to the Medicis, afterwards grand-dukes of Tuscany, by whose or- 
ders Marocelli altered it to its present form in 1642. The Italian 
Senate now meets in this palace. One entrance is from the Piazza 
S. Luigi, the other from the Piazza Madama. The vestibule, court, 
and staircase contain antique statues, sarcophagi, reliefs, and busts. 
— A short side-street leads hence to the — 

* Piazza Navona (PI. II, 13), the largest in Rome after that of 
St. Peter, officially named CtVco Agonale. As its form still indicates, 

198 III. Left Bank. ROME. 8. Maria dell' Anima. 

the Circus, or Stadium of Domitian, formerly lay here. The name 
is said to be derived from the agones (corrupted to Navone, Navona), 
or contests which took place in the circus. 

It is embellished with three Fountains. That on the N. side, 
erected in 1878, represents Neptune in conflict with a sea-monster 
(polypus) ; round the central group are Nereids and sea-horses. Not 
far from it, in the centre of a large ancient basin of Pentelic marble, 
rises a fountain erected by Bernini under Innocent X. ; at the corners 
of the lofty mass of rock, the different parts of which represent the 
four quarters of the globe, are placed the gods of the four largest 
rivers, the Danube, Ganges, Nile, and Rio della Plata, executed by 
pupils of Bernini. The whole is surmounted by an obelisk, which was 
originally erected in honour of Domitian in the Circus of Maxentius. 
— The third fountain, at the S. end of the piazza, is adorned with 
masks, Tritons, and the statue of a Moor by Bernini. 

The piazza was used from 1447 to 1870 as a vegetable market; 
but the Campo di Fiori (p. 203) is now used for that purpose. 

On the W. side of the Piazza Navona stands the church of 
S. Agnese ; the interior, in the form of a Greek cross , and the 
campanili, are by C. Rinaldi, and the tasteless facade by Borromini. 
The Romans used to maintain that the Nile on the great fountain 
veiled his head in order to avoid seeing this facade. 

Over the principal door is the monument of Innocent X. by Maini; 
to the left, in the chapel of the transept, is a statue of St. Sebastian, adapted 
from an ancient statue by Maini. Beneath the dome are 8 columns of 'cog- 
natello'. The old church was in the side-vaults of the Circus where the 
saint suffered martyrdom. Two chapels with ancient vaulting still remain. 

To the left of the church is the Palazzo Pamphilj, also erected 
by Rinaldi, now the property of Prince Doria. Opposite to it is the 
national church of the Spaniards, 8. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli (PI. II, 
13, 23), erected in 1450. The entrance is in the Via della Sapienza. 

The Via di 8. Agnese, to the right of the church, leads to the 
Via delV Anima on the right, where on the left side is situated *S. 
Maria dell' Anima (PI. II, 13; open till 8i/ 2 a.m., on holidays till 
noon ; when closed, visitors go round the church by the Vicolo della 
Pace on the right, and ring at the door of the Hospice, opposite 
S. Maria della Pace). The name is derived from a small marble- 
group in the tympanum of the portal : a Madonna invoked by two 
souls in purgatory. This is the German national church and was 
erected in 1500-14. Handsome facade by Qiuliano da Sangallo. 
Part of the interior is said to have been designed by Bramante. 

Interior (restoration nearly completed). The central window of the 
entrance- wall formerly contained stained glass by William of Marseilles, now 
modern. The modern frescoes of saints on the ceiling are by L. Seilz (1875- 
82), and the stained-glass window over the chief portal was designed by 
him. — Right Aisle. 1st Chapel: : St. Benno receiving from a fisherman the 
keys of the cathedral at Meissen (Saxony), which had been recovered from 
the stomach of a fish, altar-piece by Carlo Saraceni. 2nd Chape] : Holy Fa- 
mily, altar-piece by Oimignani; left, monument and bust of Card. Slusius. 
4th Chapel : altered copy of Michael Angelo's Pieta in St. Peter's , by Nanni 
di Baccio Bigio. — Left Aisle. 1st Chapel: "Martyrdom of St. Lambert 

8. Marin delta Puce. ROME. HI. Left Bank. 199 

C. Saraceni. 3rd Chapel : frescoes from the life of St. Barbara, Mich. Coxcie. 
4th Chapel : altar-piece (Entombment) and frescoes by Salviati. 

Choir. Over the high-altar , "Holy Family with saints , by 6. Romano, 
damaged by inundations; on the right, "Monument of Hadrian IV. of Utrecht 
(preceptor of Charles V., d.1523), with figures of justice, prudence, strength, 
and temperance, designed by Balda&sare Peruzzi , executed by Michelangiolo 
Sanese and Niccolb Tribolo; opposite to it, that of a Duke of Cleve-Jiilich- 
Berg (d. 1575) by Egidius of Riviire and Nicolaus of Arras. A relief in the 
ante-chamber of the sacristy (at the end of the N. aisle) represents the in- 
vestiture of this prince by Gregory XIII. In the church, at the entrance 
to the sacristy, is the tomb of the learned Lucas Holstein of Hamburg, 
librarian of the Vatican (d. 1661). 

The German Hospice connected with the church was under 
Austrian management from 1815 to 1863. Opposite the hospital 
rises the church of • — 

*S. Maria della Pace (PL II, I, 13, 3), erected by Sixtus IV. 
(1484) and Innocent VIII., restored by Alexander VII., and pro- 
vided by Pietro da Cortona with a facade and semicircular portico. 
The church consists of a nave only , and terminates in an octagon 
with a dome. 

Over the 1st Chapel on the right are **RaphaeVs Sibyls : to 
the left the Sibyl of Cumae ; on the arch above, the Persian ; then 
the Phrygian , and the aged Sibyl of Tibur , receiving from angels 
and recording revelations regarding the Saviour. They were painted 
in 1514 by order of Agostino Chigi, who erected the chapel, and 
skilfully freed from 'restorations' by Palmaroli in 1816 (best light, 
10-11 a.m. ; see also p. lvi). 

'With perfect mastery of the art of utilising the space at his com- 
mand, a talent admirably illustrated in the Stanze, Raphael has here filled 
up the segment of the arch so simply and naturally that the spectator is 
apt to overlook the consummate skilfulness of the grouping. Equally 
characteristic of Raphael are the rhythm of the composition, the display 
of spirited contrasts , and the delicate gradations and judicious denoue- 
ment of passionate emotions ; while the gracefulness of the female forms 
and the sprightly beauty of the angel-boys are specially Raphaelesque. 
Michael Angelo's Sibyls are justly extolled as creations of a sublime 
imagination, striking the spectator with their supernatural majesty; but 
these female figures of Raphael are pre-eminently human and lovable 1 . 

In the lunette above the Sibyls are the Prophets by Timoteo Viti 
(p. 88): on the right Jonah and Joshua, on the left Daniel and David. 

At the sides of the 1st Chapel on the left are *Monuments of 
the Ponzetti family, of 1505 and 1509 (which should be compared 
with the heavy decorations of the 2nd chapel on the right, executed 
half-a-century later). *Altar-piece in fresco by Bald. Peruzzi: 
Madonna between St. Brigitta and St. Catherine, in front the donor 
Card. Ponzetti kneeling (1516). The vaulting above contains scenes 
from the Old and New Testament , in three rows , also by Peruzzi. 
— To the left, under the DoMe, is the entrance to the sacristy and 
court (see below). Over the first altar on the left, Adoration of the 
Shepherds, by Sermoneta; above it, the Death of Mary , by Mo- 
randa. The second altar , with handsome marble-work , partly 
gilded, is of 1490. The high-altar is adorned with an ancient and 
highly revered Madonna ; on the vaulting are pleasing 'putti' by 

200 III. Left Bank. ROME. S. Andrea della Valle. 

Albani. Over the adjacent altar to the right, Baptism of Christ, by 
Sermoneta. Over the niche , Mary's first visit to the Temple , by 
Bald. Peruzzi (retouched). — Newly-married couples usually at- 
tend their first mass in this church. 

The *Monastery Court, constructed by Bramante (p. li) by 
order of Card. Caraffa in 1504, is interesting. On the ground-floor 
are arcades , above which runs a series of columns. By the right 
wall, the tomb of Bishop Bocciacio (d. 1437). Entrance through the 
church, or by Via Arco della Pace 5. 

From the portal of the church the Via della Pace and the Via in 
Parione lead straight to the busy Via del Ooverno Vecchio (p. 201). 

From the Piazza del Gesu (p. 159) the Via de' Cesarini (PI. II, 
16) leads straight towards the W. to the (right) Piazza delle Stimate, 
with the church of that name , and the Pal. Strozzi with a small 
piazza called after it. (The streets to the right lead hence to the 
Piazza della Minerva and the Pantheon, pp. 196, 194.) We next 
pass (left) the Teatro Argentina and follow the Via del Sudario 
(PI. II, 13), the continuation of the Via de' Cesarini, in the direction 
of the church of S. Andrea della Valle, which is already visible. 

The corner- house to the left (No. 13), before the church is 
reached , is the Palazzo Vidoni , formerly Caffarelli and Stoppani, 
originally designed by Raphael. On the staircase are a few antiques 
(L. Verus , Minerva, Diana). In one of the rooms is the famous 
Calendarium Praenestinum of Verrius Flaccus, being five months of 
a Roman calendar found by Card. Stoppani at Palestrina. This palace 
was once occupied by Charles V. (admission not easily obtained). — 
On the side of the palace next the church stood the so-called Ablate 
Luigi, a mutilated ancient statue (see p. 158), which was removed 
on the recent widening of the street. 

*S. Andrea della Valle (PI. II, 13), begun by P. Olivieri in 
1591 on the site of several earlier churches, was completed by 
C. Maderna. Facade designed by A. Rinaldi. The interior is well 
proportioned, but part of it has been whitewashed. See p. lviii. 

On the right the *2nd Chapel (Strozzi) contains copies in bronze of the 
Pieta (in St. Peter's) and the Rachel and Leah (in S. Pietro in 'Vine.) of 
Michael Angela, by whom this chapel itself was perhaps designed. — On 
the left the 1st Chapel (Bakbekini) is adorned with several marble statues 
of the school of Bernini: St. Martha by Mocchi , John the Baptist by 
Pietro Bernini, Mary Magdalene by Stati da Bracciano, and St. John by 
Buonvicino. — At the end of the Nave are the monuments of the two 
popes of the Piccolomini family, brought here from the old church of 
St. Peter; on the left that of Pius II. (d. 1464), by Nic. della Quardia and 
Pietro Paolo da Todi; on the right that of Pius III. (d. 1503), executed 
somewhat later. — In the Dome: Glory of Paradise, by Lanfranco; be- 
low, the :;: Evangelists by Domenichino, one of his finest works. By the same 
master, "Paintings on the vaulting of the apse. In front, between the trans- 
verse ribs: John the Baptist, St. John, and St. Andrew pointing to Christ 
('this is the Lamb', etc.); in the vaulting itself, on the left, the Scourging of 
St. Andrew ; then the Vocation of Peter and Andrew by Christ ; on the right, 
St. Andrew beholds and reveres the cross to which he is about to be affixed; 

Palazzo Braschi. ROME. J 1 1. Left Bank. 201 

below are six female figures representing the virtues (p. lix). The large 
lower frescoes by Calabrese (martyrdom of the saint) are of no great value. 
To the N.W. of S. Andrea, Via de' Massimi 17 (r.), is the — 
Palazzo Massimi alle Colonne (PI. II, 13, 11), a line structure 
by Baldassare Ptruzzi , who however died in 1536 before its com- 
pletion. The facade follows the curved direction of the street. The 
glimpse obtained of the double court is strikingly picturesque. On 
the second floor is the Chapel of S. Filippo Neri (open on 16th 
March), who is said to have here resuscitated a child of the family. 
In 1467, within the buildings connected with this palace, the Germans 
Pannartz and Schweinheim, who during the two previous years had found an 
asylum in the monastery of Subiaco, established the first printing-office in 
Rome, from which they issued Cicero's epistles and other works, furnished 
with the name of the printers and the words '■In aedibus Petri de Maxi- 
mis\ — The Massimi family claims descent from the ancient Fabii Maximi, 
and their armorial bearings have the motto i Cunctando restitutf. 

Following the Via dei Massimi (whence the Via de Baullari leads 
to the left to the Pal. Farnese, which is visible from this point, p. 203), 
and crossing the small Piazza S. Pantaleo, with the small church of 
that name on the right, we observe opposite to us the spacious — 

Palazzo Braschi (PI. II, 13, 17), erected by Morelli at the end 
of last century, and now occupied by of the Minister of the Interior. 
It contains a tine marble *Staircase and a few ancient statues. The 
back of the building looks towards the Piazza Navona (p. 197). 

Passing the palace, we reach the Piazza del Pasquino (PI. II, 
13), which derives its name from an ancient group of statuary placed 
at the obtuse angle of the Pal. Braschi. This was an admirable, 
but now sadly mutilated work of a good period of art, and is said 
to have been called Pasquino as early as the end of the 15th cent, 
after a tailor of that name who lived in the vicinity and was 
notorious for his lampooning propensities. It was once the custom 
to affix satires and ebullitions of malice to this statue, the answers 
to which used to be attached to the Marforio (p. 158, 217), and to 
refer them to the slanderous tailor, whose name is perpetuated in 
the word 'pasquinade'. Compositions of this kind have been much 
in vogue at Rome ever since that period, sometimes vying with the 
best satires of antiquity. The group represents Menelaus with the 
body of Patroclus, looking around for succour in the tumult of battle. 
Duplicates of the group are in the Loggia de' Lanzi and the Palazzo 
Pitti at Florence, and there are fragments in the Vatican (p. 311). 

We follow the Via del Governo Vecchio, which with its pro- 
longations to the N.W. and S.E. forms the direct route between the 
Piazza di Venezia and the Ponte S. Angelo (comp. p. 160). On the 
Tight is the Pal. del Governo Vecchio (PI. II, 13, 20), which for a 
time was occupied by the law and police courts. No. 124, opposite, 
is an elegant little house in Bramante's style (1500). — We turn to 
the left, and soon reach, in the Piazza of that name, the — 

Chiesa Nuova (PI. II, 10), or S. Maria in Vallicella, erected by 
S. Filippo Neri (about 1550-1605) for the order of Oratorians found- 

202 III. Left Bank. ROME. Chiesa Nuova. 

ed by him. Architecture by Oiov. Matteo da Citth di Castello, in- 
terior by Mart. Lunghi Sent., facade by Bughesi. 

The Interior , which is dark and unfavourable for pictures , is richly 
decorated. The admirable stucco-work is by Cos. Faniello, and Ercole 
Ferrata. The ceiling of the Nave, the dome, and the tribune are painted 
by Pietro da Cortona. — On the right, 1st Chapel, Crucifixion, Scip. di 
Oaetano; 3rd Chapel, dell' Ascensione, altar-piece by Muziano. — On the left, 
2nd Chapel, Adoration of the Magi, Ces. Nebbia; 3rd Chapel, Nativity, 
Durante Alberti ; 4th Chapel, Visit of Elizabeth, Baroccio. — Left Transept: 
Presentation in the Temple, Baroccio; Peter and Paul, statues in marble, 
by Valsoldo. Here also, adjoining the tribune, is the small and sumptuous 
Chapel of S. Filippo Nebi, beneath the altar of which his remains repose. 
Above is the portrait of the saint in mosaic , after the original of Quido 
Reni preserved in the adjoining monastery. — Over the High Altar, with 
its four columns of porta santa, a Madonna by Rubens ; on the right "SS. Gre- 
gory, Maurus , and Papia, on the left "SS. Nereus and Achilleus, also by 
Rubens, who painted these pictures during his second stay in Rome in 1606 
for this church , which was then the most fashionable in the city. — Eight 
Teansept. On the right , Coronation of Mary, Cav. <T Arpino ; SS. John 
the Baptist and John the Evangelist, statues in marble by Flaminio Vacca. 

The Sacristy (entered from the left transept) was constructed by Marru- 
celli. On the vaulting : Angel with instruments of torture, by Pietro da Cor- 
tona. Colossal statue of the saint by Algardi. 

On 26th May, the festival of the saint, and after Ave Maria every 
Sunday from 1st Nov. to Palm Sunday, concerts of sacred music, to which 
men only are admitted, are given in the adjoining Oratorium, which 
derives its name from the oratories fitted up by S. Filippo Neri. The 
saint was fond of music and advocated a cheerful form of divine service. 

The adjoining Monastery, erected by Borromini, is of irregular 
shape, but remarkably massive in its construction. It contains a 
room once occupied by the saint, with various relics. The Corte di 
Appello, the Tribunate Civile e Correzionale, and the Tribunate di 
Commercio are now established here. — The valuable Bibliotheca 
Vallicelliana, founded by S. Filippo Neri, and gradually enriched by 
rare MSS., now belongs to government (adm., see p. 108). 

From the Piazza della Chiesa Nuova we may return to the Via del 
Governo Vecchio and proceed to the Ponte S. Angelo (p. 278); or, 
turning to the left opposite the facade of the church, we may follow 
the Via del Pellegrino, at the E. end of which , on the left, is the 
Cancelleria (see below). 

The Vrx de' Batjllari, mentioned at p. 201, leads to several 
interesting palaces in the best style of the Renaissance. On the 
right, a little back from the street, is the elegant little *Palazzo 
Linotta or Palazzetto Farnese, of which Bald. Peruzzi is said to have 
been the architect. Tasteful court and staircase. 

The short streets diverging to the right lead to the Piazza and 
*Palazzo della Cancelleria (PI. II, 13), an edifice of majestic sim- 
plicity. The palace, designed by Bramante in strict conformity with 
the ancient orders of architecture, is one of tl e finest in Home (p. li). 
It contains within its precincts the church of S. Lorenzo, originally 
erected near the theatre of Pompey. The elegant Facade (with portal 
added by Dom. Fontana) is constructed of blocks of travertine from 

Palazzo Farnese. ROME. III. Left Bank. 203 

the Colosseum. The *Coubt, in two stories, is surrounded by ar- 
cades. The columns are ancient ; the graceful capitals are decorated 
with roses, a flower which belonged to the armorial bearings of the 
founder Card. Riario. In this palace, in 1848, Pius IX. convoked 
a parliament to deliberate on reforms in the States of the Church. 
On 15th Nov. of that year the minister Count Rossi was assassinated 
on the first landing of the staircase. This is the only palace in the 
interior of the city which the Italian government still permits to be 
occupied by the ecclesiastical authorities. 

To the right of the palace is the church of S. Lorenzo in Da- 
maso (with an entrance to the right from the court) , which has the 
above-mentioned facade in common with the palace. It was also de- 
signed by Bramante (originally erected by Damasus I.J, and is bound- 
ed by arcades on three sides. The architecture is interesting, but 
the pictures were destroyed during the revolution of last century. 
At the end of the right aisle is the tomb of the ill-fated Count Rossi 
(see above), with a bust by Tenerani. 

The Piazza della Cancelleria is adjoined by the Piazza Campo di 
Fiori (PL II, 13), an important centre of business, especially since 
the vegetable-market, with the picturesque country-people who fre- 
quent it in the morning, was transferred hither from the Piazza 
Navona. — Theatre ofPompey and Via de' Giubbonari, pp. 205, 206. 

Adjoining the Campo di Fiori to the S.W. is the Piazza Far- 
nese, adorned with two fountains. Here is situated the — 

'Palazzo Farnese (PI. II, 14), one of the finest palaces at Rome, 
begun by Card. Alex. Farnese, afterwards Pope Paul III. (1534-45), 
from designs by Ant. da Sangallo Junr. (p. lvii), continued after his 
death (1546) under the direction of Michael Angelo (who designed the 
beautiful cornicing and the court), and completed by the construc- 
tion of the loggia at the back, towards the Tiber, by Giac. della Porta 
in 1580. The building materials were taken partly from the Colos- 
seum, and partly from the Theatre ofMarcellus. This palace was 
inherited by the kings of Naples, and from 1862 to 1870 was occu- 
pied by Francis II. It was purchased in 1874 by the French govern- 
ment, whose embassy to the papal court is now established here ; on 
the second floor is the 'Ecole de Rome', or French archaeological in- 
stitution, founded in 1875. The triple *Colonnade of the entrance 
and the two halls of the court were designed by Sangallo , in imi- 
tation of the Theatre of Marcellus. The court contains two ancient 
sarcophagi (that to the right from the tomb of Caecilia Metella, 
p. 350). The celebrated antiquities once in this palace (Farnese Bull, 
Hercules, Flora) are now in the Museum of Naples. 

A room on the 1st floor (admission rarely granted) contains 'Frescoes 
by Annibale Carracci, his finest work, consisting of mythological scenes 
with rich architectural painting , executed in eight years by him , his bro- 
ther Lodovico, Domenichino, and other masters. — The old banquet-hall 
has a "Ceiling in carved wood, designed by Michael Angelo. 

From the Piazza Farnese a line of streets , called the Via di 

204 111. Left Bank. HOME. Pal. Spada alia Regola. 

Monserrato and Via de' Banchi Vecchi, leads to the N.W. to the 
Ponte S. Angelo (p. 278). On the left is <S. Maria di Monserrato 
(PI. II, 10, 3), the national Spanish church, with a hospice. It was 
erected in 1495 by Ant. da Sangallo Senr., and afterwards restored. 
The altar-piece of the first chapel on the right is by Ann. Carracci. 

To the S.E. of the Piazza Farnese the Vicolo de' Venti leads to 
the Piazza di Capo di Ferro. Here, on the right, rises the — 

*Palazzo Spada alia Regola (PI. II, 14), erected in the ponti- 
ficate of Paul III. about 1540 by Card. Capodiferro, in imitation of a 
house built by Raphael for himself. Since 1640 the palace has 
belonged to the Spada family. It contains an interesting collection 
of antiquities and pictures (adm., see p. 115). 

The most important "'Antiquities are exhibited in a room on the 
Ground Floor (visitors turn to the left in the gateway ; fee l Ji fr- J- Op- 
posite the entrance-wall: sitting "Statue of Aristotle, formerly erroneously 
called Aristides, a copy of a celebrated Greek work; right arm and left leg 
new. Then eight fine "Reliefs, found in 1620 in S. Agnese Fuori le Mura, 
where they formed part of the pavement with their faces downwards. 
Beyond the Aristotle, to the left, 65. Daedalus and Pasiphae; right, 72. 
Paris as a cowherd. Window-wall: 66. Wounded Adonis; 67. Ulysses and 
Diomedes carrying off the Palladium. Entrance wall : Endymion ; Perseus 
and Andromeda , casts from the originals in the Capitoline museum. Left 
wall : 68. Paris taking leave of CEnone ; 69. Hypsipyle finds Opheltes , who 
had been entrusted to her, killed by a snake; 70. Amphion and Zethus ; 
71. Bellerophon watering Pegasus. Also several busts, small statues, etc. 

From the court we ascend by a staircase to the right to the Upper 
Floor 0/2 fr.). In the Ante- Chamber is a Colossal Statue of Pompey, 
found in the pontificate of Julius III. (1550) in digging the foundations of 
a house in the Vicolo de' Leutari. The body was in the ground of one pro- 
prietor, and the legs in that of another. As both parties claimed the statue, 
the judge ordex-ed it to be divided; but the pope prevented this by pur- 
chasing it for 500 scudi, and presented it tu Card. Capodiferro. The head, 
though of a separate block, belongs to the original. Workmanship mediocre. 

We now traverse a room adorned with unimportant frescoes to the 
Picture Gallery (provided with catalogues). I. Room, beginning opposite 
the entrance: 3. Bolognese Sch., Madonna; 7,12. French Sch., Portraits; 10. 
Camuccini, Card. Patrizi; 22. Caravaggio, Portrait; 40. Sc. Gaetano, Julius 
III.; 56. Sch. of Francia, Madonna. — II. Room. 1. Seb. del Piombo, Astro- 
nomer; 6. Baudin, Still life; 9. Brueghel, Landscape; 10. Guido Reni, Judith; 
12. G. Poussin, Landscape; 16. And. del Sarlo, Visitation of Elizabeth 
(seriously damaged); 43. Leonardo da Vinci (a copy of the original in 
England), Christ and the scribes. — III. Room : 2. Caravaggio, St. Anna and 
the Virgin ; 4. Raphael, John the Baptist, a copy ; 15. Brueghel, Landscape ; 
24. Guercino , Dido's death ; 26. Baciccio , Design of the ceiling-painting in 
Gesii; 29. Salvator Rosa, Landscape; 31. Titian, Portrait; "40. Moroni, Por- 
trait; 48, "49. Marco Palmezzano, God the Father, and Bearing the Cross; 51. 
Titian('t), Card. Paolo Spada; 60, 70. Salv. Rosa, Landscapes ; 63. Guido Reni, 
Abduction of Helen ; 67. Borgognone , Cavalry-skirmish. — IV. Room: 4. 
Guido Reni, Card. Bernardo Spada; 9. After Titian, Paul III.; 10. German 
Sch., Portrait (1511); 15. Caravaggio, Laughing angel's head; 18. German 
Sch., Portrait; 26. Ger. Honthorsl, Christ in the garden; 30. Caravaggio, 
St. Cecilia; 31. Maratta, Card. Fabricius Spada; 44. Andr. del Sarto (?), 
Madonna; 54. French Sch., Portrait. 

Pursuing the same direction beyond the Piazza Capo di Ferro, 
we next reach the small Piazza de' Pellegrini. On the left is the 
back of the Pal. Santacroce , now a Monte di Pieth (PI. II, 14), or 
pawn-office, founded in 1539, and established here in 1604. (Some 

8.' Fiorentini. ROME. III. Left Bank. 205 

of the numerous pictures pledged here are of great value.) On the 
right is the church of <S. Trinita de' Pellegrini, erected in 1614; the 
high-altar is adorned with a Trinity, by Ouido Reni. The neigh- 
bouring hospital for convalescents and pilgrims contains 488 beds, 
and can provide dinner for 944 persons at one time. Italian pil- 
grims are entertained here at Easter for three days, and foreigners 
for four. — In the vicinity is the church of <S. Maria in Monticelli 
(PI. II, 14), consecrated by Paschalis II. in 1101, but restored sev- 
eral times , so that the campanile and remains of mosaics in the 
tribune now alone belong to the period of its foundation. 

The Via de' Pettinam (PI. II, 14) leads from the Piazza de' 
Pellegrini to the Ponte Sisto. At the end of the street, on the right, 
is the small church of S. Salvatore in Onda, re-erected in 1684. On 
the left formerly stood the Fontanone di Ponte Sisto, constructed by 
Giov. Fontana under Paul V. ; it has been removed to make way for 
improvements , but will probably be re-erected in the vicinity. — 
The Ponte Sisto, see p. 329. 

From this point towards the N.W., and near the river, runs the 
Via del Fontanone, prolonged by the Via Giulia (PI. II, 14, 10), 
which was built by Julius II., leading in 12 min. to the Ponte S. 
Angelo. To the left in the Via del Fontanone, opposite the garden 
of the Pal. Farnese , is the small church of <S. Maria della Morte, 
or dell' Orazione (PI. II, 11), erected by Fuga about the middle of 
last century, and belonging to a burial-society. Then, on the left, 
the Pal. Falconieri, built by Borromini, which once contained the 
picture-gallery of Card.Fesch. On the same side, in the Via Giulia, 
the Carceri Nuovi, a prison founded by Innocent X. ; then No. 66, 
the Pal. Sacchetti (PI. II, 10), originally erected by Antonio da 
Sangallo Junr. as his private residence. 

At the end of the street, on the left, is S. Giovanni de' Fioren- 
tini (PI. II, 10), the handsome national church of the Florentines. 
The building was begun, by desire of LeoX., from a design by Jac. 
Sansovino (which was preferred to competing plans of Raphael, 
Sangallo Junr. , and Peruzzi) ; and the difficult task of completing 
the substructions on the river was executed by Sangallo. Michael 
Angelo, and on his death, Oiac. della Porta were afterwards engaged 
in the work, and the facade was added by Aless. Oalilei in 1725. 
The only object of interest in the church is a picture by Salv. Rosa 
in the chapel of the right transept (SS. Cosmas and Damianus at 
the stake). 

Near the church a Chain-Bridge (1 soldo), constructed in 1863, 
crosses the river to the Longara (p. 325). The Via Paola leads from 
the church to the Ponte S. Angelo (p. 278). 

In the Piazza Campo di Fiori (p. 203) , on the side next S. 
Andrea della Valle, once lay the Theatre of Pompey (PI. II, 13, 14). 
In this piazza is the Pal. Righetti (entrance, Via del Biscione 95), 

206 ///. Left Bank. ROME. 8. Carlo d Catinari. 

in the court of which the bronze statue of Hercules (p. 309) and 
substructions of the theatre were discovered in 1864. Numerous 
fragments of the ancient walls are incorporated in the modern build- 
ing. The semicircular bend of the street by S. Maria di Orottapinta 
(PI. II, 13, 5) distinctly shows the form of the ancient theatre. 

From the Campo di Fiori the busy Via de' Gtiubbonari leads 
S.E. to the Capitol and the S. quarters of the city. After 2 min. it 
expands into the Piazza S. Carlo a' Catinari. Here, on the left, is 
S. Carlo a' Catinari (PL II, 14), built by Rosati in 1612 in honour 
of S. Carlo Borromeo, in the form of a Greek cross, with a dome. 

1st Chapel on the right : Annunciation , by Lanfranco. In the spaces 
below the dome are the four cardinal virtues , by Domenichino. In the 
transept to the right, Death of St. Anna, Andrea Sacchi. Over the high- 
altar, Card. Borromeo in the procession of the plague at Milan , P. da 
Cortona ; tribune decorated by Lanfranco. The other paintings are inferior. 

The Pal. Santacroce (PL II, 14, 4), situated opposite, has its 
principal facade towards the Piazza Branca. 

Farther on, the street divides : to the right, the Via del Pianto, 
see p. 207; to the left, the Via de' Falbgnami leads to the small 
Piazza Tartartjga (PL II, 17), named after the graceful *Font<ma 
delle Tartarughe (tortoises), erected by Giae. della Porta in 1585, 
and embellished with bronze figures of four youths, by the Floren- 
tine Taddeo Landini. This is the most charming fountain in Rome ; 
the design was formerly attributed to Raphael. 

No. 10, Piazza Tartaruga, to the right (another entrance, Piazza 
Costaguti 16), is the Palazzo Costaguti (PI. II, 17, 20), erected 
about 1590 by Carlo Lombardi. On the first floor (closed to the 
public) are ceiling-paintings by Franc. Albani, Domenichino, Ouer- 
cino (Armida with Rinaldo in the dragon- chariot, admirably colour- 
ed), by the Cav. d'Arpino, and other masters. One wing of the pa- 
lace (formerly Boccapadulf) was long the residence of the Poussins, 
and still contains works by them (no admittance). 

To the left is the Palazzo Mattei (PL II, 17, 27), originally an 
aggregate of separate buildings which occupied the block between 
S. Caterina de' Funari and Via Paganica. Of these the handsomest 
is the present so-called palace (principal entrance, Via di S. Cate- 
rina de' Funari 32; side-entrance, No. 31), erected in 1616 by Carlo 
Maderna, and one of his finest productions. 

In the passages of the entrance , in the arcades , and along the 
sides of the Court, a great number of ancient reliefs are built into the 
walls. In the court are (r.) Mars with Rhea Silvia, and Apollo with tbe 
Muses; and (1.) the Calydonian hunt and Rape of Proserpine. In the 
portico, Sacrifice of Mithras, Apollo with the Muses, and a Bacchanalian 
procession, all from sarcophagi. The statues in the court and niches on 
the staircase, some of them much modernised, are of no great value. The 
stucco decorations of the ceiling on the staircases are well executed. 

Farther on, in the Via de' Falegnami, we observe on the left, 
within the ancient Circus Flaminius , the church of S, Caterina de' 
Funari (PL II, 17), erected in 1564 by Oiac. della Porta, with a 
singular-looking tower. It contains a few unimportant pictures by 

S. Maria in Campitelli. ROME. ///. Left Bank. 207 

A. Carracci (1st ohapel on the right), Nanni, Venusti, Muziano, and 
Agresti. The name of the church is derived from the rope-makers 
who in the middle ages plied their vocation within the circus. The 
adjoining Augustinian nunnery contains a girls' school. 

The street ends in the Via Delfini, which to the left leads to the 
Via di Aracoeli(p. 159), and to the right to the Piazza Campitelli, 
beyond the next corner. Here, on the right, is S. Maria in Campi- 
telli (PL II, 17), erected by Rinaldi under Alexander VII. for the 
reception of a miraculous image of the Virgin, to which the cessation 
of the plague in 1656 was ascribed. A smaller church of the same 
name, mentioned in the 13th cent., formerly stood on this site. 

The Intekiob , with its handsome projecting columns, is effective. — 
Beneath the canopy over the High-Altak is placed the miraculous Ma- 
donna. In the 2nd Chapel on the right, the Gift of Tongues, by Luca Gior- 
dano; in the 1st Chapel on the left, two monuments resting on lions of 
rosso antico. In the S. transept is the tomb of Card. Pacca by Pettrich. 

Opposite the church is the Pal. Pacca. — Omnibuses to S.Paolo 
Fuori, see Appendix. — From the S.E. end of the Piazza Campi- 
telli the Via di Tor de' Specchi leads to the left to the Piazza Ara- 
cceli (p. 210), at the foot of the Capitol, and the Via Montanara to 
the right to the Theatre of Marcellus (see p. 208). 

From the Piazza S. Carlo a' Catinari (p. 206) the Via del Pianto 
(PI. II, 14, 17) leads to the right to the Piazza Giudea, or S. Maria 
del Pianto, called after a small church (which once bore a Hebrew 
inscription on the portal lamenting the obduracy of the Jews). Ad- 
joining this piazza on the right is the Piazza Cbnci (PI. II, 17), 
with the Synagogue and (right) the Palazzo Cenci-Bolognetti. In 
this palace once resided the ill-fated Beatrice Cenci, who was exe- 
cuted in 1599 for the murder of her father, a man of execrable 
character. Her portrait in the Pal. Barberini (p. 167) is frequently 
copied by the Roman artists. 

The Via del Portico di Ottavia , formerly the Pescheria , or fish- 
market (which was held here until recently), leads from the Piazza 
Giudea to the Portico of Octavia. Between this street and the Tiber 
lies the Ghetto (PI. II, 17), the quarter allotted by Paul IV. to the 
Jews , who in ancient and mediaeval times occupied a quarter in 
Trastevere, formerly closed by a gate. It consists of several streets 
parallel with the river, connected by narrow lanes. The same pope 
compelled the Jews to wear yellow headgear ; and among other op- 
pressive exactions, they had to provide the prizes for the horse-races 
at the Carnival. The traveller may explore the- Via Rua or other 
lanes of this quarter for the sake of observing the oriental type of 
its occupants. The Via della Fiumara, the nearest to the river, leads 
to the Ponte de' Quattro Capi (see p. 333). 

The Via del Portico di Ottavia leads straight to the interesting 
remains of the Portico of Octavia (PI. II, 17, 18~), which was erect- 
ed by Augustus on the site of a similar structure of Metellus (B. C, 

208 7/7. Left Bank. ROME. Theatre of Marcellus. 

149), and dedicated to his sister. Under Titus it was destroyed by 
a fire which raged in this quarter of the city, but was restored by 
Sept. Severus arid Caracalla in 203, as the inscription records. The 
colonnade enclosed an oblong space, within which stood temples of 
Jupiter Stator and Juno. Columns from this structure are frequently 
seen built into other edifices. It was adorned with many admirable 
works of art which formed part of the Macedonian booty, and it 
was here that the Medici Venus was found. In 770 the church of 
iS. Angelo in Pescheria was built on the ruins of the colonnade by 
Stephen III., but, having been frequently restored, it has lost its 
mediaeval character. A papal bull, issued in 1584, formerly com- 
pelled the Jews to hear sermons here on their Sabbath, when the 
Old Testament was expounded to them in accordance with the 
doctrines of the church. 

From the colonnade the Via del Teatro di Marcello leads to the 
Theatre of Marcellus (PI. II, 17, 5), which was begun by Caesar, 
and completed in B.C. 13 by Augustus, who named it after his 
nephew, the son of Octavia. Twelve arches of the outer wall are 
now occupied by smiths and other artizans as workshops. The lower 
story, partly filled up, is in the Doric, the second in the Ionic style, 
above which , as in the Colosseum , a third probably rose in the 
Corinthian order. It is said to have accommodated 20,000 spectators. 
The stage lay towards the Tiber. It has recently been proposed to 
purge the ruin of all unseemly adjuncts, and to form an open space 
around it. In the 11th cent, the theatre was used by Pierleone as a 
fortress. To his descendants succeeded the Savelli, whose palace 
(opposite the Ponte Quattro Capi) stands on a lofty mound of debris 
within the theatre. In 1712 the palace was purchased by the Orsini, 
and in 1816-23 was occupied by the historian Niebuhr, when Prus- 
sian ambassador. 

The external wall adjoins the small and busy Piazza Montanaba, 
a frequent resort of the peasantry (tramway to S. Paolo Fuori , see 
Appendix). To the left a street leads to the Piazza Aracceli (p. 210), 
and another to the right to the Ponte Quattro Capi (p. 333). In the 
middle is the busy Via Bocoa della Verita, leading to the piazza 
of that name (p. 250). To the right in the latter street, standing 
back , is the church of S. Nicola in Garcere (PI. II, 17), recently 
restored, containing, on the outer walls and in the interior, ancient 
columns which appear to have belonged to three different temples, 
including those of Spes and Juno Sospita. Visitors may descend 
and examine the foundations of these temples, which have been ex- 
cavated (sacristan with light ^2 f r -l- 

IV. Ancient Rome. 

This part of our description of Rome embraces the southern portion 
of the city, beginning with the Capitol, and extending eastwards as far as 
the Lateran: i. e. the hills of the Capitoline, Palatine, Aventine, Cselius 

Ceograpl) Anstalt von. 

The Capitol. ROME. IV. Ancient Home. 209 

and the S. slope of the Esquiline. The imposing monuments and reminis- 
cences of classical antiquity , more of which are daily being brought to 
light by the excavations, impart its characteristic aspect to this, the prin- 
cipal, but now almost deserted quarter of the Republican and Imperial 
city. A number of ancient churches, which are extremely interesting to 
students of Christian architecture , as well as the imposing collections of 
the Capitol and Lateran, also attract numerous visitors. 

The Capitol. 

This is the smallest , hut historically the most important of the 
hills of Rome. It was originally merely the S. spur of the Quirinal, 
from which it was separated by a slight depression, but this hollow 
was greatly enlarged in consequence of the building operations of 
Trajan. The Capitol consists of three distinct parts: (1) the N. 
summit with the church and monastery of Aracoeli (164 ft.); (2) the 
depression in the middle with the piazza of the Capitol (98 ft.); 
and (3) the S.W. point with the Pal. Caffarelli (156 ft.). It was on 
this piazza, the Area Capitolina, that Romulus is said to have found- 
ed his asylum; it was here that popular assemblies were after- 
wards held ; and it was here, in the year B. C. 133, on the occasion 
of the suppression of the revolt of Tibet ius Gracchus, that the blood 
of the citizens flowed for the first time in civil warfare. One of the 
peaks of the hill was occupied by the Arx , or citadel, with the 
temple of Juno Moneta , while the other was the site of the great 
Temple of Jupiter. Topographers differed long as to which height 
was occupied by the citadel, German scholars placing it on the Ara- 
coali height, and the temple of Jupiter on the Caffarelli height, while 
the Italian authorities were inclined to invert this order. The Italian 
topographers, however, have recently been more disposed to take 
the view of the German savants, chiefly owing to the discoveries 
made in the course of the excavations in connection with the dome- 
saloon of the New Capitoline Museum (see p. 214). The temple 
was built by Tarquinius Superbus , the last of the kings, and con- 
secrated in B.C. 509, the first year of the Republic. It was 800 ft. 
in circumference, and possessed a triple colonnade and three cellae, 
that of Jupiter being in the middle, and one for Juno and Minerva 
on each side. In the year B.C. 83, during the civil war, the temple 
was burned down, and the same fate overtook it in A.D. 69, on the 
occasion of the struggle between Vespasian and Vitellius. This 
most sacred shrine of ancient Rome was magnificently restored by 
Domitian , and was preserved down to the year 455 , when it was 
plundered by the Vandals and robbed of its gilded bronze tiles. 
After that period there is no trace of it in history. The numerous 
shrines which once surrounded it have been consigned to the same 
fate, and the whole of the hill now bears the stamp of modern times. 

For nearly 500 years after the time of Cassiodorus , the Goth 
(6th cent.), there is no mention of the Capitol in the annals of 
Rome. The hill was in the possession of the monastery of Aracoeli, 
and the name of Monte Caprino, or hill of goats, which was applied 

Baedf.kkk. Italy II. Stli Edition. |4 

210 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Capitol. 

to the S.E. height, bears testimony to its desertion. The glorious 
traditions, however, which attached to this spot, gave rise to a 
renewal of its importance on the revival of a spirit of municipal in- 
dependence at Rome. In the 11th century it again became the centre 
of the civic administration. The prefect of the city resided here; 
among the ruins of the venerable citadel the nobility and the citi- 
zens held their public assemblies ; and in 1341 Petrarch was crown- 
ed as a poet in the great senate-hall here. The hill could originally 
be approached from the Forum only, the N.W. side being precipi- 
tous and inaccessible, but in 1348 the latter side was connected for 
the first time with the new quarter of the city by the construction 
of the flight of steps of Aracceli, which was almost the only public 
work executed at Rome during the exile of the papal court at Avig- 
non. About 1389 Boniface IX. converted the palace of the senate 
into a kind of fortress, but its present form dates from the 16th cen- 
tury. Two new approaches from the city having been constructed 
in 1536, the Capitol has since formed a kind of termination of the 
modern part of the city in the direction of the ruins of ancient Rome. 

From the Piazza Aracceli (PI. II, 17) three approaches lead to 
the Capitoline Hill, that in the centre being the principal ascent for 
pedestrians. On the left a lofty Flight of Steps (124), constructed 
in 1348, ascends to the principal entrance of the church of S. Maria 
in Aracceli (generally closed , see below). ■ — On the right the Via 
dellb The Pile, recently converted into a handsome drive (on which 
occasion remains of the ancient Servian wall , enclosing the hill in 
the direction of the Campus Martius, were brought to light, and are 
seen behind the railings to the left), leads past the entrance of the 
Pal. Caffarelli, which was erected in the 16th cent, by Ascanio 
Caffarelli, a former page of Charles V., and is now the residence of 
the German ambassador. The principal approach and the Via delle 
Tre Pile lead to the Piazza del Campidoglio, see p. 211. 

*S. Maria in Aracceli (PI. II, 20), a very ancient church, is men- 
tioned in the 9th cent, as &'. Maria de Capitolio. The present name, 
derived from a well-known legend (see below), dates from the 14th 
century. The church, of which the Roman senate formerly enjoyed 
the patronage, has given a title to a cardinal since the time of Leo X. 
The unfinished facade has escaped modernisation owing to the timely 
remonstrances of Overbeck, the celebrated German artist. 

Visitors generally approach the church from the Piazza of the Capitol 
by the staircase to the left, at the hack of the Capitoline Museum, and 
on the first landing turn to the left. Over the door an ancient mosaic, 
the Madonna between two angels. 

The Interior is disfigured by modern additions. The nave is borne by 
22 ancient columns, chiefly of granite, varying greatly in style and dimen- 
sions. The 3rd on the left bears the inscription 'A cubiculo Augustorum\ The 
rich ceiling was executed to commemorate the victory of Lepanlo in 1571. 

By the wall of the principal Entrance , to the left, is the tomb of 
the astronomer Lodovico Grato (1531) , with a figure of Christ by Andrea 
Sansovino ; on the right the "Monument of Card. Lebretto (1465) with partly- 
preserved painting. — Eight Aisle, 1st Chapel : 'Frescoes from the life ot 

The Capitol. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 211 

St. Bernardino of Siena, by Pinluricchio, restored by Camuccini. Frescoes 
on the ceiling attributed to Franc, da Citta di Castello and L. Signorelli. 
The 5th Chapel (of St. Matthew) contains good pictures by Muziano. — Left 
Aisle. In the 2nd Chapel a manger (presepe) is fitted up at Christmas, 
i.e., a gorgeous representation of the Nativity in life-size, with the richly 
decorated image of II Santo Bambino, or Holy Child, which forms the 
principal treasure of the church. This image is believed to protect per- 
sons in imminent danger, is frequently invoked and revered, and is some- 
times conveyed to the houses of the sick, on which occasions passers-by kneel 
on its approach. During the week after Christmas, from 3 to 4 o'clock 
daily, a number of children from 5 to 10 years of age address their pe- 
titions to the bambino. At the end of the left aisle a tomb-relief of Msgr. 
Crivelli by Donatello (much damaged). 

Transept. On the right and left, by the pillars of the nave, are two 
"Ambos from the old choir, by Laureniius and Jacobus Co&mas. The Chapel 
on the right belongs to the Savelli; on the right and left (the latter origi- 
nally an ancient sarcophagus) are monuments of the family, of the 13th 
cent, (of the parents and a brother of Honorius IV.). The left transept 
contains a rectangular canopy, borne by eight columns of alabaster, cal- 
led the Cappella Santa, or di S. Elena. Beneath the altar, which was 
destroyed during the French Revolution , but was restored in 1835 , the 
remains of S. Helena are said to repose in an ancient sarcophagus of 
porphyry. The present altar also encloses an ancient altar, bearing the 
inscription Ara Primogeniti Dei, which is said to have been erected by 
Augustus. According to a legend of the 12th cent., this was the spot 
where the Sibyl of Tibur appeared to the emperor, whom the senate 
proposed to elevate to the rank of a god, and revealed to him a vision 
of the Virgin and her Son. Hence the name, 'Church of the Altar of 
Heaven 1 . At the end of the N. transept is the monument of Matthseus of 
Aquasparta (d. 1302), the general of the Franciscans, mentioned by Dante. 

Choir. To the left, the "Tomb of Giov. Batt. Savelli (d. 1498). From 
1512 to 1565 the high-altar was adorned with the Madonna of Foligno by 
Raphael, ordered for this church, afterwards at Foligno (p. 74), and now in 
the Vatican. The donor, Sigismondo Conti da Foligno, is interred here. The 
present altar-piece is an ancient picture of the Madonna, ascribed to St. Luke. 

The adjacent Monastery (reached by the continuation of the side- 
steps from the piazza of the Capitol) has belonged to the Frati Minori 
Osservanti di S. Francesco since 1251, and was the residence of the 
principal of the order, but part of it is now a barrack. Fine view 
of ancient Rome from the corridor*. — In the garden fragments of 
very old walls, parallel with the Via dell' Arco di Settimio Severo, 
have been discovered. They are constructed of tufa, like the walls 
of Servius, and perhaps belonged to the fortifications of the Arx. 

The Central Approach, ascending in low steps paved with 
asphalte ('la cordonnata'), leads to the Piazza del Campidoglio. At 
the foot of the steps are two handsome Egyptian Lions, and at the 
top a group of the horse-taming Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux), which 
are said once to have adorned the theatre of Pompey. To the left of 
the highest steps a pair of wolves are kept in a cage in reminis- 
cence of the story of the foundation of Rome. 

The design of the present *Piazza del Campidoglio, or Square 
of the Capitol (PI. II, 20), is due to Michael Angelo, and its execu- 
tion was begun in 1536 by Paul III. (comp. p. 226). The palaces 
of the Conservatori and Senators were already in existence , but 
their facades were altered. Michael Angelo caused the open space 
towards the slope of the hill to be widened, so as to impart to the 


212 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Capitol. 

piazza an appearance of greater size. — On the balustrade in front, 
at the sides of the Dioscuri, are the so-called Trophies of Marius, 
from the water-tower of that name of the Aqua Julia (p. 179), 
and the statues of the Emp. Constantine and his son Constans from 
the Thermae of Constantine on the Quirinal. On the right is the first 
ancient milestone of the Via Appia (on the left a modern counterpart). 

In the centre of the piazza rises the admirable *Equestrian Statue 
of Marcus Amelias ("161-181), in bronze, once gilded, and originally 
placed in the forum near the arch of Sept. Severus. In 1187 it was 
erected near the Lateran, and, as the inscription records, transferied 
hither in 1538. It owes its excellent preservation to the popular 
belief that it was a statue of Constantine, the first Christian emperor 
(see pp. 125, xxxviii). The pedestal is said to have been designed 
by Michael Angelo. Owing to its moderate height , the head of the 
statue is distinctly visible , whereas modern figures of the kind are 
often perched so high as to be almost indistinguishable. 

Beyond this monument rises the Palazzo del Senators (PI. II, 
20, 2), which was re-erected by Boniface IX. in 1389 on the site 
of the ancient Tabularium, and provided with its handsome flight 
of steps by Michael Angelo, under whose directions it is probable 
that the facade was constructed by Oiac. delta Porta. The river- 
gods which adorn it are the (right) Tiber and (left) Nile. In the 
centre a fountain, above which is a sitting statue of Rome. The 
palace contains a spacious senate -hall, the offices of the civic 
administration, and an observatory. The Campanile was erected by 
Gregory XIII. in 1572, to replace an older one, probably belonging 
(like the four corner-towers, one of which towards the Forum, on 
the left, is still recognisable) to the edifice of Boniface. The roof of 
the tower, which is adorned with a standing figure of Roma, com- 
mands an extensive *View. The ascent is somewhat fatiguing. 
Admission on week-days 10-3, on Sundays 10-1, by permesso 
obtainable at the municipal offices (Via del Campidoglio, first gate 
on the left, on the 5th landing of the staircase turn to the left in 
the passage, and enter the third door on the right; visitors apply 
to one of the custodians ; the permesso is also available for the 
saloons of the Conservatori). On the ground-floor of the same house 
is the entrance to the Tabularium (p. 223). 

The two palaces at the sides were erected in the 17th cent, by 
Qiacomo del Duca, with some deviations from the plans of Michael 
Angelo. On the right is the Palace of the Conservatori (PI. 2), 
or town-council, with its collections (see below; a fire-engine station 
on the ground-floor), and opposite is the Capitoline Museum (PI. 12 ; 
p. 217). — The flights of steps and colonnades on the E. side of 
these palaces were erected by Vignola; that to the left by the 
museum leads to the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli and the former 
Franciscan monastery (p. 210); that to the right, on the opposite 
side, to Monte Caprino (p. 223). 

The Capitol. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 213 

On the right of the Palace of the Senators runs the Via del 
Campidoglio, and on the left the Via dell' Arco di Settimio Severo, 
both descending to the Forum (comp. Plan, p. 222). To the left of 
the latter street, at the entrance to the Via di Marforio, we observe 
the small church of S. Giuseppe de' Falegnami. Below it (entrance 
in the first-named street, '/? fr-) is the Career Mamertinus, one of 
the most ancient structures in Rome. It was originally built over a 
well, named Tullianum, and thence traditionally attributed to Ser- 
vius Tullius, and it was afterwards used as a prison. 

It consists of two chambers, one below the other, of very ancient 
construction. The upper is an irregular quadrilateral, which was probably 
once adjoined by other similar chambers. An inscription on the front 
records that the building was restored in B.C. 22. The lower chamber, 
which was originally only accessible through a hole in the ceiling, is 
19 ft. long, 10 ft, wide, and 6'/2 ft. high. The vaulting is formed by the 
gradual projection of the side walls until they meet. It contains a spring, 
which, according to the legend, St. Peter, who was imprisoned here under 
Nero, miraculously caused to flow in order to baptise his jailors. The 
building has therefore been named 5. Pietro in Carcere since the 15th 
century. In this dungeon perished Jugurtha after having been deprived 
of food for six days, Vercingetorix, and other conquered enemies. 
Sallust, in recording the execution of Catiline's confederates, describes the 
prison thus: — 'Est in carcere locus, quod Tullianum appellatur, circiter 
duodecim pedes humi depressus. Eum miniunt undique parietes atque 
insuper camera lapideis fornicibus vincta; sed incultu tenebris odore 
fceda atque terribilis ejus facies est.' 

Collections of the Capitol. 

These are contained in the two side-palaces just mentioned, 
and are open daily (except on Easter Sunday, 20th Sept., 1st Nov., 
and 24th Dec), 10-3, adm. ^fr- f° r eaca collection ; gratis on Sun- 
days, 10-1, and also on New Year's Day, Epiphany, during the 
Festa dello Statuto (at the beginning of June), on Ascension Day, 
Corpus Christi, SS. Peter and Paul (29th June) , 15th Aug., 8th 
Sept., and 8th Dec. 

A. *Palace of the Conservatori. 

(Comp. Plan, p. 216). 

This palace contains a number of antiques and particularly of 
bronzes, the yield of the most recent excavations, and also a small 
Etruscan Museum. Here, too, are the 'Protomoteca', or Capitoline 
Picture Gallery, and the 'Saloons of the Conservatori'. 

The principal door leads from the Piazza del Campidoglio into the 
Court, where on the right, by the door, is a statue of Caesar, and on the 
left one of Augustus. By the right wall of the court are the hands 
and limbs of a colossal figure in marble. In the middle is the cinerary 
urn of Agrippina, wife of Germanicus, which in the middle ages was em- 
ployed as a measure for corn; inscription, Ossa Agrippinae M. Agrippae 
f. divi Augusti neplis uxoris Qermanici Caesaris Matris C. Caesaris Aug. Ger- 
manici principis. By the left wall are alto -reliefs of Roman provinces, 
barbaric trophies, and weapons. On the wall above the first relief is a 
colossal marble head. The reliefs formed part of the ornamentation of 
the temple in the Piazza di Pietra. — In the centre of the Colonnade op- 
posite the entrance, a statue of Roma ; at the sides statues of barbarians in 

214 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Capitol. 

grey marble. Between the Roma and the Barbarian on the right is a statue 
supposed to represent the Emp. Trajanus Decius in the character of Mars. 
To the left, in the corner, a colossal bronze head; right an antique group, 
'Horse torn by a lion. 

In the Entrance-Hall farther on, to the left, 29. Statue of a Bac- 
chante ; opposite the staircase, 30. Modern 'eolumna rostrata', with the 
genuine fragment of an inscription in honour of C. Duilius, the victor of 
Mylee , B.C. 260, placed here in the reign of Claudius and composed in a 
purposely antiquated style. On each side of the staircase are Roman in- 
scriptions built into the wall, most of which were found on the Esquiline. 
— In the niches on the landing of the staircase, left, 35. Ceres ; right, 34. 
Urania (inaccurately restored). Here in the small court, in the centre, is 
a bust of Hadrian; on the pedestal a list of streets in the 1st, 10th, 12th, 
13th, and 14th regions of ancient Rome, dating from 136 A. D. Built into 
the walls, are four * Reliefs from a triumphal arch of M. Aurelius, found near 
S. Martina in the Forum : on the right, 44. Sacrifice in front of the Capito- 
line temple; on the long wall, 43. Entry of the emperor, passing the temple 
of Jupiter Tonans ; 42. Pardon of conquered enemies; 41. His reception by 
Roma at the triumphal gate. On the walls are ancient inscriptions. — On 
the left above the second landing, No. 43. Relief, Curtius on horseback 
leaping into the chasm (15th or 16th cent.). Opposite, inscription referring 
to Frederick II. 's victory over the Milanese. — In the passage above, two 
reliefs from the triumphal arch of M. Aurelius (p. 146), which was removed 
in 1653 by order of Alexander VII., representing the apotheosis of Faustina. 

Adjacent, on the Left, is the entrance to the Collections. We traverse 
two Rooms with modern lists of Roman magistrates, and enter a long 
Corsidok containing the so-called Frotomoteca, founded by Pius VII., a 
collection of busts of celebrated Italians, including poets (such as Dante, 
Petrarch, and Ariosto), scholars, painters, architects, and sculptors. At 
the end of the corridor is a monument to Canova. Several eminent foreigners 
have also been admitted: (1.) Winckelmann , (r.) Poussin and Raphael 
Mengs. — The second door to the right in this passage is the entrance to 
the New Capitoline Museum (see below), while the last door but two leads 
to the picture-gallery (p. 216), and the last but one leads up two steps to 
the 7th, 6th, and 5th rooms of the New Capitoline Museum. 

'New Capitoline Collection. I. Room. In glass -cabinets along the 
walls are arranged all kinds of bronze utensils ; a Roman balance , with 
scales, chains, and weights ; then helmets, candelabra, and vases. Under 
glass: (1.) Bronze Chariot, with representations in relief; (r.) "Bronze 
Seat, with a footstool, adorned with inlaid silver work, found at the 
ancient Amiternum, and presented by A. Castellani. In the centre, also 
under glass, a Litter, partly inlaid with silver; Statuette of a Roman La r ; 
Hermaphrodite , from whose back springs an arabesque , designed as a 
bearer. — We now proceed in a straight direction into the — 

II. Room. The antique "Pavement, found on the Esquiline, consists 
of tablets of many different and very rare kinds of alabaster. In the 
centre is the former Alb ani- Camp ana Collection of Coins, including many 
of the imperial epoch in gold. A small case to the left contains glass-pastes, 
gems, and cameos. On the walls are specimens of aes grave, coins, of the 
emperors and gentes, mediaeval and modern medals and coins, from the 
Stanzani Collection. — We retrace our steps hence, and turn to the right 
into the large octagonal — 

III. Dome Saloon, lighted from above, and constructed of iron and 
wood in the Pompeian style, by Vespignani. In the Vestibule , to the 
right: 2. Tombstone of Q. Sulpicins Maximux, a boy of ll'/» years, who, 
according to the Latin inscription, worked himself to death after having 
gained the prize over 52 competitors for extemporising in Greek verses, 
quotations from which are inscribed on each side oi the statuette of the 
youthful poet. To the left : S. Sitting Statue of Terra Mater (Mother Earth), 
in a small temple with inscription. In the wall are several reliefs. — 
Farther on, at Ihe entrance to the saloon, is a large dog in verde ranoc- 
chia; at the sides two freely-restored Corinthian capitals, from each leaf 
of which spring two rams. On the right, 10. Old woman carrying off a 

The Capitol. ROME. IV. Ancient Home. 215 

young lamb, a very realistic figure, with new head; 11. Bust of Faustina, 
the elder ; 18. Youthful athlete pouring oil into his left hand ; 14, 16. 
Tritons, of good workmanship. *15. Admirably-preserved half-figure of the 
Emperor Commodus , with the attributes of Hercules; the marble still dis- 
plays its fine original polish ; the pedestal is formed by two Amazons (one 
only preserved) bearing a shield enclosed by cornucopias , below which is 
the globe of the firmament. 17. Bust of Plntina, wife of Trajan; 19. 
Youth with cornucopia, lustral vase, and large shield. Adjacent, Statue 
of the youthful Bacchus. 21. Large Sarcophagus from Vicovaro (p- 375) ; 
on the lid a recumbent group, representing a man with a scroll, and a 
woman with a lute ; on the front , the Hunt of Meleager; on the left 
side, a Lion hunt, On the right, the Bringing home of the spoil. 24. 
Terpsichore ; 25, 27. Well-preserved youthful portrait-heads, found together 
on the Esquiline; "26. Venus in the act of loosening her hair (both arms 
missing); 28. Polyhymnia. Then, two interesting statues of the post-Con- 
stantine period, each holding a cloth (mappa) in the right hand. 31. Co- 
lossal female statue ; adjacent , an elegant candelabrum ; 33. Statue of 
Claudia. Justa, with attributes of Fortune; Replica of the so-called Eros of 
Praxiteles (Vatican Gallery, p. 310), wrongly restored as a lyre-player; 
in a niche behind it, to the right, interesting * Relief, representing 
Vulcan and three Cyclopes making the shield of Achilles , while on the 
left stands Minerva with the olive-tree , aegis , and owl , and on the right 
Juno with an oak-tree, on which sits the peacock, sacred to that goddess ; 
*36. Head of a Centaur (probably Chiron); 38, 42. Athletes, who mnst be 
supposed standing opposite each other, found at Velletri ; 40. Cow, of good 
workmanship; below it a sarcophagus with the four seasons; 44. Bust of 
Manlia Scantilla, wife of the Emperor Didius Julianus ; 45. Tiberius ; 47. 
Characteristic portrait-head of a Roman; between the last two, a well 
executed figure of Marsyas bound to a tree (the tree, hands, and feet 
modern restorations) ; 48. Bust of Didia Clara , daughter of the Emperor 
Didius Julianus ; the last female bust , with a diadem, perhaps represents 
Antonia, wife of Drusus. — By the Pilasters: 53. Well-preserved head of 
jEsculapius ; 56. Head of a boy ; ::: 59. Head of an Amazon , found on the 
Esquiline ; 62-65. Caryatides in the archaic style ; two large vases, the 
one with spirited Bacchic representations particularly fine. Over the foun- 
tain , Boy hunting; 35. Infant Hercules with the lion's skin, club, and 
quiver, in his left hand the apples of the Hesperides, found in 1872 to- 
gether with the Terra Mater (No. 8, see above). 69. Fountain in the 
shape of a goblet resting on a wreath of leaves , and terminating in a 
winged Chimaera. The upper part of the goblet is embellished with three 
finely-drawn Maenads. According to the Greek inscription below the water- 
spout, this work was executed by Pontios of Athens ; it was found in the 
gardens of Maecenas (p. 183). 

IV. Gallery. To the right: 46. Colossal bust of Maecenas; pleasing 
figure of a girl seated in a chair; '75. Fighting Hercules, with a portrait- 
head, composed of numerous fragments ; 78. Two ancient Trapezophorae, 
with a modern marble slab, on which are placed various small works in 
marble, and a fragment of a Roman calendar, found at Corneto. Opposite, 
130. Silenus, in a crouching attitude, a fountain-figure; 70. Colossal foot 
in marble, whose Tyrrhenian sandal is adorned with a pleasing compo- 
sition of Tritons , Cupids, and Dolphins. — On the walls of the Cor- 
ridor are copies of the mural paintings of the early mythical history 
of Rome, mentioned at p. 150. Priest's boy with a sucking-pig for sacri- 
fice. 125. Boy (restored as Mercury) playing with a tortoise (fountain- 
figure) ; 124. Marble vase, richly adorned with acanthus leaves; 123. Boy with 
a small dog ; 86. .ffiseulapius. On the sarcophagus to the right are various 
candelabra in stone ; 90. Sacrifice to Mithras. On the sarcophagus adorned 
with Tritons and Nereids, to the left, are several Hermes (busts); 117. Belief 
in travertine with representations of sacrifices to Mithras; 115. Trilateral 
pedestal of a candelabrum , with Jupiter, Hercules , and Spes ; 105, 106. 
Marble reliefs with scenes from the worship of Mithras, the larger of them 
bearing distinct traces of gilding and colour. — A glass-door, generally 
closed , next leads us into a court (giardino) of the Palazzo of the Con- 

2J6 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Capitol. 

servatori, where part of tlie substructions of the Capitoline temple of Ju- 
piter (p. 209), and (in the wall to the left) the fragment of a colossal co- 
lumn of the temple are noteworthy. 

We traverse the corridor of the Protomoteca (passing the monument 
of Canova on the right), and enter the — 

V. Room of the Tkkracottas. Along the walls are all kinds of com- 
mon domestic utensils (pitchers, lamps, jars, etc.) and terracotta reliefs 
used as mural decorations, with the painting partly preserved ; then Ar- 
retinian pottery, votive, and other objects. The remains of the oldest 
tombs found on the Esquiline, to the left of the entrance, are particularly 
interesting. In the centre are glass-cabinets, containing earthenware lamps, 
glass vessels, potsherds, mosaics, and a variety of anticaglias. The large 
clay cylinders and the disk with the archaic Latin inscription 'Eco C. An- 
tonios 1 perhaps belonged to a draw-well. 

VI. Room ok the Bronzes. At the entrance, " Priest's Boy (Camillus); 
Ephesian Diana , on a trilateral altar. By the window, the so-called 
"Capitoline Wolf, with Romulus and Remus; possibly the same which the 
sediles Cneius and Quintus Ogulnius erected in B.C. 296, though more 
probably of an early medifieval origin. An injury on the right hind-leg 
is supposed to have been caused by lightning, by which, according to 
Cicero, the figure was struck in B.C. 65, in the consulate of Manlius and 
Cotta ; the twins are modern. This work, with other bronzes, stood near 
the Lateran as early as the 9th century. In the centre, an expressive 
"Bronze Head, said to be that of L. Junius Brutus who expelled the kings, 
and became the first consul; eyes of coloured stone. 36. Small three-bodied 
Hecate. The "Thorn Extractor, a boy removing a thorn from his foot. 
A Horse, sadly mutilated, but of excellent workmanship, found in 1849, 
together with the fragments of a Bull. Then a Colossal Hand and a Co- 
lossal Foot, found near the Pyramid of Cestius (comp. p. 253). Between 
these a Tripod. 2. Vase, found near Porto d'Anzio , presented by King 
Mithridates to a gymnasium (foot and handles modern). Gilded Statue of 
Hercules. The glass-cabinets along the walls contain fragments of wea- 
pons, bronze implements, Roman scales, two inscriptions on brass, etc. 

VII. Room of Etruscan Terracottas, or the so-called Museo Italico, 
a collection of vases, terracottas (including two sarcophagi with figures 
on the lids), bronzes, and various anticaglias from Etruria and Latium, 
presented to the city by A. Castellani in 1866, and interesting only for 
purposes of study. Under glass: Silver cover of a cist with archaic figures 
of animals, found at Palestrina. 

On quitting this collection we enter by the first door on the right, a 
room with excellent, but sadly-damaged frescoes, and ascend to the — 

Picture Gallery, founded by Benedict XIV. In a straight direction we 
enter the first saloon. The names are given by labels attached. 

I. First Saloon. Entrance-wall, to the right of the door: "89. Rubens, 
Romulus and Remus. Right wall: 145. Giorgione, Holy Family; 6. Roma- 
nelli, St. Cecilia; 7. Pietro da Cortona, Triumph of Dionysus; 65. Garofalo, 
Madonna and saints; 127. Lorenzo di Credi, Madonna and Child; 13. Guer- 
cino , John the Baptist; 14. A. Poussin , Flora (copy of the picture in the 
Louvre); 16. Guido Reni , M. Magdalene; 20. Domenichino, Cumtean Sibyl. 
Narrow wall: 142. Albani, Nativity of the Virgin; 26. Tintoretto, M. Mag- 
dalene; 44. Gaud. Ferrari, Madonna; 27. Fra Bartolommeo (?), Presentation 
in the Temple; 30. Garofalo, Holy Family; 34. Guercino, Persian Sibyl; 
70. Paolo Veronese, Madonna and saints (copy); above, Lo Spagna, Two 
saints (fresco). Left window-wall: 9. Albani, Magdalene; 52. S. Botticelli, 
Madonna and saints; 55. Ag. Carracci, Holy Family; 196. Cola dell' Ama- 
trice, Assumption; 51. School of Raphael, Holy Family; 195. Paolo Vero- 
nese, Ascension; 54. Garofalo, Coronation of St. Catharine; 2. Guido Reni, 
A glorified .spirit (unfinished). Entrance-wall : 76. P. Caravaggio, Meleager ; 
78. Fr. Francia, Madonna (1513) ; 91. G. Reni, Sketch for No. 2. On the 
right window -wall , above: 'Ten frescoes attributed to Lo Spagna, repre- 
senting Apollo and the Muses, formerly at La Magliana (p. 389). 

Passing through a door in the corner to the right, and traversing a 
small corridor with landscapes, we next enter the — 



pianterhkno . 


GrtiBTaph. AnstaK vnr 

Wa.pner * Dehes, Leipzig 

The Capitol. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 217 

II. Room. 223. Paolo Veronese, Madonna with angels; Garofalo, 201. 
Transfiguration, 161. Annunciation, 204. Adoration of saints; "61. Guido 
Reni, Portrait of himself; "106. Van Dyck, Two portraits; "134. Portrait 
of Michael Angelo, probably by himself; "100. Van Dpck, Portraits of Thos. 
Killegrew and Henry Carew ; 80. Velazquez, Portrait. 

III. Room. *132. Giov. Bellini, Portrait; 87. St. Nicholas, by the 
same ; 124. Paris Bordone (catalogued as Titian), Baptism of Christ ; 136. 
Gentile Bellini (?), Petrarch; 129. Giov. Bellini, Portrait; 49. Domenichino, 
Landscape with Hercules; 8. Carracci, Landscape with St. Magdalene; 103. 
Domenichino, St. Barbara; 66. Bronzino , Portrait of a lady; 137. Domen- 
ichino, Landscape with St. Sebastian; 98. School of Bellini, Holy Family. 
Right wall: 222. Bassano, Christ in the house of the Pharisee; also a few 
good landscapes. 

IV. Second Saloon. Entrance-wall: Pietro da Cortona, 58. Sacrifice 
of Iphigeneia, 190. Alexander and Darius. Right wall : 47. P. da Cortona, 
Rape of the Sabine women; 116. Guido Reni, St. Sebastian; 117. Guercino, 
Cleopatra and Octavian; 119. Lod. Carracci, St. Sebastian; 128. Caravaggio, 
Fortune-telling gipsy. Short wall : "143. Guercino, St. Petronella raised from 
her tomb and shown to her bridegroom. Left wall : 154. Paolo Veronese, 
Magdalene; 41. N. Poussin, Orpheus; 169. Cignani, Madonna; Garofalo, 
167. Transfiguration, 164. Madonna; 180. Titian, Christ and the adulteress; 
"224. Paolo Veronese, Rape of Europa. 

Sale dei Conservatori. We are first conducted to the Large Saloon, with 
frescoes by the Cavaliere d'Arpino, representing the Combat of the Horatii 
and the Curiatii, and other scenes from the period of the Kings ; it also con- 
tains a bronze statue of Innocent X. by Algardi, and marble statues of Ur- 
ban VIII. by Bernini, and Leo X. by Giacomo del Duca. — II. Room : Frescoes 
by Laureti; statues of the generals Marcantonio Colonna, Alexander Farnese, 
Rospigliosi, Aldobrandini, and Barberini. — III. Room: Scenes from the 
Cimbrian war, and several antique busts. • — IV. Room: Fragments of the 
*Fasti Consulares, or lists of Roman consuls, found in the 16th cent, (and 
smaller fragments in 1818 and 1872), near the temple of the Dioscuri, the 
steps to which they perhaps flanked. Along the walls are busts of Socra- 
tes, Sappho(?), Alcibiades (?), and Diogenes(?), in the hermal form, with 
modern inscriptions. — V. Room. Several antiques: jug in the form of a 
female head in bronze ; two ducks ; Head of Medusa , by Bernini. — 
VI. Room, formerly the assembly-hall of the senate. The frieze, represent- 
ing scenes from the life of Scipio Africanus, is attributed to Ann. Carracci. 
On the walls is tapestry woven at S. Michele. Bust of Michael Angelo, 
attributed to himself. Also busts in marble of Victor Emmanuel, Cavour, 
and Mazzini. — VII. Room: Mural paintings by Sodoma, from the First 
and Second Punic Wars. — Adjacent is the old Chapel with an "Altar- 
fresco of the Madonna, by Pinturicchio (or Fiorenzo di Lorenzo?). 

B. **Capitoline Museum. 
This museum was founded by Innocent X., and extended by 
Clement XII., Benedict XIV., Clement XIII., and Pius VI. The 
works carried off by the French were restored with few exceptions 
to Pius VII. The collection is much smaller than that of the Vatican, 
but is rich in admirable works. Catalogue, prepared for the Com- 
missione Archeologica Municipale in 1882, sold at the entrance (3 fr.). 

A. Ground Floor. 
Court (Cortile). Above the fountain in the centre is the 
*Marforio (supposed to be derived from 'Forum Martis'), a colossal 
river- god holding a shell, probably representing the Rhine or 
Danube, erected in the middle ages in the Via di Marforio opposite 
the Career Mamertinus, wheTe it was employed as a vehicle for the 

218 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Capitol. 

sarcastic answers to the interrogatories of Pasquino (see p. 201). 
At the sides two Pans, and several sarcophagi and busts. 

Corridor (PI. 4), to the left of the entrance: 3. Colossal 
Minerva; 5. Bacchante; below, Sarcophagus with Bacchanalian re- 
presentation , purposely mutilated. — On the left, at the end, is 
the entrance to the — 

I. Room (PI. 1). Sarcophagus with a lion-hunt. In the centre 
is a vase in the Egyptian style on a marble pedestal with a Pal- 
myrene inscription. On the walls are three Palmyrene inscrip- 
tions, and several ancient mosaics, one of which (No. 27) seems to 
represent a vessel leaving port (found on the Quirinal in 1878). 
Above the door of the 2nd room : 20. Cupids binding a lion, with 
Hercules in female attire spinning in the background. — II. Room 
(PI. 2). The glass-case in the centre contains a mosaic with repre- 
sentations of animals, and a fragment of an ancient plan of Rome, 
with the temple of Castor (recently found). — III. Room (PI. 3): 
Inscriptions, sarcophagi, and cinerary urns; No. 2, the Calydonian 
Hunt; 4. another hunt. 

We return to the Corridor (PI. 4). To the left : several me- 
diocre female draped statues. - — To the right of the principal en- 
trance : (right) 25. Diana; 24. Hercules; 23. Luna; 21. Mercury; 
(left) 14. Cyclopean Polyphemus with one of his victims (improperly 
restored); (left) 15. Hadrian as a priest; (right) 20. Jupiter; below, 
Sarcophagus with the Calydonian Hunt; (right) 19. Colossal Mars 
(legs modern) ; 17. Hercules with the Hydra, found in the 16th cent, 
near S. Agnese in the Via Nomentana and restored by Algardi (the 
parts originally missing, the Hydra and leg of Hercules, were after- 
wards discovered and are now exhibited beside the restored group). 
— Adjacent, to the right, is the entrance to three rooms containing 
inscriptions and several interesting sarcophagi. 

I. Room (PI. 5). In the centre : Ara, which stood in the market- 
place of Albano till 1743, with archaic representation of the ex- 
ploits of Hercules. Also a few insignificant busts. — II. Room 
(PL (3). * 5. Sarcophagus with battle between the Romans and 
Gauls; the commander of the latter commits suicide (perhaps Ane- 
roestus, defeated B.C. 225 near Pisa); (left) 11. Cippus of T. Sta- 
tilius Aper, the architect ('mensor aedificiorum 1 ), with a wild boar 
(aper) at his feet and a measuring wand and other instruments at 
the sides. On the walls are inscriptions. — III. Room (PL 7). 
Large *Sarcophagus (formerly supposed to be that of Alex. Severus 
and his mother Mam m;ca) , with scenes from the life of Achilles : 
Achilles among the daughters of Lycomedes, (left) farewell of Dei- 
damia, (right) arming of Achilles; at the back, Priam begging for 
the body of Hector (found in 1594 with the Portland Vase of the 
British Museum on the Mte. del Grano, near the Porta Furba, 
p. 354). Left of the door: 15. Sitting statue of Pluto. — We now 
return to the hall, and ascend the staircase to the — 

The Capitol. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 219 

B. First Floor. 
Staircase (PI. 8). Into the walls are built the fragments of 
the marble Plan of Rome, an important topographic relic, executed 
under Sept. Severus , found in the 16th cent, in SS. Cosma e Da- 
miano (p. 232). Portions of the pieces found have been lost , but 
supplemented from the extant drawings (these parts are indicated 
by asterisks). On the landing of the stair are two female statues, 
groundlessly designated as Pudicitia and Juno Lanuvina. 

I. Room op the Dying Gladiator. In the centre: 1. ** Dying 
Oladiator, found at Rome in the 16th cent, and originally preserved 
in the Villa Ludovisi. The trifling restorations (right arm and part 
of the base) are said to have been made by Michael Angelo. 

The dying warrior, recognized as a Gaul by his twisted collar, short 
hair, and mustache, is sitting on his shield, while the blood pours from 
his wounded breast ; he has evidently inflicted the fatal blow himself, 
having previously broken the crooked horn which lies cm his shield. He 
has preferred death to captivity, and exhibits the same dignity of char- 
acter as the Barbarian in the group now in the Villa Ludovisi (p. 163), 
which was probably found at the same time (comp. p. xxxiv). The visitor 
will readily recall the exquisite lines by Byron : Childe Harold, Canto iv., 140. 

7. (right of the door) Apollo with lyre. Right wall : *5. Head of 
Dionysus, erroneously taken for a woman's (Ariadne's); 4. Ama- 
zon; 3. Alexander the Great; 2. Demeter. Wall opposite the en- 
trance: 16. Head of M. Jun. Brutus, the 'tu quoque Brute' of Cae- 
sar; 15. Priestess of Isis; 14. Flora from the villa of Hadrian. Left 
wall : *12. Antinous from Hadrian's villa (p. xxxvii); below, Tomb- 
stone erected by a freedman of Tiberius to his wife, with elegant 
Greek and Latin verses and tasteful ornamentation. *10. Satyr of 
Praxiteles, the best of the extant copies (p. xxxii). 

This is the figure which suggested the title of Nathaniel Hawthorne's 
romance, The Marble Faun (see p. 120), in the opening pages of which oc- 
curs a fine description of the statue. 

9. Girl protecting a dove; instead of the modern snake, there was 
probably a dog, or some other animal in the original. Entrance- 
wall: 8. Zeno, found in 1701 in a villa of Antoninus Pius at Civita 

II. Stanza del Fauno. On the walls reliefs, inscriptions, etc., 
among them the Lex Regia of Vespasian (black tablet of bronze on 
the entrance-wall), whence Cola di Rienzi 'the last of the Tribunes' 
once demonstrated to the people the might and liberty of ancient 
Rome. In the centre , 1. Satyr (Fauno) in rosso antico, raising a 
bunch of grapes to his mouth , from Hadrian's villa , placed on a 
remarkable altar, dedicated to Serapis. Window-wall: 26. Colossal 
head of Bacchus, on a circular ara with a rostrum, and the inscrip- 
tion ara tranquillitatis , found together with the Ara Ventorum and 
the Ara Neptuni at Porto d'Anzio (p. 392), where they were employed 
by sailors for offering sacrifices. Wall of egress: 4. Head of Mer- 
cury (?); 3. Sarcophagus with relief of Diana and Endymion ; *6. 
Head of Juno Sospita ; 8. Boy with mask of Silenus. Right wall : 
10. Minerva; 12. Mars. Entrance-wall: 15. Bust of Hercules; 16. 

220 IV. Ancient Home. ROME. The Capitol. 

Boy struggling with a goose, copy of a statue by Boethos, excavated 
near the Lateran in 1741 ; *18. Sarcophagus with battle of Ama- 
zons, and, on its left corner, 21. Head of Ariadne crowned with ivy. 

III. Large Saloon. In the centre: 5. Jupiter, in nero antico, 
or black marble, found at Porto d'Anzio , on an altar adorned with 
Mercury, Apollo, and Diana, in the archaic style. *2, 4. Two 
Centaurs in bigio morato , by Aristeas and Papias , found in Ha- 
drian's villa in 1736 ; 3. Colossal basaltic statue of the youthful 
Hercules , found on the Aventine ; it stands on a beautiful altar of 
Jupiter , embellished with representations of his birth, education, 
etc.; 1. jEsculapius, in nero antico, on an altar representing a 
sacrifice. — Window-wall to the left of the entrance : 29. Portrait- 
statue restored as Hygeia; 31. Apollo with lyre; 32. M. Aurelius ; 
33. Amazon; 34. Mars and Venus, found near Ostia; 36. Athena. 
— Wall of egress: 6. Satyr; 7. Apollo; 8. Minerva; 9. Colossal 
bust of Trajan with civic crown. — Right wall: 13. Hadrian as 
Mars, found near Ceprano. The two columns of Porta Santa marble, 
adjoining the niche , were found near the tomb of Csecilia Metella. 
In the niche: *17. Athena, archaistic statue. 19. Amazon; 20. 
Apollo; 21. Mercury; 22. Old nurse, probably from a group of the 
Children of Niobe ; 24. Ceres (?). — Entrance-wall : 25. Colossal 
bust of Antoninus Pius ; 27. Hunter with a hare ; 28. Harpocrates, 
god of silence, from Hadrian's villa. 

IV. Room op the Philosophers. On the wall valuable *Beliefs, 
live from the frieze of a temple of Neptune , with sacrificial im- 
plements of parts of ships (Nos. 99, 100, 102, 104, 105, 107); 
over the entrance, 119. Death of Meleager; on the wall of the egress, 
110. Archaic Bacchanalian relief of a Callimachus, etc. — In the 
centre ('No. 98) the sitting consular *Statue of M. Claudius Mar- 
cellus (V), conqueror of Syracuse, B. C. 212, from the Giustiniani 
collection , formerly in the Museo Chiaramonti. Also 93 *Busts of 
Celebrated Characters of Antiquity, to some of which arbitrary names 
are affixed. 1. Virgil (?); 4, *5, 6. Socrates; 9. Aristides the ora- 
tor; 10. Seneca (?); 13. Lysias(?); 16. Marcus Agrippa ; 19. Theo- 
phrastus; 20. Marcus Aurelius; 21. Diogenes the Cynic; 22. So- 
phocles (not Archimedes) ; 23. Thales ; 24. Asclepiades ; 25. Theon ; 
27. Pythagoras; 28. Alexander the Great (?); 30. Aristophanes (?) ; 
31. Demosthenes; 33, 34. Sophocles; 35. Alcibiades (? certainly 
not Persius); 37. Hippocrates; 38. Aratus(?); 39, 40. Democritus 
of AbdeTa; 41,42,43. Euripides; 44, 45, *46. Homer; 47. Epime- 
nides; 48. Cn. Domitius Corbulo, general under Claudius and Nero; 
*49. Scipio Africanus, recognisable by the wound on his head 
which he received when a youth at the battle of Ticinus, whilst 
saving his father's life ; 52. Cato of Utina (?); 54. Minerva ; 55. Cleo- 
patra (?_"); *59. Arminius(?), erroneously named Cecrops ; 60. Thu- 
cydides (v) ; 61. yEschines ; 62. Metrodorus; 63. Epicurus and Me- 
trodorus; 64. Epicurus; 68, 69. Masinissa; 70. Antisthenes ; 72, 

The Capitol. ROMP]. IV. Ancient Rome. 221 

73. Julian the Apostate ; 75. Cicero ; 76. Terence , according to 
others 0. Asinius Pollio; *82. ..Eschylus (?). The names of the 
busts by the window-wall are unknown. 

V. Room of the Busts op the Emperors. Reliefs by the 
entrance-wall: over the door, 93. Mercury, Hercules, Graces, 
Nymphs carrying off Hylas , with a dedicatory inscription to the 
Nymphs by a freedman of Marcus Aurelius; *92. Endymion asleep, 
beside him the watchful dog ; *89. Perseus liberates Andromeda 
(these two belong to the eight reliefs in the Pal. Spada, p. 204). 
Above the windows, Sarcophagus-reliefs ; 88, 90, 91. Cast of a relief 
of the Muses (original in the Louvre). — The collection of the em- 
pe»ors' busts is one of the most complete in existence ; the names are 
for the most part verified by coins (comp. p. xxxv). In the centre : 
*84. Sitting female statue, believed to be Agrippina, daughter of M. 
Agrippa, wife of Germanicus and mother of Caligula. The number- 
ing of the busts commences in the upper row , to the left of the 
entrance-door. 1. Julius Caesar; 2. Augustus; 3. Marcellus, nephew 
of the latter (?) ; 4, 5. Tiberius; 6. Drusus the elder; 7. Drusus, 
son of Tiberius; 8. Antonia, wife of the elder Drusus, mother of 
Germanicus and Claudius ; 9. Germanicus; 10. Agrippina, his wife; 
*11. Caligula, in basalt; 12. Claudius, son of Drusus; 13. Messa- 
lina , fifth wife of Claudius ; 14. Agrippina the younger, daughter 
of Germanicus, mother of Nero; 15. Nero; 17. Poppaea, Nero's sec- 
ond wife ; 18. Galba; 19. Otho; 20. Vitellius (?) ; 21. Vespasian; 
22. Titus; 23. Julia, his daughter; 24. Domitian ; 26. Nerva (mo- 
dern?); 27. Trajan ; 28. Plotina, his wife ; 29. Martiana, his sister; 
30. Matidia, her daughter; 31, 32. Hadrian; 33. Sabina, his wife; 
34. jEHus Caesar, his adopted son; 35. Antoninus Pius; 36. 
Faustina the elder, his wife; 37. M. Aurelius as a boy; 38. M. 
Aurelius, more advanced in life ; 39. Faustina the younger, daugh- 
ter of Antoninus, wife of Aurelius; 41. Lucius Verus; 43. Com- 
modus; 45. Pertinax; 50, 51. Septim. Severus; 53. Caracalla ; 57. 
Heliogabalus ; 60. Alex. SeveTus; *62. Maximin; 63. Maximus, 
son of Maximin ; 64. Gordian Afr. ; 65. Gordian ; 76. Gallienus ; 
80. Diocletian (?) ; 82. Julian the Apostate (more probably a 
Greek philosopher; the inscription is of mediaeval origin). We 
next enter the — 

VI. Corridor. At the left end : Beautiful marble vase on an 
archaic *Puteal with the 12 gods : Jupiter. Juno, Minerva , Her- 
cules , Apollo, Diana, Mars, Venus, Vesta, Mercury, Neptune, 
and Vulcan. Then, the back of the visitor being turned to the 
window: (1.) 30. Trajan ; (1.) *29. Pallas, found at Velletri , ex- 
actly corresponding to the statue (No. 114) in the Braccio Nuovo 
of the Vatican ; (1.) 28. M. Aurelius, as a boy ; (r.) *33. Bust of 
Caligula ; (1.) *35. Head of Silenus ; (1.) 26. Augustus ; (1.) 25. Ju- 
piter, on a cippus with relief: Claudia Quinta drawing a boat con- 
taining the image of the Magna Mater up the Tiber ; (r. ) 38. Venus ; 

222 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Capitol. 

(r.) 42. Female draped statue. [The door opposite leads to the 
Venus room.) Left, 21. Head of Apollo; (r.) 43. Antinous ; (1.) 
20. Psyche; (r.) 46. Selene; below, *Sarcophagus with represen- 
tation of the birth and education of Bacchus. Here and in the 
following compartments, on the right, are immured the inscriptions 
from the columbarium of the freedmen of Livia (found in 1726 near 
the church of Domine Quo Vadis). Right: 48. Child of Niobe ; 
(1.) 15, 49. Venus; (1.) 14. Marble vessel with Bacchanalian 
scenes; (r.) 50. Copy of the discus- thrower of Myron (Pal. Lan- 
celots, p. 191), incorrectly restored as a warrior; (1.) 12. Flute- 
playing Satyr; (r.) 52. Muse; (1.) 10. Octagonal cinerary urn with 
Cupids in the attitudes of celebrated statues; 54. Venus, with 
portrait-head; below, (r.) Sarcophagus with the rape of Proserpine 
and the child Hercules with the siiakes ; (1.) Archaic relief, a lute- 
player(?); (1.) 8. Old woman intoxicated; (r.) 58. Sitting draped 
statue. Opposite the entrance to the Room of the Doves : (1.) *5. 
Cupid bending his bow (after Lysippus) ; (r.) 60. Flute-playing 
Satyr; (1.) 3. Recumbent lion; (r.) 61. Silenus ; (r.J 62. Septim. 
Serverus ; (1.) 64. Faustina; (r.) 63. M. Aurelius. 

VII. Room of thb Doves , so called from the *Mosaic on the 
right wall : Doves on a Fountain-basin , found in Hadrian's Villa 
near Tibur (p 370) , copy of a celebrated work by Sosus of Perga- 
mum, mentioned by Pliny. Below it , a sarcophagus : 13. Prome- 
theus forming man , whom Minerva inspires with life, in a style 
showing the transition to the Christian period of art. Farther on, 
by the right wall, a mosaic with several masks. Under them : *37. 
Sarcophagus with Selene and Endymion. On the narrow wall are 
several fine Roman portrait-busts. By the left wall, in the 2nd 
window, 83. the Ilian Tablet, a small relief in palombino , a soft 
kind of marble , with the destruction of Troy and flight of ^Eneas 
in the centre , and many other incidents from the legends of the 
Trojan war, explained by Greek inscriptions, probably designed 
for purposes of instruction, found near Bovillae. 83a. Fragment of a 
representation of the shield of Achilles , inscribed on the back as 
the work of Theodoreus, found in 1882 near S. Maria della Vittoria 
on the Esquiline ; on the broad margin of the marble are 75 lines 
from the description of the shield in Bk. XVIII. of the Iliad. 83b. 
Fragment of another representation of the same subject. 

VIII. Room of Venus. Adjoining the gallery is the Venus 
Room, which contains the **Capitoline Venus, unquestionably the 
workmanship of a Greek chisel , and the most admirable of all the 
existing copies of the Aphrodite of Cnidus by Praxiteles (p. xxxii), 
the perfect type of feminine grace. The statue was found almost 
uninjured in a carefully walled-up niche between the Viminal and 
Ouirinal. — Left , Leda with the swan , a mediocre work • right, 
*Cupid and Psyche, found on the Aventine. 

■Wagner tDebes . l,expz\£ 

Forum Romanum. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 223 

On the S. height of the Capitol, called the Monte Caprino 
(to which a flight of steps ascends to the right at the back of the 
Palace of the Conservatori, comp. p. 212), stands the so-called 
Casa Tarpeia with the Protestant hospital and the new German 
Archaeological Institute , erected in 1874-76 by Laspeyres , at the 
cost of the German government. In the garden (custodian, Monte 
Caprino 25) is shown the Rape Tarpeia, or Tarpeian Rock. If 
this really be the rook from which the condemned used to be thrown 
by the ancient Romans, its height and abruptness must have been 
greatly diminished since that period; and as, moreover, it is by no 
means certain that it was situated here, a visit to the spot may well 
be omitted. Ancient substructions of solid stone, which were dis- 
covered in the garden of the Pal. Caffarelli (p. 210) in 1866, be- 
long to the temple of the Capitoline Jupiter. 

Of the buildings which covered the Capitol in ancient times the 
only existing relics are the imposing ruins on which the Senatorial 
Palace has been erected. (Entrance by the gate in the Via del Cani- 
pidoglio, comp. p. 212; we then enter the door to the right with 
the superscription 'Tabularium' ; rules as to admission the same as 
in the case of the Capitoline collections, p. 213.) This edifice was 
the *Tabularium, erected in B.C. 78 by the consul Q. Lutatius 
Catulus for the reception of the state archives, and resting on the 
massive substructions which surround the hill. It consisted of a 
five-fold series of vaults , the last of which opened towards the 
Forum in the form of a colonnade with half-columns in the Doric 
style, which are still visible. The vaults were used in the middle 
ages as a public salt magazine, and the stones have been much 
corroded by the action of the salt. From this point there is a beauti- 
ful *View of the Forum. The rooms contain architectural fragments 
from the neighbouring temples and other buildings, and a valuable 
collection of amphorae found on the Esquiline within the last few 
years. An ancient flight of steps, now partly restored, descended 
hence to the Forum, where, to the left of the temple of Vespasian, 
the archway where it issued is observed. 

The Forum Romanum. 

(Comp. Sketch- Plan.) 

In the most ancient times the Capitol and Palatine were sep- 
arated by a deep and marshy valley. The pavement by the col- 
umn of Phocas still lies 38 ft. only above the level of the sea, and 
22 ft. above the level of the Tiber, but 13 ft. lower than the height 
of an ordinary inundation. In consequence of the lowness of this 
valley , it was , as may well be supposed , a difficult and tedious 
task to raise the level and drain the marsh. For this purpose Tar- 
quinius Priscus, the fifth of the kings, is said to have constructed 
the Cloaca Maxima, which still renders good service (p. 250); and 
several canalicolae , or tributary drains which fell into the main 

224 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. Forum Romanum. 

channel, have recently been discovered. Tradition makes this hol- 
low the scene of the conflict of the Romans under Romulus against 
the Sabines under Titus Tatius after the rape of the Sabine women. 
After the hostile tribes were amalgamated into a single state, they 
chose the Forum as its centre , and it was here that some of the 
most famous scenes in the history of the Roman Republic were 
enacted. On the N. side (S. Adriano) lay the Curia Hostilia, or 
council-hall , which is said to have been erected by King Tullus 
Hostilius ; while on the S. side, at the foot of the Palatine rose the 
Temple of Vesta (S. Maria Liberatrice) , with its eternal fire, and 
the Regia, or dwelling of the Pontifex Maximus, the president of 
the Roman hierarchy. The Comitium, or open space in the centre, 
was the place where popular assemblies were wont to be held. The 
Forum was bounded by streets , the most important of which was 
the Via Sacra ascending to the Capitol. In the Forum and its en- 
virons building operations and various changes have been taking 
place at intervals for upwards of two thousand years, and it is there- 
fore not to be wondered at that a number of topographical questions 
regarding it are still unsolved, and that the imagination of scholars 
has indulged in the most extravagant flights with regard to this 
spot more than any other in Rome. It is , however, ascertained 
that the Forum extended from the foot of the Capitol , sloping 
downwards towards the E., although it has sometimes been erron- 
eously supposed that it extended from N. to S. The Basilica 
Julia marks the S. boundary of the Republican Forum, and the 
E. boundary was probably near the prolongation of the Via di San 
Lorenzo, as private houses only have been discovered beyond. Along 
the sides of the Forum were ranged the tabernae veteres and novae, or 
shops, which were originally occupied by butchers and other crafts- 
men , and afterwards by money-changers and goldsmiths. In the 
course of time a number of temples, public buildings, andmonuments 
were erected here. Of those still existing the most ancient is the 
Career Mamertinus (p. 213), or well-house, situated on the slope of 
the Capitol, the foundation of which reaches back to the period of the 
kings. Soon after the temple of the Capitoline Jupiter (p. 209), were 
founded the Temples of Saturn (B.C. 491) and Castor and Pollux 
(484). The Temple of Concord (366) commemorates the termination 
of the protracted struggle between the patricians and the plebeians. 
At the period of the Samnite War , which resulted in the exten- 
sion of Rome's supremacy over the whole of Italy, we are informed 
that the Forum underwent many embellishments. At last, howe- 
ver, as it was only 150 yds. in length, its area became too confined 
for the important and multifarious business transacted within its 
precincts ; for it was not used for political and commercial pur- 
poses only, but for the celebration of the funerals of the nobility, 
for the gladiator combats which were introduced about the year 
2(34, and on other public occasions. The first expedient for gaining 

Forum Romanum. ROME, IV. Ancient Rome. 225 

space was the erection of basilicas , or quadrangular courts sur- 
rounded by colonnades, adjoining the Forum, with a view to draw 
off a portion of the traffic. In 184 Cato erected the Basilica Porcia 
on the N. side; in 179 followed the Basilica AZmilia, and in 169 
the Basilica Sempronia. The task was prosecuted with the utmost 
energy by Cesar, who extended the Forum by the addition of the 
Forum Julium (p. 238), and appears to have projected a cut- 
ting through the hill which connected the Capitol with the Qui- 
rinal in order to facilitate communication with the new quarter 
which was rapidly springing up in the Campus Martius. He also 
restored the Curia Hostilia, and erected the spacious Basilica Julia 
on the S. side of the Forum. Augustus proceeded to carry out the 
plans of his uncle, and to that emperor is chiefly due the arrange- 
ment of the Forum which the present excavations are bringing to 
light. All the edifices of the Republic were restored by him and 
his successors , whose energetic building operations extended over 
the first four centuries of the Christian era. They thus endeav- 
oured, as it would appear, to compensate their subjects by ex- 
ternal magnificence for the loss of liberty they had sustained. 
Five new fora , constructed between the time of Cfesar and that of 
Trajan, adjoined each other on the N. side of the old Forum, thus 
connecting the central point of the original city with the palatial 
buildings of the Campus Martius. By these new fora the Forum of 
the Republic would have been well nigh eclipsed, but for the glor- 
ious traditions connected with it , to commemorate which it was 
profusely adorned with gilded bronzes and rare marbles , with 
columns , triumphal arches , statues , and works of art , while its 
history was recorded by innumerable inscriptions. 

These ancient buildings were restored for the last time in the reign 
of king Theodoric, in the first half of the 6th century, and the last new 
monument erected in the Forum was the Column of Phocas , dating from 
60S, but the rudeness of the architecture distinctly betrays the degraded 
taste of the period. As early indeed as the first half of the 6th cent, had 
begun the war of extermination waged by the Middle Ages against 
paganism. Ancient temples were transformed into churches, such as those 
of S. Giuseppe, S. Luca, S. Adriano, S. Lorenzo, SS. Cosma e Damiano, 
S. Francesca, and S. Maria Liberatrice. These were afterwards frequently 
altered and restored, while others of the same class, like a church of 
SS. Sergio e Bacco in the temple of Concord and another at the S.E. 
corner of the Basilica Julia, have entirely disappeared. Interspersed with 
these churches were the towers and castles of the Roman nobility, erected 
among the ruins of the ancient buildings in the style best adapted for 
the prosecution of their perpetual feuds. In most cases, the dimensions 
of the monuments of antiquity, were far too vast to admit of their being 
used for mediaeval purposes, but another mode of utilising these immense 
masses of building materials readily suggested itself. Throughout a 
thousand years the edifices of ancient Rome were employed as quarries, 
from which churches and secular buildings alike derived their columns, 
their blocks of solid stone, and, owing to a still more destructive pro- 
ceeding, their supplies of lime also from the burning of marble. The fact 
that in the Basilica Julia alone there have been discovered lime-kilns and 
stone-masons' yards at three different places will convey an idea of the vast 
quantity of marble, bearing valuable inscriptions and artistic enrichments, 

Baedeker. Italy II. 8th Edition. 15 

226 IV. Ancient Rome, ROME. Forum Komanum. 

which must have been destroyed in this way; and it need hardly be observed 
that the bronzes of antiquity were still more eagerly appropriated in an 
age when metal of every kind was scarce. This accounts for the miser- 
ably small number of statues and inscriptions which modern excavations 
have yielded. After the systematic destruction of the Forum, its remains 
were gradually buried beneath the rubbish and debris of some four 
centuries, so that the ancient pavement is at places 40 ft. below the present 
level of the ground. Down to the 8th cent, the ancient level was unal- 
tered. In the 11th and 12th centuries the Forum was thickly covered 
with towers and fortress walls, which closed up the old streets, and when 
these were demolished about the year 1221, the ground appears for the 
first time to have been covered with an accumulation of rubbish. Fresh 
deposits were afterwards made when the new buildings on the neigh- 
bouring heights were in course of erection. This was particularly the 
case in 1530, when Paul III. constructed a triumphal street from the Porta 
S. Sebastiano through the arches of Constantine and Titus, and around 
the N. side of the Capitol (on which occasion the new approaches to 
the latter were formed, p. 211). He caused 200 houses between the arches 
of Titus and Severus to be demolished, and he constructed on their site the 
piazza as it stood until recently. The large buildings erected by Sixtus V. 
probably also contributed to the raising of the level of the ground. 

In the middle ages, and down to the present day, the Forum was 
popularly known as the Campo Vaccino. Its desolate area was covered 
with the teams of buffaloes and oxen of the peasantry, and smiths and 
carpenters established their workshops around it , while a few isolated 
columns, protruding from the rubbish, alone formed a reminiscence of its 
departed glory. And thus it remained until the 19th century. As early 
as 151!) Raphael had indeed formed a plan for restoring the ancient city, 
and especially the Forum, by means of extensive excavations; and during 
his lifetime, and subsequently, particularly in 1546-47, the work was 
begun in the neighbourhood of the temple of Castor and Faustina. The 
object in view, however, being merely the discover}- of monuments and 
works of art, the excavations were soon filled up again, and in the 17th 
and ISth centuries were entirely discontinued. At length, during the present 
century, the plan was revived by the modern spirit of investigation. In 
1S03 the arch of Severus , in 1313 the column of Phocas , and in 1816-19 
the Clivus Capitolinus with its temples, were disinterred under the super- 
intendence of Carlo Fen , while the French during their occupation of 
Rome appear to have directed their attention to more productive local- 
ities. In 1835, and during the republic in 1848, part of the Basilica Julia 
was excavated by Caniiut, but from that year down to 1871 the work was 
discontinued. The Italian government resumed the excavations again 
with considerable energy; and by these last operations the Basilica, the 
temples of Castor and Csesar, and a great part of the Comitium and 
the neighbouring streets have been brought to light, and an admirable 
clue to the arrangements of the whole locality has thus been obtained. 
The excavations are carried on under the superintendence of Senator Fio- 
relli, but serious obstacles are presented to the work by the growing re- 
quirements of modern business. During 1882, however, considerable pro- 
gress was made , and the removal of the roads crossing the Forum now 
for the tirst time admits of a general view of it. It is uncertain whether 
these roads will be replaced by iron bridges, or an attempt made to carry 
on the traffic at the original level of the Forum. When the demolition 
of the houses between S. Adriano and S. Lorenzo is effected, the under- 
taking, which was planned and begun when the Renaissance was at its 
zenith and has since been so frequently resumed, will be finally and satis- 
factorily completed, and the most memorable spot in the history of Eu- 
rope will at length be fully brought to light and purged of the unseemly 
accumulations of rubbish heaped upon it by the neglect of centuries. 

The Entrance to the excavations (open 7-12 and 3-7; no fee) is op- 
posite the church of SS. Cosma e Damiano (see Plan), but the ruins are 
also accessible from the street uniting the Via Bonella and Via della Con- 
solazione. — The following description follows the Via Sacra. 

Forum Romanum. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 227 

Descending from the piazza of the Capitol through the Yia del 
Campidoglio to the right, past the Senatorial Palace (oornp. p. 212), 
we enjoy from the lower end another good *Survey op the Forum. 
To the left, below us, lie the temple of Saturn , to which the eight 
unfluted columns belong, the three columns of the temple of Vespa- 
sian, and the arch of Septimius Severus. Farther off, partly hidden 
by the columns of the temple of Saturn, are the column of Phocas, 
the great Basilica, the three columns of the temple of Castor, and 
the bare walls of the temples of Vesta and Caesar. Beyond these, 
to the left, are the temple of Faustina, now converted into a church, 
and the circular temple of Romulus with the church of SS. Cosma 
e Damiano, opposite which are the remains of numerous brick shops 
and houses; then the huge arches of the basilica of Constantine, the 
Colosseum , the arch of Titus , and to the right the ruins and gar- 
dens of the Palatine. 

We descend the small flight of steps and turn to the left. The 
temporary roadway connecting the Via Bonella and the Via della 
Consolazione runs in the same line as the old Via Sacra, which de- 
scended on the S.W. slope of the hill (Clivus Capitolinus). 

Below the Tabularium (p. 223), of the upper gallery of which 
one arch only now stands, and in the angle formed with it by the 
street , lies the Schola Xantha with the Colonnade of the Twelve 
Gods (deorum consentium) , whose images were erected here in 
A.D. 367 by Vettius Agorius Praetextatus, the prsefectus urbi, and 
one of the principal champions of expiring paganism. The struc- 
ture was perhaps used by scribes and notaries. The name Schola 
Xantha is derived from a certain Fabius Xanthus by whom it was 
once restored. In 1858 the ruin was much modernised. 

The first building facing us, of which eight granite columns are 
still standing on a basement 16 ft. high, is the * Temple of Saturn, 
consecrated by the consuls Sempronius and Minucius, B. C. 491, and 
restored by Munatius Plancus (B. C. 44?). From the earliest times 
this was the seat of the Mrarium Publicum, or public treasury. 

The inscription, Senatus populusque Romanus incendio consumplum 
restituit, refers to a later restoration , undertaken hastily and without 
taste, the columns being of unequal thickness and placed at irregular 
intervals. Of the lofty flight of steps by which the portico was approached 
there are now but scanty traces. The back is concealed by the street. 
In the 15th cent., according to Poggio^ statement, the ruin was in much 
better preservation. 

In front of the temple of Saturn part of the carefully-constructed 
paving of the ancient Via Sacra is still visible. 

To the right of the Colonnade of the Twelve Gods the Tabula- 
rium is adjoined by the Ruin of the Three Columns, or * Temple of 
Vespasian, erected under Domitian, and restored by Sep.imius 

The inscription ran thus : 'Divo Vespasiano Augusio Senatus populusque 
romanus imperator Caesar Severus et Antoninus Pii Felices Augusti 
restitueruntS A part of the last word only is preserved. The columns 
and entablature display excellent workmanship. In front the temple had 


228 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. Forum Romanum. 

6 columns, 49 ft. high, and k 1 /? ft. thick at the hase. An egress of the Tab- 
ularium (p. 223) through the hack of the cella hag evidently been built up. 
Farther on, to the right, and with its back to the Tabularium, 
is the Temple of Concordia, founded in B.C. 366 by M. Furius 
Camillus, and rebuilt on a larger scale by Tiberius, B.C. 7. It was 
dedicated to Concord to commemorate the termination of the pro- 
tracted struggle between the patricians and plebeians. 

The smaller projecting rectangle of the raised substructure was the 
temple itself, while the larger edifice behind, projecting on both sides 
of the temple (but concealed on one side by the ascent to Aracoeli), was 
the Senate-Hall, the threshold of which is still distinguishable. On the 
ruins of this temple was erected the church of SS. Sergio and Bacco, 
which was taken down in the 16th century. 

In front of the temple of Concordia, and above the "Via Sacra 
(Clivus Capitolinus), rises the * Triumphal Arch of Septimius Se- 
verus, 75 ft. in height, 82 ft. in breadth, with three passages. It 
was erected in honour of that emperor and his sons Caracalla and 
Geta in A.D. 203, to commemorate his victories over the Parthians, 
Arabians, and Adiabeni, and was surmounted by a brazen chariot 
with six horses, on which stood Severus, crowned by Victory. Ca- 
racalla afterwards erased the name of his brother Geta, whom he 
had murdered. The letters were, as was usual with inscriptions of 
this kind, originally inlaid with metal. 

Above the arches are figures of Victory; at the sides, crowded scenes 
from the wars of the emperor. Side next the Forum : (1.), Raising of the 
siege of Nisibis in the Parthian war; (r.), Treaty with Armenia, Siege of 
Atra. Side next the Capitol: (r.), Siege and capture of Babylon; (1.), 
Conquest of Ctesiphon and Seleucia. On the bases of the columns, 
Captive barbarians. All these figures are in the degraded style of the 
sculpture of that period. In the middle ages the arch was temporarily 
converted by the ruling powers into a kind of castle, and was deeply 
imbedded in rubbish, but it was unearthed by Pius VII. in 1803. 

Passing through the arch of Severus and turning to the right, 
we see before us the massive stone remains of the Kostra, or orators' 
tribune, erected by Julius Csesar. This tribune consisted of an ex- 
tensive raised platform, about 65 ft. long and 16 ft. wide, adorned 
witli statues and tablets and giving the orator room to walk up and 
down during his speech. It has been aptly compared to the preach- 
ing stages in some of the Roman and Neapolitan churches. 

The original tribune derived the name of Rostra from the iron prows 
of the war-ships of Antium with which it was adorned after the capture 
of that town in B.C. 338. Its position cannot now be definitely fixed, 
but was certainly more to the N.E. Csesar transferred it to the N. end 
of the Forum in the course of his extensive building operations. The 
holes in which the iron prows were fastened are still visible in the mas- 
sive blocks of hewn stone. 

Beyond the Rostra rises another arched wall, with slabs of red 
Porta Santa marble, the date and purpose of which is unknown, 
and which was formerly taken for the tribune. At the end next the 
arch are remains of the Umbilicus Vrbis Romae, or ideal centre of 
the city and empire. At the other end stood the Milliarium Aureum, 
or central milestone of the roads radiating from Rome, erected by 
Augustus in B.C. 28; all traces of it, however, have disappeared. 

Forum Eomanum. ROME. IV. Ancient Borne. 229 

To the S.E. of the Rostra rises the — 

*Column of Phocas, 54 ft. in height, which was erected in 608 
in honour of the tyrant Phocas of the Eastern Empire, by the exarch 
Smaragdus, having been taken by him from some older building. 
It was formerly crowned with a gilded statue of Phocas. This 
column, which long formed the distinctive mark of the Forum ( 'the 
nameless column with a buried base': Byron), was at length dis- 
interred in 1813 at the cost of the Duchess of Devonshire. 

The Rostra naturally faced the open space reserved in the middle 
of the Forum for public assemblies, which we reach by turning to 
the S.E. Most of this space is still covered with houses , but the 
S.W. corner, paved with slabs of limestone, is open to view. 
Anciently it extended to the church of S. Adriano (p. 239), occu- 
pying the site of the Curia, or hall of the Senate. Between S. 
Adriano and the temple of Faustina lay the Basilica .'Emilia, the 
site of which is also covered with modern houses. 

In the open space, to the right of the ancient street leadiii" 
through the arch of Severus, stands a huge block of stone, the holes 
in which prove it to have been originally the pedestal of an equestrian 
statue. It was afterwards provided with an inscription celebrating 
the repulse of Alaric and the Goths , from which the name of S ti- 
ll cho seems to have been erased after his fall in A. D. 408. Adjacent 
are two admirable marble reliefs ( 'anaglypha'), which owe their ex- 
cellent preservation to the fact that they were incorporated in the 
foundations of a medieval tower on this spot, where they were 
found in 1872. Their original purpose is unknown. They are of 
topographical value as they bear reference to the different localities 
of the Forum. 

The Rostra recurring in both reliefs, the 'flcus ruminalis', or fig-tree 
under which the she-wolf reposed, and the statue of Marsyas identify the 
scene of action as the Forum Ronianum. The first relief (next the Capi- 
tol) alludes to Trajan's 'alimenta', or institution for poor children: on 
the right, is the emperor, in front of him is Italy, holding a child by the 
hand (destroyed) , and another in her arms to which Trajan hands a 
'tessera 1 , or ticket; on the left is a magistrate with his lictors, proclaiming 
his edict from the rostra. The second relief represents the remission of 
arrears of succession-duty, the records of which are being set on fire in 
Trajan's presence. On the inner sides are a wild hoar, a ram, and a 
bull, the victims sacrificed at the public celebration of the Suovetaurilia. 

In the middle of the square are the remains of a large pedestal, 
probably of the equestrian statue of an emperor. 

On the S.W. side of the Forum rise eight square pedestals of 
brick, which were formerly lined with martle. They were intended 
as embellishments for the N. side of the Via Sacra, and probably 
boTe granite columns (fragments of which lie scattered about) sur- 
mounted with statues. The hasty construction points to a late ori- 
gin, perhaps in the reign of Constantine. 

The S. side of the Via Sacra is bounded by the Basilica Julia. 

The *Basilica Julia was founded by Caesar with a view to enlarge 
the Forum, and inaugurated in B. C. 46, after the battle of Thapsus, 

230 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. Forum Romanum. 

but before its completion. Augustus extended it, but did not 'witness 
its completion, as it was destroyed by a Are The building was again 
twice injured by Are towards the end of the 3rd century. It was 
Testored several times, the last being in A.D. 377. The building is 
mentioned in history for the last time in the 7th cent., and it was 
probably destroyed in the 8th. After several partial excavations, it 
was entirely extricated in 1871 and 1882-83. Remains of a mediae- 
val church, limekilns , and human bones at no great depth were 
discovered , the spot having formerly been the burial-place of the 
adjoining hospital della Consolazione. 

The Ground Plan of the basilica is a rectangle, about 111 yds. long 
and 53 yds. wide. A flight, of six, and at places nine, steps ascended to 
the basilica from the street. Along the four sides were double aisles 
which enclosed a Central Space, about 90 yds. by 17 yds., paved with 
variegated African and Phrygian marble, and separated from the aisles 
by iron railings. The greater part of the pavement has been restored, 
a few fragments of the original only having been preserved. The valuable 
material of which the pavement was composed renders it probable that 
this space was covered with a roof. The sittings of the tribunal of the 
Centumviri, in four different sections, took place here. The Aisles were 
paved with white marble, on which are still seen a number of circles, 
and occasionally writing, scratched on the surface by visitors. These 
were used by them in playing a game resembling draughts, to which the 
ancient Romans were as devoted as the modern. The aisles were separated 
by a triple row of Columns, sixteen on each side, and ten at each end, 
constructed of brick and encrusted with travertine. Ten only of the an- 
cient pillars, up to a height of about 16 ft., are now preserved at the S.W. 
corner of the building. All the other trunks of pillars which are seen 
here have recently been reconstructed, partly with the original materials. 
The pillars supported arches, which have also been restored, but their 
original spring is still clearly distinguishable. The building had an upper 
story to which the steps still traceable on the S. side ascended. On this 
side the basilica was adjoined by older buildings of tuffstone. On the side 
next the street the pillars were adorned with Doric half-columns built 
against them , several remains of which have been found on the N.W. 
side during the latest, excavations. Their good preservation is owing to 
the fact that a Christian church, part of the walls and columns of which 
is still visible, was built in this corner nf the basilica. — The thorough 
destruction of the basilica is to be ascribed to the architects nf the 
Eenaissance, who regarded the garden of the Hospital della Consolazione 
as a 'cava di travertino' and used the materials found here for building 
the Palazzo Giraud (in the Borgo, p. 279) and numerous other palaces. 

The Vicus Jugarius led between the basilica and the temple of 
Saturn to the Tiber. On the Via Sacra, near its junction with this 
street, stood the Triumphal Arch of Tiberius, erected in A.D. 16 to 
commemorate the defeat of the Germanic tribes and the recovery of 
the Roman insignia lost at the battle of the Teutoburgian Forest. 
Its remains were scattered on the construction of a modern street 
in 1850 (comp. p. 226). 

The main arm of the Cloaca Maxima, discovered in 1872, runs 
under the S.E. end of the Basilica Julia. The Vicus Tuscus, on 
this side of the basilica, one of the busiest streets in ancient Rome, 
descended from the Forum to the cattle-market on the river (p. 250). 

To the S.E. of the Basilica, and separated from it by the street, 
is the *Temple of Castor and Pollux, dedicated to the twin gods out 

Forum Romanum. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 231 

of gratitude for the aid which enabled the Romans to defeat the La- 
tins at the battle of Lake Regillus in B.C. 496, and inaugurated in 
484. It was afterwards rebuilt by Tiberius and re-consecrated in 
A.D. 6. This was one of the most famous temples of the Republic, 
and was often used for meetings of the senate. 

The basement of the cella rises to a height of 22 ft., and was ap- 
proached by a flight of 18 steps, with two lateral flights, of which that 
on the E. side only is preserved. The building was mainly constructed 
of concrete, which was faced with blocks of tufa, and around these were 
placed the blocks of travertine which supported the enclosing colonnade. 
These blocks, however, as well as the steps on the W. side, have entirely 
disappeared (although the impression made by them on the concrete is 
still visible), and the width of the building has thus been diminished by 
about, one half. On the E. side stands a fragment of the Sttlobate, with 
three columns of Parian marble, which are among the finest of the kind 
now existing (height 46 ft., diameter 5 ft.). The Corinthian capitals and 
the architrave are both in a very superior style of workmanship. The 
temple had eight columns in front and probably thirteen on each side. 
The length, however, has not been precisely ascertained, the posterior 
part being still covered by the modern street. Remains of the mosaic 
pavement of the Cella are still to be seen, lying about 3 ft. below the 
level of the portico and the surrounding colonnade. This peculiarity was 
probably occasioned by the alterations made by Tiberius. 

On the E. side of the Forum, and facing the Capitol, is situated 
the Temple of Caesar, near which Cassar had erected a new orator- 
ical tribune. It was from this tribune , at the funeral of the 
murdered dictator on 19th or 20th March, B.C. 44, that Mark An- 
tony pronounced the celebrated oration which wrought so power- 
fully on the passions of the excited populace. A funeral pyre was 
hastily improvised, and the unparalleled honour accorded to the 
illustrious deceased of being burned in view of the most sacred 
shrines of the city. A column with the inscription 'parenti patriae' 
was afterwards erected here to commemorate the event. Augustus 
afterwards erected this temple in honour of 'Divus Julius', his dei- 
fied uncle and adoptive father, and dedicated it to him in B.C. 29, 
after the battle of Aotium. At the same time he adorned the tribune 
with the prows of the captured Egyptian vessels. 

The foundation of the substructions of the temple , consisting of 
concrete, were discovered in 1872, but their covering of solid stone has 
been removed. In front of the temple there are the remains of a plat- 
form, still partly paved with slabs of stone, which is believed to have 
been the above- in entioned tribune or Rostra ad Divi Julii. Its present 
form appears to have resulted from subsequent alterations. 

The area to the S.E. of the Temple of Caesar is strewn with 
relics of ancient and mediaeval buildings, which have not yet been 
identified. A ring provided with a runlet, near the S.W- angle of 
the Temple of Castor and Pollux, is supposed to be a remnant of 
the Puteal Libonis , or the enclosure of a spot which had been 
struck by lightning. 

The circular erection of concrete belonged to the celebrated 
Temple of Vesta; numerous fragments of its marble ornamentation 
strew the ground. A small and well-preserved ,-Edicula, or shrine 
for the image of a god, was found near the temple in 18S2. Ad- 

232 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. <SS. Cosma e Damiano. 

jacent is a flight of steps, which perhaps ascended to the Eegia, 
or official dwelling of the Pontifex Maximus. 

Between the temples of Vesta and Faustina the Via Sacra was 
spanned by the Arch of the Fabii, erected in B.C. 120 by Q. Fabius 
Maximus, the conqueror of the Allobrogi , and forming the S.E. 
boundary of the Forum. During the demolition of the modern road 
across the Forum in 188*2, several scattered fragments of its stone- 
facing and vaulting were discovered , and may now be seen oppo- 
site SS. Cosma e Damiano. The exact site of the arch cannot be 

Two main lines of the ancient streets , the basaltic paving of 
which is visible at various points, seem distinguishable : the first 
leads from SS. Cosma e Damiano in a straight direction, then turns 
at a right angle , and passes in front of the Temple of Caesar; the 
other leads at an acute angle from SS. Cosma e Damiano to the 
Temple of Castor, and joins the first at the S.E. corner of the basi- 
lica. It is likely that the second is much older than the first. 

From the first-mentioned street a flight of steps, interrupted in 
the middle by a projecting platform, ascends to the ■ — 

* Temple of Faustina, of which the portico (with ten columns, 
six of which form the facade) and part of the cella are still stand- 
ing. It was dedicated by Antoninus in 141 to his wife, the elder 
Faustina, and re-dedicated to that emperor himself after his death. 
The first line of the inscription, Divo Antonino et divae Faustinae 
ex S.C., was then added. In the interior of the temple is the church 
of 8. Lorenzo in Miranda. 

The portico was excavated in 1807 and 1810. The columns are of 
cipollino, or marble of Eubcea, and are 46 ft. in height. The cella is of 
peperine, the marble incrustation of which has entirely disappeared. — The 
year of the foundation of the church is unknown, and the earliest record 
of it dates from 1377. The facade was erected in 1602. The entrance is 
at present in the Via di S. Lorenzo in Miranda, on the S.E. side. 

A hill, named the Velia in ancient times, connects the Palatine 
and Esquiline, its highest point being marked by the Arch of Titus 
(97 ft.; p. 234). The Via Sacra ascends gradually towards the 
S.E., and soon reaches — 

* SS. Cosma e Damiano (PI. II, 20, 5 ; entrance in the Via di 
Miranda), built by Felix IV. (526-30), having been incorporated 
with an ancient circular temple erected by the Emp. Maxentius to 
his son Romulus, and sometimes erroneously called a temple of the 
Penates. Owing to the dampness of the soil, Urban VIII. raised 
the level of the pavement so much in 1633, that an upper and a 
lower church were formed. 

The Lower Church, which presents little attraction, contains the tomb 
of SS. Cosmas, Damianus, and Felix, an ancient altar, remains of an an- 
cient pavement, and somewhat lower a spring, said to have been called 
forth by St. Felix. 

Upper Church. On the arch of the choir and in the tribune are inter- 
esting "Mosaics of the 6th cent., the period of the founder, perhaps the most 

Basilica of Constantine. ROME. IV. Ancient Borne. 233 

beautiful of their kind at Rome (see p. xlvi), but freely restored about 1660 
(best light towards evening). Those on the arch, which has been shortened 
during a restoration, represent the Lamb with the Book with seven seals, 
according to Revelations iv. ; adjoining these the seven candlesticks , four 
angels, and two of the symbols (angel and eagle) of the Evangelists. The 
arms with wreaths, below, belonged to two prophets. In the tribune: 
Christ , to whom the saints Cosmas and Damianus are conducted by Peter 
and Paul ; on the left side St. Felix with the church (new) , on the right 
St. Theodoras. Beneath , Christ as the Lamb , towards whom the twelve 
lambs (Apostles) turn. 

At the back of the church were found the remains of an ancient 
plan of Rome, other fragments of which were discovered in 1867-68 and in 
1882 (see p. 219). The ancient wall to which the plan was affixed belonged 
to the Templum Sacrae Vrbis, an edifice erected by Vespasian in A.D. 
78 and restored by Septimius Severus, which seems to have been used 
as a repository for the archives of the censor, municipal plans, registra- 
tion lists, etc. — The two cipollino columns to the right of the church 
probably belonged to the ancient circular temple. 

In front of the church (Temple of Romulus) passes the recently 
excavated continuation of the Via Sacra, on the S. side of which 
many remains of brick walls, evidently belonging to private dwel- 
ling-houses and shops , have been brought to light. Some of these 
remains lie above still older ruins, the well-executed mosaic pave- 
ments of which still exist (e. g., opposite the Temple of Romulus, 
in the corner next to the Palatine). Buildings of a later period 
(about the 8th cent.) have also been found here, such as a vaulted 
chamber entered from the ancient street , opposite the Temple of 
Romulus, and a well-preserved porch adjoining the Basilica of 
Constantine, near the oratory of the Via Crucis. Opposite the 
latter is an ancient exedra , opening towards the old street, with 
marble pavement still partly preserved. 

We next reach, on the left, the three colossal arches of the *Ba- 
silica of Constantine (PI. II, 20, 23), erected by Maxentius, but 
afterwards altered by his conqueror Constantine. The entrance ori- 
ginally faced the Colosseum, but afterwards the Via Sacra. It was 
a basilica of three halls, with vaulting of vast span, which has served 
as a model to modern architects, as in the case of St. Peter's, where 
the vaulting is of the same width. 

The Ground Plan is rectangular in form , about 100 yds. long and 
88yds. wide. The principal apse, opposite the entrance from the Colos- 
seum, has lately been extricated from rubbish, but is only partly preserved. 
After the opening of the second entrance on the side next the Palatine, 
a second apse was added. The tunnel vaulting of the S. aisle has been 
preserved; width 66 ft., depth 54 ft., height 78 ft. The span of the nave 
was about 80 ft.; its height 112 ft., and its width 66 ft, In front of the 
central pillars stood eight huge Corinthian columns of white marble ; the 
only one now existing stands in front of S. Maria Maggiore (p. 176). The 
entrance facing the Via Sacra was formerly adorned with columns of red 
porphyry, some of the shafts of which have been re-erected. 

The traveller should not omit to ascend to the summit for the sake 
of the magnificent "'Panorama of ancient Rome which it commands. As, 
however, the Via in Miranda is row inaccessible from the Forum, we must 
make a detour to reach the roof; perhaps the best plan is to ascend on 
the way back from the Colosseum. Tho^e who wish also to visit the 
interior follow the road between the side of S. Francesca Komana and the 
high garden-wall, and opposite the Colosseum turn sharply to the left 

234 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. Arch of Titus. 

and descend the Via del Colosseo. At the corner here is No. 61, a home 
for poor girls (visitors ring; 1 fr.), from the garden of which we ascend a 
flight of steps. A window adjoining the stairs affords the best view of 
the Colosseum, to the left of which are the Thermae of Titus on the Es- 
quiline; to the right the circular S. Stefano ; nearer, S. Giovanni e Paolo 
with the new dome, both on the Cselius. Beyond the Colosseum the 
Alban, and to the left the Sabine Mts. To the S. the Palatine with the 
ruins of the imperial palaces and two monasteries, and the opposite bank 
of the Tiber with the Villa Pamphilj. Towards the W. the Capitol; to 
the right of it, between the domes of two churches, Trajan's Column is 
visible; above the latter Monte Mario; farther to the right the Torre di 
Nerone and the Quirinal. Towards the N. the church of S. Pietro in 
Vincoli with its magnificent palm, and S. Maria Maggiore , recognised 
by its two domes and Romanesque tower, both on the Esquiline. 

Adjoining the basilica of Constantine, and partly occupying the 
site of a temple of Venus and Roma (see below), is the church of — 
S. Frances ca Romana (PI. II, 23), or S. Maria Nuova, standing 
on the site of an older church of Nicholas I. founded about 860, re- 
erected after a fire by Honorius III. about 1216, and modernised 
by Carlo Lombardo in 1615. Festival, 9th March. 

Interior. On the right, 2nd Chapel : (r.) Monument of Card. Vulcani 
(d. 1322) and that of the papal commandant and general Antonio Eido (d. 1475). 
3rd Chapel : Miracles of St. Benedict , altar-piece by Subleyras. In the 
Tribune mosaics of the 12th cent, (lately restored) : in the centre Madonna, 
(1.) SS. John and James, (r.) Peter and Andrew. Over the high-altar an 
ancient Madonna, traditionally attributed to St. Luke, which is said alone 
to have escaped destruction in the conflagration. To the right of the apse : 
monument of Gregory XL, who transferred the papal residence from Avignon 
to Rome (d. 1378), with a relief by Olivieri. Here on the right, built into 
the wall, are two stones on which Peter and Paul are said to have knelt 
when they prayed for the punishment of Simon Magus. In the Confessio a 
group of the saints with an angel , by Meli. Under the tribune (closed) is 
the tomb of the saint, and over the altar a marble relief by Bernini. — 
Sacristy. On the left wall a Madonna with four saints , by Sinibaldo Ibi, 
a pupil of Perugino, 1524. — The sacristan now shows a Court behind the 
church , with the well-preserved western "Apse of the Temple of Venus 
and Roma (fee '/a fr.). 

Adjoining the church, on the summit of the Velia (p. 232) and 
at the foot of the Palatine, rises the *Triumphal Arch of Titus, 
commemorating the defeat of the Jews (A.D. 70), and dedicated to 
him under his successor Domitian in 81, as the inscription on the 
side next the Colosseum records : Senatus populusque Romanus divo 
Tito divi Vespasiani filio Vespasiano Augusto. The arch is embel- 
lished with fine *Reliefs (p. xxxvii). 

Outside : On the same side as the inscription, is a sacrificial procession 
on the frieze. Inside: Titus crowned by Victory in a quadriga driven by 
Roma; opposite, the triumphal procession with the captive Jews, table 
with the show-bread, and candlestick with seven branches. — In the 
middle ages the arch was used as a fortress by the Frangipani, and 
strengthened with battlements and new walls. When these were removed 
in 1822 under Pius VII., the arch lost its support, and had to be recon- 
structed, as stated by the inscription on the other side. The central part, 
in marble, is therefore alone ancient; the restored parts are of travertine. 
The street descends past the remains of private houses to the 
Colosseum. On the left is the double apse of the Temple of Venus 
and Roma, or Templum Urbis (PI. II, 20), erected by Hadrian from 

The Colosseum. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 235 

a plan by himself in A.D. 135 , and restored after a fire by Maxen- 
tius in 307. This was one of the most superb temples in Rome. The 
gilded bronze tiles were removed to St. Peter's by Honorins I. in 626. 

There were evidently two temples under the same roof, entered from 
the sides next the Colosseum and next the Capitol. The cellse were 
adjacent, so that there was a niche on each side of the central wall for 
the image of a god. One half is built into the monastery of S. Fran- 
cesca Romana (p. 234); the other towards the Colosseum is open. The 
vestibules of the cellse had each four columns in front. Around each 
ran a colonnade of ten columns at the ends, and twenty at the sides 
(length 120 yds., width 58 yds.). This colonnade was enclosed by a second, 
of about 200 columns, 180 yds. long, and 110 yds. wide, and projecting 
as far as the street, where it was supported by massive substructions. 
To this colonnade belonged the granite shafts scattered about here. The 
cellse were encrusted with the rarest marbles. 

Descending hence to the Colosseum, we observe the remains of 
an extensive square Basis of masonry to the left below. Here once 
stood the gilded bronze Colossal Statue of Nero, as god of the sun, 
surrounded with rays, and about 117 ft. in height, executed by 
Zenodorus by order of the emperor himself, to grace the golden 
palace which he erected with lavish splendour after the burning of 
Rome in A.D. 64. The palace fell to decay soon after the emperor's 
death (in 68), and the statue was removed thence by Hadrian to 
this pedestal. In the space occupied by an artificial lake in the 
gardens of Nero, Vespasian founded the — 

**Colosseum (PI. II, 24), originally called the Amphitheatrum 
Flavium, the largest theatre, and one of the most imposing struc- 
tures in the world , completed by Titus in A. D. 80. It was in- 
augurated by gladiatorial combats , continued during 100 days, in 
which 5000 wild animals were killed , and naval contests were ex- 
hibited ; and it contained seats for 87,000 spectators. The building 
has been known since the 8th cent, under its present name, derived 
probably from the colossal statue of Nero which once adorned it. 

Having been injured by fire in the reign of Macrinus, it was restored 
by Alexander Severus. In 248 the Emp. Philip here celebrated the 1000th 
anniversary of the foundation of Rome with magnificent games. In 405 
gladiator-combats were abolished by Honorius as inconsistent with the pre- 
cepts of Christianity, but wild-beast fights were continued till the time of 
Theodoric the Great. In the Middle Ages the Colosseum was used by the 
Roman barons, especially the Frangipani, as a fortress. In 1312 the Anni- 
baldi were obliged to surrender it to Emp. Henry VII., who presented it 
to the Roman senate and people. In 1332 the Roman nobility again intro- 
duced bull-fights. After this period, however, the destruction of the Colos- 
seum began, and the stupendous pile began to be regarded as a kind of 
quarry. In the 15th cent. Paul II. here procured materials for the con- 
struction of the Pal. di S. Marco (di Venezia), Card. Riario for the Can- 
celleria, and Paul III. (1534-49) for the Palazzo Farnese. Sixtus V. pro- 
posed to establish a cloth-factory here, and Clement XI. actually used the 
building for the manufacture of saltpetre. Benedict XIV. (1740-58) was 
the first to protect the edifice from farther demolition by consecrating the 
interior to the Passion of Christ, owing to the frequency with which the 
blood of martyrs had flowed there ; and he erected small chapels within 
it, which were removed in 1874. The following popes, particularly 
Pius VII. and Leo XII., have averted the imminent danger of the fall of 
the ruins by the erection of huge buttresses. The steps in the interior were 
restored by Pius IX. 

236 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Colosseum. 

The Colosseum is constructed of blocks of travertine, originally 
held together by iron cramps, and tufa and bricks have also been 
used in the interior. The numerous holes were bored in the middle 
ages, for the purpose of extracting the then very valuable iron. 
According to the most trustworthy statistics the external circum- 
ference of the elliptical structure measures 576 yds., or nearly one- 
third of a mile, the long diameter 205 yds., the shorter 170 yds., 
the arena 93 yds. by 58 yds., and the height 156 ft. Above the 
arena rise the tiers of seats, intersected by steps and passages, most 
of which are now in ruins and only partly accessible. 

The exterior of the still preserved N.E. portion, on the side 
next the Esquiline , consists of four stories, the three first being 
formed by arcades, the pillars of which are adorned with half-columns 
of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian order in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd 
stories respectively. A wall with windows between Corinthian 
pilasters forms the 4th story. Statues were placed in the arcades of 
the 2nd and 3rd stories, as appears from the representations on 
ancient coins. At the ends of the diameters are the four triple 
Principal Entrances , those next to the Esquiline and Cselius 
being destined for the emperor, the others for the solemn proces- 
sion before the beginning of the games, and for the introduction 
of the animals and machinery. On the side next the Esquiline are 
seen traces of the stucco-decorations, which were restored under 
Pius VII., and were once used as models by Giovanni da TJdine, 
the pupil of Raphael. The arcades of the lowest story served as 
entrances for the spectators, and were furnished with numbers up to 
lxxx. (Nos. xxxiii. to liv. still exist), in order to indicate the stair- 
cases to the different seats. Below, on the exterior , are two rows 
of arcades , and then a massive substructure for the seats. Every 
fourth arch contains a staircase. 

Part of the Tiers of Seats is still distinguishable; the foremost, 
called the Podium, was destined for the emperor, the senators, and 
the Vestal Virgins. The emperor occupied a raised seat, called the 
Piilvinai, and the others had seats of honour. Above the Podium 
rose three other classes of seats, the first of which was allotted to the 
knights. The humbler spectators occupied the last division , in a 
colonnade , on the roof of which were stationed sailors of the im- 
perial fleet for the purpose of stretching sail-cloth over the whole 
amphitheatre to exclude the glare of sun. Apertures are still seen 
in the external coping, with corbels below them , for the support of 
the masts to which the necessary ropes were attached. 

Under the Arena, and adjacent to the foundations of the inner 
wall , were chambers and dens for the wild beasts. More towards 
the centre were found a number of walls, pillars, and arches, partly 
required for the support of the arena , and partly connected with 
the theatrical apparatus employed in some of the performances. 
Since 1874 all these arrangements have been disclosed by excava- 

Arch of Constantine. HOME. IV. Ancient Rome. 237 

tions, in the course of which fragments of columns, marble slabs 
(some of them bearing combats of wild beasts and gladiators scratch- 
ed on them) , and other architectural relics have been discovered. 
The precise uses of the various chambers are not yet ascertained. 

Although one-third only of the gigantic structure remains, the 
ruins are still stupendously impressive. An architect of last century 
estimated the value of the materials still existing at l 1 ^ million 
scudi, which according to the present value of money would be equi- 
valent to at least half a million pounds sterling. The Colosseum has 
ever been a symbol of the greatness of Rome, and gave rise in the 
8th cent, to a prophetic saying of the pilgrims : — 

'While stands the Colosseum, Rome shall stand, 

When falls the Colosseum, Rome shall fall, 

And when Rome falls, with it shall fall the World !' 

The Upper Stokies should be visited by those who desire to obtain 
a distinct idea of the character of the structure (custodian found at the 
entrance next to the Palatine; gratuities forbidden). We ascend a new 
stone staircase to the first story. Of the three arcades here we follow the 
innermost, which affords a survey of the interior. Over the entrance from 
the Palatine a modern staircase of 48 steps ascends to the 2nd, and then 
to the left to a projection in the 3rd story. The "View from the restored 
balustrade to the right in the 4th story, to which 55 more steps ascend, 
is still more extensive. It embraces the Ceelius with S. Stefano Rotondo 
and SS. Giovanni e Paolo*, farther off, the Aventine with S. Balbina, in 
the background S. Paolo Fuori ■ nearer, to the right, the Pyramid of 
Ceslius; to the right the Palatine, with the arches of the Aqua Claudia. 

The Colosseum is profoundly impressive by JIuonlight, or when 
illuminated (e.g., by Eengal lights; comp. p. 114). The traveller should 
avail himself of a fine moonlight night for the purpose. Visitors may 
enter the arena at any hour of the night, but can obtain access to the 
tiers till 11 p.m. only, under the guidance of the custodian, who is then 
generally to be found at the entrance next the Capitol, on the right side. 
The Flora found among the ruins of the Colosseum once comprised 420 
species, which were collected by an English botanist, but most of them 
have disappeared. 

Quitting the Colosseum by the same gate , we perceive on the 
left, in front of the edifice, the so-called Meta Suduns, the partly 
restored fragment of a magnificent fountain erected by Domitian. 
Farther on, to the left, between the Cielius and Palatine, spanning 
the VUi Triumphalis which here joined the Via Sacra, stands the — 

* Triumphal Arch of Constantino (PL II, 24), the best-preserved 
structure of the kind , erected after the victory over Maxentius at 
Saxa Rubra, near the Ponte Molle, in 311 , when Constantine de- 
clared himself in favour of Christianity. The inscription runs thus : 
Imp. Caes. Fl. Constantino Maximo pio felici Augusta Senatus Po- 
pulusque Romanus , quod instinctu divinitatis mentis magnitudine 
cum exercitu suo tarn de tyranno quam de omni ejus faciione uno 
tempore justis rem publicam ultus est armis arcum triumphis insignem 
dicavit. The arch has three passages. The greater part of the orna- 
mentation and the admirable * were brought from an arch 
of Trajan which stood at the entrance to Trajan's Forum, contrast- 
ing strongly with the rude additions of the time of Constantine. 

238 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. Thermae of Titus. 

From the Akoh of Trajan: Above, the captive Daeiiins (ancient; 
one entirely, but the heads and hands of the others are new). Reliefs 
(facing the Colosseum, to the left): 1. Trajan's entry into Rome; to the 
right of it, 2. Prolongation of the Via Appia ; 3. Trajan causing poor 
children to be educated; 4. Trajan condemning a barbarian. On the 
other side, to the left: 5. Trajan crowning the Parthian king Parthamas- 
pates ; 6. Soldiers bringing two barbarians before Trajan; 7. Trajan 
addressing the army; 8. Trajan sacrificing. The eight Medallions below 
these reliefs represent sacrifices and hunting-scenes; on the narrow sides 
two battles with the Dacians; below the central arch, the vanquished 
imploring pardon, and Trajan crowned by Victory. — The marked con- 
trast between the two different periods of art is exhibited by the smaller 
reliefs inserted between the medallions, representing the achievements of 
Constantine in war and in peace. In 1804 Pius VII. caused the arch to 
be thoroughly excavated. In the 10th cent, it was converted into a castle, 
and afterwards belonged to the Frangipani. 

On the opposite side , a few hundred paces from the Colosseum, 
in the ViaLabicana, first gate to the left (whence the Via della Pol- 
veriera ascends to the left between walls in 5 min. to S. Pietro in 
Vincoli, p. 184), are situated on the Esquiline the — 

*Xherm.8e of Titus (PI. II, 26 ; open daily from 9 till dusk ; adm. 
1 fr. ; on Sun. gratis). Maecenas once had a villa here, which was 
afterwards incorporated with the golden palace of Nero. On the site 
of the latter, in A.D. 80, Titus hastily erected his sumptuous 
Therma;, which were altered and enlarged by Domitian, Trajan, and 
others. The extensive ruins are scattered over several vineyards, 
and a small part only, excavated in 1813, is accessible. 

The earlier structure of Nero is easily distinguished from that of 
Titus. The long vaulted parallel passages first entered belong to the 
Thermse. They form together a semicircular substructure, the object of 
which is not clearly ascertained. Most of the chambers beneath, which 
were filled up by Titus in the construction of his baths, and re-excavated 
at the beginning of the 16th cent., belonged to the golden palace of Nero. 
A suite of seven rooms is first entered here; to the left, near that in the 
centre, are remains of a spring. Traces of the beautiful Paintings, which 
before the discovery of Pompeii were the sole specimens of ancient mural 
decoration, and served as models for Giovanni da Udine and Raphael in 
the decoration of the loggie , are still observed. Colonnades appear to 
have flanked both sides of these rooms. A passage leads hence to a bath- 
room. To the left, at right angles with this suite, are several small and 
unadorned rooms, probably occupied by the slaves; to the left again, 
opposite the first suite, is a passage once lighted from above, the vaulting 
of which was adorned with beautiful frescoes still partly visible. 

Fora of the Emperors. Academy of St. Luke. 

In the plain to the N.E. of the Forum of the Republic lay the 
Fora of the Emperors , which were erected rather as monuments to 
their founders and ornaments to the city than for political purposes, 
and were chiefly used for judicial proceedings. The chief edifice 
in these fora was always a temple. The Forum Julium , the first 
of the kind , was begun by Ciesar and completed by Augustus ; the 
second was built by Augustus. A third, the Forum Pads, in front 
of the Templum Sacra Urbis (the facade of which now forms the 
back of SS. Cosma e Damiano), was constructed by Vespasian, 
lietween this forum and the hist two lay the Forum Transitorium 

Acrademia di S. Luca. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 2'6\) 

(see below), to the N. of which was that of Trajan (p. '240), the 
most magnificent of all. 

Adjacent to the Templuin Sacrae Urbis lay the Forum of Nerva, 
founded by Domitian and completed by Nerva, sometimes called the 
Forum Transitorium from having been intersected by an important 
street. Here stood a temple of Minerva, taken down by Paul V. in 
order to obtain marble for the decoration of the Fontana Paolina on 
the Janiculus, and a small temple of Janus. Remains of the external 
walls exist in the so-called *Colonnacce , two half-buried Corinthian 
columns , with entablature enriched with reliefs (representing the 
practice of the arts, weaving, etc. , which were specially protected 
by the goddess ; casts of them in the collection of the French 
Academy, p. 142); above them is an attic with a Minerva. This 
fragment , situated at the intersection of the Via Alessandrina and 
Via della Croce Bianca, at the E. corner (PI. II, 20), is well cal- 
culated to afford an idea of the former grandeur of the structure. 

The following cross-street is the Via Bonella, at the S. end of 
which, next the Forum, stands the church of SS. Luca e Martina, 
erected on the site of an ancient building. It consists of an upper 
and lower church, the latter of very ancient origin, and the former 
erected in the 17th cent, by Pietro da Cortona. 

On the opposite side of the street is the church of S. Adriauo, 
with its unadorned facade ; it occupies the site of the Curia Hostilia, 
which was subsequently re-erected under the name of Curia Julia 
by Caesar and Augustus, and was used as an assembly-hall by the 
senate (comp. p. 228). The church was erected by Honorius I. 
in the 7th cent, and afterwards restored. 

Farther on in the Via Bonella, No. 44, is the — 

Accademia di S.Luca (PI. 11, 20), a school of art founded in 1595, 
and re-organised in 1874. The first director was I'ederigo Zucchero. 
The picture-gallery of the Academy (daily, 9-3), a second-rate col- 
lection, contains few works of importance. 

We ascend the staircase, into the walls of which are built a few 
casts from Trajan's Column (disfigured with whitewash). On the first land- 
ing is the entrance to the collection of the competitive works of the pupils 
(closed): KesseVs Discus-thrower reposing, in plaster; Christ on the Mt. of 
Olives, drawing by L. Seitz ; reliefs by Thorvaldsen and Canova; Ganymede 
watering the eagle, by Thorvaldsen, and several casts from the antique. 

We ascend another staircase, and ring at the entrance to the — 

Picture Gallery (V2 fr.). A small Ante-Chambeii (with engravings, etc.) 
leads to the I. Saloon, lighted from above. Entrance-wall : Berchern, Land- 
scape ; Tempesta, Sea-piece. Old Dutch Sell., Madonna and Descent from the 
Cross; Rubens, Venus crowned by graces; Van Dyck , Bladonna; Titian, 
St. Jerome (copy) ; Jos. Veniet, Sea-piece. Short wall : G. Poussiu, two Land- 
scapes. Second wall : Ribera, Scribes disputing ; P. Veronese, Venus ; Van 
Dyck('l), Portrait; Titian, Portrait (copy) ; TitianiXl, Vanity; Claude Lorrain, 
Coast-scene;^. Fernet, Sea-piece. Second short wall: Busts of Betti, Tenerani, 
and Thorvaldsen. — The saloon is adjoined on one side by a Small Room, 
principally containing portraits of artists ; among them , on the pillar, 
Virginie Lebrun; on the short wall, Byron; in the upper part of the 
right short wall, second row, to the right Angelica Kauifmann; below, by 
the entrance, Salvator Rosa , Concert of cats. — On the other side is 

240 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. Forum of Trajan. 

the II. Saloon, also lighted from above. On the entrance-pillars : Cana- 
letto, Architectural design; Maralla, Madonna; on the back of this picture 
there is a "Copy, by Marc Antonio, of the first design of Raphael's Trans- 
figuration (figures nude ; original supposed to have been lost). Left wall : 
Titian , Discovery of the guilt of Calisto, inferior to the other mytholo- 
gical pictures of this master (copy; original in London); Quido Reni, 
Fortunn; "Raphael, Boy as garland-bearer, being a relic of a fresco in the 
Vatican, sawn out of the wall, and freely retouched; Guido Cagnacci, Lu- 
crezia, an admirable work of this master, a painter of no great note of 
the school of Guido Reni ; Guercino , Venus and Cupid (al fresco). Short 
wall: Bronzino , St. Andrew; Venet. Sen., Portrait; Guido Reni, Cupid; 
Raphael (7), St. Luke painting the Madonna, besi le him Raphael observing 
him, entirely disfigured by retouching, and a work which must have been 
of little value even when it was in better condition, as the want of uni- 
formity in the colouring shows that several different hands have been 
engaged upon it (originally an altar-piece in St. Martino); Tintoretto, Por- 
trait; After Titian, Tribute-money. Right wall: Poussin, Bacchic dance; 
Pellegrini, Hebe; Galatea, copy by Giulio Romano from Raphael; J. Vernet, 
Sea-piece ; P. Veronese, Susanna : Guido Reni, Bacchus and Ariadne. Round 
the upper part of this saloon is a double row of portraits of artists. 

The Via Bonella is terminated towards the N. by an ancient wall 
with a gateway. In front of the latter, to the left, are three hand- 
some and lofty *Corinthian columns with entablature, which belonged 
to one of the sides of the Temple of Mars Ultor in the Forum of 
Augustus (PI. II, 20). The forum was enclosed by a lofty *"Wall of 
peperino blocks (a grey volcanic rock), part of which, about 160 yds. 
long , is seen near the temple , and still better by passing through 
the gateway (Arco de' Pantani). This wall was adjoined by the back 
of a temple erected by Augustus in B. C. 2, in consequence of a 
vow which he made during his war against Caesar's murderers. The 
forum is now occupied by the nunnery of the Annunziata. The 
original level is about 16 ft. below the surface. This locality was 
a swamp ('pantano') in the 16th cent., whence the modern name. 

Between this and the ancient Republican Forum lay the Forum of Cae- 
sar, or Forum Julium, with a temple of Venus Genetrix. Scanty remains of 
the outer tufa wall lie in the court (to the left) of 18 Vicolo del Ghettarello, 
a street diverging to the right between Nos. 47 and 46 Via di Marforio. 

We now ascend to the left through the Arco de' Pantani by the 
huge wall which now forms part of the nunnery , and a little farther 
on descend to the left by the Via di Campo Carleo (in the court 
No. 6, wall of Trajan's forum, see below) to the busy Via Ales- 
sandrina, whence immediately to the right we enter the — 

* Forum of Trajan (PI. II, 19), which adjoined the Forum of 
Augustus. This was an aggregate of magnificent edifices , and is 
said to have been designed by Apollodorus of Damascus (111-114). 
By means of a huge cutting between the Capitol and the Quirinal, 
Trajan effected a convenient communication between the Fora of the 
ancient city and the Campus Martius (p. 225). His Forum must 
have measured about 220 yds. in width , and was probably of still 
greater length ; and it was considered the most magnificent in Rome. 

Aminianus (16, 10) thus describes it on the occasion of the visit of 
the Emp. Constantine in 356: — 'Verum cum ad Trajani forum venisset 
singularcm sub omni caelo structuram, ut opinamur, etiam numinum 
adsensione iiiirahilem, haerebat adtonitus per giganteos coutextus circum- 

"V3a dp' Ce 

- ' i.ilanii 


C anipo racchio 

Spiegaziono He numeri. 
1 . Scalane d "ing Ttsto, 
C . ^fusro . 

3. Clivo delta \ittoria . 
x. Porta Ramana. 
■). Ajuffuratorio . 
6.frt.v« diliria. 


O .iCrifjlpnortiru 


10. labium del Palazzo. 

W.Atrio ossia Ve&tibitlo 

12. Tcrnpio di dorr St u ton- 

YS.Forijt Mug'wjus, 

14. Rfl nuova . 

Id.Avanzi deUa cinla 

anUcJiissima . 

16. Lara no . 

17. Basilica wweruUe. 
\$. Peris ttiia. 

19. Triclinia. 

20. yinfeo . 

21. Portico. 
21. Bibtioteca . 

| 23. Accadcmia . 
Zk.T&npio di Giorc VUtore. 
25. Tiale . 

26.Sce.ia a2 Circa. 
21. Palazzo di Settimw 

2$.Meta ddio Stadia. 

30 . Tribu/ta . 

31. Portico. 

33 . Belvedere . 
5t . Acaxia Claudia . 
3 5 . Peaagogio. 

36. Jm. 

37. Zupercah . 

Trajan s Column. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 241 

ferens mentem nee relatu effabiles nee rursus mortalibns adpetendos'. 
According to a legend of the 7th cent., Gregory the Great, while admiring 
the ancient splendour of the forum one day, and saddened by the thought 
that so just and benignant a monarch as its founder should be condem- 
ned to everlasting perdition, succeeded by his prayers in obtaining the 
release of Trajan's